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Technical Paper

Lab Study of Urea Deposit Formation and Chemical Transformation Process of Diesel Aftertreatment System

2017-03-28
2017-01-0915
Diesel exhaust fluid, DEF, (32.5 wt.% urea aqueous solution) is widely used as the NH3 source for selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOx in diesel aftertreatment systems. The transformation of sprayed liquid phase DEF droplets to gas phase NH3 is a complex physical and chemical process. Briefly, it experiences water vaporization, urea thermolysis/decomposition and hydrolysis. Depending on the DEF doser, decomposition reaction tube (DRT) design and operating conditions, incomplete decomposition of injected urea could lead to solid urea deposit formation in the diesel aftertreatment system. The formed deposits could lead to engine back pressure increase and DeNOx performance deterioration etc. The formed urea deposits could be further transformed to chemically more stable substances upon exposure to hot exhaust gas, therefore it is critical to understand this transformation process.
Technical Paper

NO2 Formation and Mitigation in an Advanced Diesel Aftertreatment System

2018-04-03
2018-01-0651
Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is known to pose a risk to human health and contributes to the formation of ground level ozone. In recognition of its human health implications, the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) set a Threshold Limit Value (TLV) of 0.2 ppmv NO2 in 2012. For mobile sources, NO2 is regulated as a component of NOx (NO + NO2). In addition, the European Commission has indicated it is considering separate Euro 6 light-duty diesel and Euro VI heavy-duty diesel NO2 emissions limits likely to mitigate the formation of ground level ozone in urban areas. In this study, we conduct component-level reactor-based experiments to understand the effects that various aftertreatment catalyst technologies including diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), diesel particulate filter (DPF), selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst and ammonia oxidation (AMOX) catalyst have on the formation and mitigation of NO2 emissions.
Technical Paper

Predictive Modeling of Impact of ANR Non-Uniformity on Transient SCR System DeNOx Performance

2015-04-14
2015-01-1055
Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) is a promising technology for meeting the stringent requirements pertaining to NOx emissions. One of the most important requirements to achieve high DeNOx performance is to have a high uniformity of ammonia to NOx ratio (ANR) at the SCR catalyst inlet. Steady state 3D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models are frequently used for predicting ANR spatial distribution but are not feasible for running a transient cycle like Federal Test Procedure (FTP). On the other hand, 1D kinetic models run in real time and can predict transient SCR performance but do not typically capture the effect of non-axial non-uniformities. In this work, two 3D to 1D coupling methods have been developed to predict transient SCR system performance, taking the effect of ANR non-uniformity into account. First is a probability density function (PDF) based approach and the second is a geometrical sector based approach.
Technical Paper

Development and Validation of a Predictive Model for DEF Injection and Urea Decomposition in Mobile SCR DeNOx Systems

2010-04-12
2010-01-0889
Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of oxides of nitrogen with ammonia gas is a key technology that is being favored to meet stringent NOx emission standards across the world. Typically, in this technology, a liquid mixture of urea and water - known as Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF) - is injected into the hot exhaust gases leading to atomization and subsequent spray processes. The water content vaporizes, while the urea content undergoes thermolysis and forms ammonia and isocyanic acid, that can form additional ammonia through hydrolysis. Due to the increasing interest in SCR technology, it is desirable to have capabilities to model these processes with reasonable accuracy to both improve the understanding of processes important to the aftertreatment and to aid in system optimization. In the present study, a multi-dimensional model is developed to simulate DEF spray processes and the conversion of urea to ammonia. The model is then implemented into a commercial CFD code.
Technical Paper

Effect of Hydrothermal Aging on the Catalytic Performance and Morphology of a Vanadia SCR Catalyst

2013-04-08
2013-01-1079
Titania supported vanadia catalysts have been widely used for the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of nitrogen oxides (NOx) in diesel exhaust aftertreatment systems. Vanadia SCR (V-SCR) catalysts are preferred for many applications because they have demonstrated advantages of catalytic activity for NOx removal and tolerance to sulfur poisoning. The primary shortcoming of V-SCR catalysts is their thermal durability. Degradation in NOx conversion is also related to aging conditions such as at high temperatures. In this study, the impact that short duration hydrothermal aging has on a state-of-the-art V-SCR catalyst was investigated by aging for 2 hr intervals with progressively increased temperatures from 525 to 700°C. The catalytic performance of this V-SCR catalyst upon aging was evaluated by three different reactions of NH₃ SCR, NH₃ oxidation, and NO oxidation under simulated diesel exhaust conditions from 170 to 500°C.
Technical Paper

