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Technical Paper

Comparison of Measured and Theoretical Inter-Ring Gas Pressure on a Diesel Engine

1996-10-01
961909
Inter-ring gas pressure and piston ring motion are considered important for the control of oil consumption, particulate emissions, and reduced friction. For this reason, inter-ring gas pressure was measured on a diesel engine. Two different ring pack configurations were tested (positive and negative twist second rings). A significant difference in measured inter-ring pressure was observed. The measurements were compared to the predictions of a cylinder kit model with favorable results. Predictions showed that the observed difference between measured inter-ring pressures is caused by a significant difference in ring motion. The reasons for these differences are explained in this paper.
Technical Paper

Experimental Measurements on the Effect of Insulated Pistons on Engine Performance and Heat Transfer

1996-02-01
960317
Data have been gathered to compare the performance of steel crown pistons coated with yttria stabilized zirconia or mullite to an uncoated piston. The effect of coated pistons on in-cylinder heat transfer was determined from curves of ISFC versus centroid of heat release. Error analysis of the measurements showed uncertainty of ± 3% in ISFC and ± 2 crank angle degrees in the centroid of heat release could be expected for the data. Particulate emissions increased at advanced injection timings with the mullite coated piston while the zirconia coated piston showed an increase in particulate and NOx at advanced timings.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Microalloyed Steel for Articulated Piston Applications in Heavy Duty Diesel Engines

2000-03-06
2000-01-1232
AISI-4140H steel has been used as articulated piston crown material in heavy-duty engines. With the driving force for reducing manufacturing cost, microalloyed steel (MAS) was identified as a low-cost material to replace 4140H steel. In order to determine the feasibility of using MAS to replace 4140H steel, a test program was initiated to fully evaluate the material properties of MAS and to compare them to those of the baseline 4140H steel. The physical and mechanical properties of both materials from room temperature to 550°C were evaluated. The effect of long term thermal exposure on the material properties was also studied. Some engine tests were also conducted to evaluate the performance of the articulated pistons made with both materials. The inherently lower strength of MAS as compared to 4140H steel, requires a total re-design of the piston for the utilization of MAS as a low-cost replacement material for 4140H steel.
Technical Paper

Tribological Investigations for an Insulated Diesel Engine

1983-02-01
830319
A Minimum Cooled Engine (MCE) has been successfully run for 250 hours at rated condition of 298 kW and 1900 rpm. This engine was all metallic without any coolant in the block and lower part of the heads. Ring/liner/lubricant system and thermal loading on the liner at top ring reversal (TRR) as well as on the piston are presented and discussed. Ring/liner wear is given as well as oil consumption and blow-by data during the endurance run. Another engine build with a different top ring coating and several lubricants suggested that a 1500 hours endurance run of MCE is achievable. Rig test data for screening ring materials and synthetic lubricants necessary for a successful operation of a so-called Adiabatic Engine with the ring/ceramic liner (SiN) interface temperature up to 650°C are presented and discussed.
Technical Paper

Performance and Regeneration Characteristics of a Cellular Ceramic Diesel Particulate Trap

1982-02-01
820272
Fundamental aspects of performance and regeneration of a porous ceramic particulate trap are described. Dimensionless correlations are given for pressure drop vs. flow conditions for clean and loaded traps. An empirical relationship between estimated particulate deposits and a loading parameter that distinguishes pressure drop changes due to flow variations from particulate accumulation is presented. Results indicate that trapping efficiencies exceed 90% under most conditions and pressure drop doubles when particulate accumulation occupies only 5% of the available void volume. Regeneration was achieved primarily by throttling the engine intake air. For various combinations of initial loading level, trap inlet temperature and oxygen concentration, it was found that regeneration rate peaked after 45 seconds from initiation.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Analytical Studies of Cylinder Head Cooling

1993-04-01
931122
Previous work on the cooling jackets of the Cummins L10 engine revealed flow separation, and low coolant velocities in several critical regions of the cylinder head. The current study involved the use of detailed cooling jacket temperature measurements, and finite element heat transfer analysis to attempt the identification of regions of pure convection, nucleate boiling, and film boiling. Although difficult to detect with certainty, both the measurements and analysis pointed strongly to the presence of nucleate boiling in several regions. Little or no evidence of film boiling was seen, even under very high operating loads. It was thus concluded that the regions of seemingly inadequate coolant flow remained quite effective in controlling cylinder head temperatures. The Cummins L10 upon which this study has focused is an in-line six cylinder, four-stroke direct injection diesel engine, with a displacement of 10 liters.
Technical Paper

