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Technical Paper

Resistance of 40% Glass-Reinforced PPS to Automotive Underhood Fluids

Laboratory tests have shown that 40% glass-reinforced PPS is suitable for automotive underhood use where it comes into contact with used engine oil, gasoline/alcohol, gasoline/MTBE, water, water/ethylene glycol, hydraulic fluid, and transmission fluid at elevated temperatures. On exposure to water or water/ethylene glycol at 248° F (120° C) and 257°F (125°C), respectively, there is a sharp decline in mechanical strength in the first few weeks with little change thereafter. The residual strength of the 40% glass-reinforced PPS is comparable to, or better than other materials, such as phenolics, which have proved satisfactory in such usage. These results have been translated to successful applications in heavy duty diesel engines. Piston cooling nozzles and water pump impellers made of 40% glass-reinforced PPS have undergone successful engine component evaluations.
Technical Paper

Selection of the Optimized Aftercooling System for Cummins Premium Diesel Engines

The ongoing need for improved fuel economy, longer engine life, lower emissions, and in some cases, increased power output makes lower charge air temperatures more desirable. In 1983, Cummins introduced the new BCIV engine at 400 H.P. (298 KW) with “Optimized Aftercooling”, and is now introducing this concept to its remaining 10 and 14 Litre premium diesel engines. This Tuned Low Flow Cooling design provides many advantages when compared to the other alternatives studied, which included air-to-air and systems incorporating two radiators. The selection process considered performance, durability, fuel economy, emissions, noise, investment, and total vehicle installed cost. Computer simulations and vehicle tests were used to determine performance for each charge air cooling alternative. The simulations were used to guide prototype development and the selection of production hardware.
Technical Paper

High Temperature Liquid Lubricant Development Part I: Engine Tests

A high horsepower, low heat rejection diesel engine is being developed to meet future Army heavy combat vehicle requirements. This engine features high power output in a compact design that is oil-cooled allowing for a significant reduction in radiator size. This design requires a lubricant which can survive a sump temperature of 160°C, for 300 hours with transient sump temperature surges to over 177°C. A comprehensive high temperature lubricant development program has been initiated to address the need for this new design. A modified Cummins 10 liter diesel engine was used to simulate the operating condition of this low heat rejection engine. The premium commercial lubricant that was tested survived only 58 hours before completely losing oxidative stability. Several of the experimental lubricants completed the 200-hour peak torque endurance test.
Technical Paper

Development of Aluminum Cooling System Components for a 10.8 Liter Diesel Engine

Diesel engine builders are faced with a new challenge to lower the weight of engines to increase payload while meeting rigorous durability goals for the engine. Cooling system parts represent a family of components which may be converted to lightweight metallic alloys for significant weight savings. To utilize lightweight alloys, cooling system parts must be engineered to maintain the same durability as the cast iron components they replace. For a modern high speed diesel, the Bl0 design life may be upwards of 1,280,000 kilometers which is a very aggressive target for a new component design. A test program was planned to guide design and development of aluminum (Al) cooling system parts for a new engine. The part must exhibit no corrosion after long duration operating with acceptable coolant. This program included three major phases consisting of bench scale corrosion tests for alloy selection, component rig tests for design verification and engine testing for system reliability.