Thermal and Fluid Dynamic Considerations in Aftertreatment System Design for SCR Solid Deposit Mitigation

2012-04-16
2012-01-1287
Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) with ammonia gas has established itself as an effective diesel aftertreatment technology to meet stringent emission standards enforced by worldwide regulatory bodies. Typically, in this technology, aqueous urea solution of eutectic composition - known as Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF) - is injected into hot exhaust gases leading to a series of thermal, fluid dynamic and reactive processes that eventually produces the ammonia necessary for NOx reduction reactions within monolithic catalytic substrates. Incomplete decomposition of the injected urea can lead to formation of solid deposits that adversely affect system performance by increasing the engine back pressure, reducing de-NOx efficiency, and lowering the overall fuel economy.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Diesel Exhaust Fluid Dosing on Tailpipe Particle Number Emissions

2016-04-05
2016-01-0995
Introduction of modern diesel aftertreatment, primarily selective catalytic reduction (SCR) designed to reduced NOx, has increased the presence of urea decomposition byproducts, mainly ammonia, in the aftertreatment system. This increase in ammonia has been shown to lead to particle formation in the aftertreatment system. In this study, a state of the art diesel exhaust fluid (DEF)-SCR system was investigated in order to determine the influence of DEF dosing on solid particle count. Post diesel particulate filter (DPF) particle count (> 23 nm) is shown to increase by over 400% during the World Harmonized Transient Cycle (WHTC) due to DEF dosing. This increase in tailpipe particle count warranted a detailed parametric study of DEF dosing parameters effect on tailpipe particle count. Global ammonia to NOx ratio, DEF droplet residence time, and SCR catalyst inlet temperature were found to be significant factors in post-DPF DEF based particle formation.
Technical Paper

Emissions of Organic Species from a Nonroad Vanadium-Based SCR Aftertreatment System

2015-09-29
2015-01-2904
U.S. and European nonroad diesel emissions regulations have led to the implementation of various exhaust aftertreatment solutions. One approved configuration, a vanadium-based selective catalytic reduction catalyst followed by an ammonia oxidation catalyst (V-SCR + AMOX), does not require the use of a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) or diesel particulate filter (DPF). While certification testing has shown the V-SCR + AMOX system to be capable of meeting the nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, and particulate matter requirements, open questions remain regarding the efficacy of this aftertreatment for volatile and nonvolatile organic emissions removal, especially since the removal of this class of compounds is generally attributed to both the DOC and DPF.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Criteria and Organic Matter Emissions from a Nonroad Diesel Engine Equipped with a Selective Catalytic Reduction System

2014-10-13
2014-01-2911
More stringent emission requirements for nonroad diesel engines both in the U.S. and Europe have spurred the development of engines and exhaust aftertreatment technologies. In this study, one such system consisting of a diesel oxidation catalyst, zeolite-based selective catalytic reduction catalyst, and an ammonia oxidation catalyst was evaluated using both nonroad transient and steady-state cycles in order to understand the emission characteristics of this configuration. Criteria pollutants were analyzed and particular attention was given to organic compound and NO2 emissions since both of these could be significantly affected by the absence of a diesel particulate filter that typically helps reduce semi-volatile and particle-phase organics and consumes NO2 via passive soot oxidation. Results are then presented on a detailed speciation of organic emissions including alkanes, cycloalkanes, aromatics, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their derivatives, and hopanes and steranes.
Technical Paper

Development, Validation and ECM Embedment of a Physics-Based SCR on Filter Model

2016-09-27
2016-01-8075
SCR on Filter (SCRoF) is an efficient and compact NOX and PM reduction technology already used in series production for light-duty applications. The technology is now finding its way into the medium duty and heavy duty market. One of the key challenges for successful application is the robustness to real world variations. The solution to this challenge can be found by using model-based control algorithms, utilizing state estimation by physics-based catalyst models. This paper focuses on the development, validation and real time implementation of a physics-based control oriented SCRoF model. An overview of the developed model will be presented, together with a brief description of the model parameter identification and validation process using engine test bench measurement data. The model parameters are identified following a streamlined approach, focusing on decoupling the effects of deNOx and soot phenomena.
Technical Paper

Catalyst Sulfur Poisoning and Recovery Behaviors: Key for Designing Advanced Emission Control Systems