Combustion Chamber Insulation Effect on the Performance of a Low Heat Rejection Cummins V-903 Engine

1986-03-01
860317
Cummins Engine Company is developing a low heat rejection 450 kW engine under contract for the US Army Tank & Automotive Command. This paper discusses progress made toward achieving the program goals of 6.6 kcal/kW-min brake specific heat rejection and 200 g/kW-hr brake specific fuel consumption. Methodology for measuring heat rejection on a low heat rejection engine is presented. Design improvements of the base engine are discussed along with their effect on improving fuel consumption. Performance test data is assessed in terms of the first law energy balance and cooling load distribution. The heat rejection data provides insights on the performance of insulating components and two cooling system designs. Diesel cycle simulations are compared to the test data and are used to predict the effect of ceramic insulation on engine heat rejection.
Technical Paper

An Evaluation of the Lucas Combustion Noise Meter on Cummins ‘B’ Series Engines

1987-08-01
870952
Lucas Industries Noise Centre has introduced a combustion noise meter which is designed to predict the contribution of the combustion process to overall diesel engine noise. The performance of the meter is evaluated using Cummins B series engines in naturally-aspirated and turbocharged form. Combustion noise levels predicted by the meter are compared to levels determined using traditional techniques. The effects of several engine operating parameters on combustion noise are investigated under both steady state and accelerating conditions. The meter reliably predicts changes in combustion noise levels, and is a useful tool for performance development engineers. Combustion noise is shown to be related to the maximum rate of pressure rise at the onset of combustion, but combustion noise is not reliably related to maximum cylinder pressures.
Technical Paper

Combustion Chamber Component Analysis for Advanced Heavy Duty Diesel Engines

1989-09-01
891900
Detailed thermal analysis was conducted on several advanced cylinder head, liner, and piston concepts, for low heat rejection diesel engines. The analysis was used to define an optimized engine configuration. Results pointed to the strategic use of oil cooling and insulation in the cylinder head, an oil cooled cylinder liner, and an insulated piston, with separate insulation behind the compression rings. Such a configuration reduced in-cylinder heat rejection by 30 percent, while durability would be expected to be maintained or improved from today's production levels.
Technical Paper

Testing Procedures for Introduction of Silicon Carbide and Carbon Water Pump Seal Faces into Heavy Duty Diesel Service

1993-03-01
930585
Testing procedures to evaluate new coolant pump seal face materials and new coolant pump seal designs were evaluated. Rig testing of materials and seals followed by engine dynamometer testing enabled changes in the seal materials or design to be validated prior to field testing and limited production. These procedures were used to test and implement a coolant pump seal face material change to silicon carbide versus carbon. The change resulted in higher reliability for the coolant pump seal and reduced warranty cost for the engine.
Technical Paper

The Influence of Bowl Offset on Air motion in a Direct Injection Diesel Engine

1988-10-01
881611
The influence of bowl offset on motored mean flow and turbulence in a direct injection diesel engine has been examined with the aid of a multi-dimensional flow code. Results are presented for three piston geometries. The bowl geometry of each piston was the same, while the offset between the bowl and the cylinder axis was varied from 0.0 to 9.6% of the bore. The swirl ratio at intake valve closing was also varied from 2.60 to 4.27. It was found that the angular momentum of the air at TDC was decreased by less than 8% when the bowl was offset. Nevertheless, the mean (squish and swirl) flows were strongly affected by the offset. In addition, the distribution of turbulent kinetic energy (predicted by the k-e model) was modified. Moderate increases (10% or less) in mass averaged turbulence intensity at TDC with offset were observed. However, the TDC turbulent diffusivity was changed less than 3% due to a slight decrease in turbulent length scale with increasing offset.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Emulsified Fuels and Water Induction on Diesel Combustion

1970-02-01
700736
Water was inducted with the intake air and injected emulsified with the fuel, in a conventional single cylinder D.I. diesel engine. The major effects of inducted water were an increase in ignition delay, and reduction in the oxides of nitrogen and smoke at a constant fuel/air ratio. When the water was emulsified with the fuel, the ignition delay increased so much that no benefits were obtained except for a reduction in smoke. The results are compared to a similar study on an engine with the “M” combustion system. The major differences between the results obtained with the two combustion systems are attributed to the differences in the ignition delay caused by the water addition.
Technical Paper

Design Factors That Affect Diesel Emissions

1971-02-01
710484
Although diesels, as a group, are a relatively small source of air pollutants, emissions standards which limit emissions from diesels have been adopted by California and the federal government. Test procedures and instrumentation for measuring diesel emissions have been developed, and an understanding of how engine design parameters affect emissions is evolving. Smoke and carbon monoxide are primarily functions of fuel-air ratio. Smoke is also affected by injection timing, air motion, and fuel spray characteristics. Hydrocarbon emissions are most affected by details of injector design and matching of the spray geometry with the combustion chamber shape. Nitric oxide emissions are controlled by local oxygen availability in regions of high temperature and residence time at the high temperature.
Technical Paper

Cooling Higher Horsepower Highway Diesel Engines

1975-02-01
750131
The increase in power-to-weight ratio that results from the use of higher-horsepower diesel engines in highway service prompted this study of engine cooling. This paper covers the results obtained in testing different power-to-weight ratios on grades from sea level to over 11,000 ft and compares these results with those obtained from chassis and towing dynamometer cooling trials.
Technical Paper

Diesel Engine Component Design Using the Finite Element Method and Interactive Graphics

1974-02-01
740337
An inexpensive, flexible and convenient finite element analysis system can be implemented with limited capital and resources. A system of this nature can be a functional tool of the designer and stress analyst for the analysis of many types of mechanical components. The finite element models generated by this system can approach a high degree of complexity with a small time investment compared to the time required to do this job without the aid of the system described.
Technical Paper

Wind Tunnel Investigation of the Effects of Installation Parameters on Truck Cooling System Performance

1976-02-01
760832
The effect of eight installation and component parameters on cooling system heat rejection and air flow were examined in detail in a wind tunnel facility. A quarter-replicate, two level factorial test plan was followed. Within the ranges of each parameter tested, the fan characteristics and the projection of fan into the shroud are highly significant parameters. The fan to radiator distance, the radiator characteristics, and the fan tip to shroud clearance are significant parameters. The fan to engine block distance and the type of shroud are not significant parameters.
Technical Paper

A Transient Spray Mixing Model for Diesel Combustion

1976-02-01
760128
A transient spray mixing model forming the basis of heterogeneous combustion in direct injection diesel engines is described. Experimental results of transient fuel sprays in a high pressure, high temperature chamber form the basis of spray growth equations. Use of similarity of concentration profile across the spray in conjunction with spray geometry and mass conservation yields a complete description of spatial and temporal fuel-air distribution. Fuel preparation and air entrainment rates are calculated from the history of fuel-air distribution. Progressive evolution of combustion zones is determined by the fuel-air mixing process. Energy conservation and chemical kinetics calculations in each zone yield cylinder pressure and local nitric oxide concentration. The role of fuel-air mixing in diesel combustion is discussed. The model results are compared with experimental data.
Technical Paper

Crankshaft Design Using a Generalized Finite Element Model

1979-02-01
790279
An analytical tool for the efficient analysis of crankshaft designs has been developed. Finite element models are generated from a limited number of key dimensions which describe a family of crankshafts. These models have been verified by stress and deflection measurements on several crankshaft throws.
Technical Paper

Design Aspects of Low-Noise Diesel Engines

1973-02-01
730246
Methods of reducing the noise level of a diesel engine include the suppression of the major modes of block vibration and treatment of the external surfaces. Design methods enable the frequencies and noise levels of these modes to be calculated for a conventionally designed engine. The important modes of vibration, the noise signature and the effect of block modifications of a standard production V-8 engine were found by experiments. These provided the basis for the design of an experimental low-noise engine. Design features include a suffer block, removal of the bottom part of the crankcase skirt, the addition of a single bearing beam, and the use of isolated panels and damped surfaces. The noise reduction obtained was 9 dBA. Most of this is due to the use of isolated and damped nonload carrying surfaces.
Technical Paper

Lube Oil Filtration Effect on Diesel Engine Wear

1971-02-01
710813
A series of comparative evaluation tests to determine the effect of various full-flow and combination full-flow and bypass filter systems on diesel engine piston ring and crankshaft bearings was made using radioactive tracer wear measurement and component weight loss techniques. The results of these tests indicate that bypass lube oil filtration combined with good full-flow lube oil filtration result in lowest engine wear rate and lowest total cost for the engine user.
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