2017-01-10
2017-26-0133
Advanced emission control systems for diesel engines usually include a combination of Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC), Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF), Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR), and Ammonia Slip Catalyst (ASC). The performance of these catalysts individually, and of the aftertreatment system overall, is negatively affected by the presence of oxides of sulfur, originating from fuel and lubricant. In this paper, we illustrated some key aspects of sulfur interactions with the most commonly used types of catalysts in advanced aftertreatment systems. In particular, DOC can oxidize SO2 to SO3, collectively referred to as SOx, and store these sulfur containing species. The key functions of a DOC, such as the ability to oxidize NO and HC, are degraded upon SOx poisoning. The impact of sulfur poisoning on the catalytic functions of a DPF is qualitatively similar to DOC.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Sulfated Ash, Phosphorus and Sulfur on Diesel Aftertreatment Systems - A Review

2007-07-23
2007-01-1922
This paper reviews the relevant literature on the effects of sulfated ash, phosphorus, and sulfur on DPF, LNT, and SCR catalysts. Exhaust backpressure increase due to DPF ash accumulation, as well as the rate at which ash is consumed from the sump, were the most studied lubricant-derived DPF effects. Based on several studies, a doubling of backpressure can be estimated to occur within 270,000 to 490,000 km when using a 1.0% sulfated ash oil. Postmortem DPF analysis and exhaust gas measurements revealed that approximately 35% to 65% less ash was lost from the sump than was expected based on bulk oil consumption estimates. Despite significant effects from lubricant sulfur and phosphorus, loss of LNT NOX reduction efficiency is dominated by fuel sulfur effects. Phosphorus has been determined to have a mild poisoning effect on SCR catalysts. The extent of the effect that lubricant phosphorus and sulfur have on DOCs remains unclear, however, it appears to be minor.
Technical Paper

Developing Design Guidelines for an SCR Assembly Equipped for RF Sensing of NH3 Loading

2018-04-03
2018-01-1266
The Cu-zeolite (CuZ) SCR catalyst enables higher NOx conversion efficiency in part because it can store a significant amount of NH3. “NH3 storage control”, where diesel exhaust fluid (DEF) is dosed in accord with a target NH3 loading, is widely used with CuZ catalysts to achieve very high efficiency. The NH3 loading actually achieved on the catalyst is currently estimated through a stoichiometric calculation. With future high-capacity CuZ catalyst designs, it is likely that the accuracy of this NH3 loading estimate will become limiting for NOx conversion efficiency. Therefore, a direct measurement of NH3 loading is needed; RF sensing enables this. Relative to RF sensing of soot in a DPF (which is in commercial production), RF sensing of NH3 adsorbed on CuZ is more challenging. Therefore, more attention must be paid to the “microwave resonance cavity” created within the SCR assembly. The objective of this study was to develop design guidelines to enable and enhance RF sensing.
Journal Article

Impact of Hydrocarbons on the Dual (Oxidation and SCR) Functions of Ammonia Oxidation Catalysts

2014-04-01
2014-01-1536
Ammonia oxidation (AMOX) catalysts are critical parts of most diesel aftertreatment systems around the world. These catalysts are positioned downstream of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts and remove unreacted NH3 that passes through the SCR catalyst. In many configurations, the AMOX catalyst is situated after a diesel oxidation catalyst and catalyzed diesel particulate filter that oxidize CO and hydrocarbons. However, in Euro V and proposed Tier 4 final aftertreatment architectures there is no upstream oxidation catalyst. In this study, the impact of hydrocarbons is evaluated on two different types of AMOX catalysts. One has dual washcoat layers-SCR washcoat on top of PGM washcoat-and the other has only a PGM washcoat layer. Results are presented for NH3 and hydrocarbon oxidation, NOx and N2O selectivity, and hydrocarbon storage. The AMOX findings are rationalized in terms of their impact on the individual oxidation and SCR functions.
Journal Article

Methods for Quantifying the Release of Vanadium from Engine Exhaust Aftertreatment Catalysts

2012-04-16
2012-01-0887
Titanium dioxide supported vanadium oxide catalysts have been successfully utilized for the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of nitrogen oxides emitted from both stationary and mobile sources. Because of their cost and performance advantages in certain applications, vanadium-based SCR catalysts are now also being considered for integration into some U.S. Tier IV off-highway aftertreatment systems. However, concern exists that toxic vanadium compounds, such as vanadium pentoxide, could be released from these catalysts as a result of mechanical attrition or high temperature volatility. An experimental study has been conducted to compare various techniques for measuring the release of particle and vapor-phase vanadium from SCR catalysts. Previous research has utilized a powder reactor-based method to measure the vapor-phase release of vanadium, but there are inherent limitations to this technique.
Journal Article

Conversion of Short-Chain Alkanes by Vanadium-Based and Cu/Zeolite SCR Catalysts

2016-04-05
2016-01-0913
The oxidation of short-chain alkanes, such as methane, ethane, and propane, from the exhaust of lean-burn natural gas and lean-burn dual-fuel (natural gas and diesel) engines poses a unique challenge to the exhaust aftertreatment community. Emissions of these species are currently regulated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as either methane (Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards) or non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC). However, the complete catalytic oxidation of short-chain alkanes is challenging due to their thermodynamic stability. The present study focuses on the oxidation of short-chain alkanes by vanadium-based and Cu/zeolite selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts, generally utilized to control NOx emissions from lean-burn engines. Results reveal that these catalysts are active for short-chain alkane oxidation, albeit, at conversions lower than those generally reported in the literature for Pd-based catalysts, typically used for short-chain alkane conversion.
Journal Article

Impact of Hydrothermal Aging on the Formation and Decomposition of Ammonium Nitrate on a Cu/zeolite SCR Catalyst

2017-03-28
2017-01-0946
Low-temperature (T ≤ 200°C) NOx conversion is receiving increasing research attention due to continued potential reductions in regulated NOx emissions from diesel engines. At these temperatures, ammonium salts (e.g., ammonium nitrate, ammonium (bi)sulfate, etc.) can form as a result of interactions between NH3 and NOx or SOx, respectively. The formation of these salts can reduce the availability of NH3 for NOx conversion, block active catalyst sites, and result in the formation of N2O, a regulated Greenhouse Gas (GHG). In this study, we investigate the effect of hydrothermal aging on the formation and decomposition of ammonium nitrate on a state-of-the-art Cu/zeolite selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst. Reactor-based constant-temperature ammonium nitrate formation, temperature programmed oxidation (TPO), and NO titration experiments are used to characterize the effect of hydrothermal aging from 600 to 950°C.
Journal Article

Understanding System- and Component-Level N2O Emissions from a Vanadium-Based Nonroad Diesel Aftertreatment System

2017-03-28
2017-01-0987
Nitrous oxide (N2O), with a global warming potential (GWP) of 297 and an average atmospheric residence time of over 100 years, is an important greenhouse gas (GHG). In recognition of this, N2O emissions from on-highway medium- and heavy-duty diesel engines were recently regulated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and National Highway Traffic Safety Administration’s (NHTSA) GHG Emission Standards. Unlike NO and NO2, collectively referred to as NOx, N2O is not a major byproduct of diesel combustion. However, N2O can be formed as a result of unselective catalytic reactions in diesel aftertreatment systems, and the mitigation of this unintended N2O formation is a topic of active research. In this study, a nonroad Tier 4 Final/Stage IV engine was equipped with a vanadium-based selective catalytic reduction (SCR) aftertreatment system. Experiments were conducted over nonroad steady and both cold and hot transient cycles (NRSC and NRTC, respectively).
Journal Article

NOx Reduction Using a Dual-Stage Catalyst System with Intercooling in Vehicle Gasoline Engines under Real Driving Conditions

2018-04-03
2018-01-0335
Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of nitrogen oxides (NOx) is used in diesel-fueled mobile applications where urea is an added reducing agent. We show that the Ultera® dual-stage catalyst, with intercooling aftertreatment system, intrinsically performs the function of the SCR method in nominally stoichiometric gasoline vehicle engines without the need for an added reductant. We present that NOx is reduced during the low-temperature operation of the dual-stage system, benefiting from the typically periodic transient operation (acceleration and decelerations) with the associated swing in the air/fuel ratio (AFR) inherent in mobile applications, as commonly expected and observed in real driving. The primary objective of the dual-stage aftertreatment system is to remove non-methane organic gases (NMOG) and carbon monoxide (CO) slip from the vehicle’s three-way catalyst (TWC) by oxidizing these constituents in the second stage catalyst.
Journal Article

Study of On-Board Ammonia (NH3) Generation for SCR Operation

2010-04-12
2010-01-1071
Mechanisms of NH₃ generation using LNT-like catalysts have been studied in a bench reactor over a wide range of temperatures, flow rates, reformer catalyst types and synthetic exhaust-gas compositions. The experiments showed that the on board production of sufficient quantities of ammonia on board for SCR operation appeared feasible, and the results identified the range of conditions for the efficient generation of ammonia. In addition, the effects of reformer catalysts using the water-gas-shift reaction as an in-situ source of the required hydrogen for the reactions are also illustrated. Computations of the NH₃ and NOx kinetics have also been carried out and are presented. Design and impregnation of the SCR catalyst in proximity to the ammonia source is the next logical step. A heated synthetic-exhaust gas flow bench was used for the experiments under carefully controlled simulated exhaust compositions.
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