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Technical Paper

Tribological Investigations for an Insulated Diesel Engine

1983-02-01
830319
A Minimum Cooled Engine (MCE) has been successfully run for 250 hours at rated condition of 298 kW and 1900 rpm. This engine was all metallic without any coolant in the block and lower part of the heads. Ring/liner/lubricant system and thermal loading on the liner at top ring reversal (TRR) as well as on the piston are presented and discussed. Ring/liner wear is given as well as oil consumption and blow-by data during the endurance run. Another engine build with a different top ring coating and several lubricants suggested that a 1500 hours endurance run of MCE is achievable. Rig test data for screening ring materials and synthetic lubricants necessary for a successful operation of a so-called Adiabatic Engine with the ring/ceramic liner (SiN) interface temperature up to 650°C are presented and discussed.
Technical Paper

Reduced Durability due to a Friction Modifier in Heavy Duty Diesel Lubricants

1985-04-01
851260
RAPID CORROSIVE WEAR OF COPPER ALLOYS caused by a friction reducing additive was encountered in field tests of experimental lubricants. This oil soluble molybdenum, sulphur, and phosphorous containing additive subsequently was used in several commercial heavy duty diesel lubricants although the additive manufacturer did not recommend it for such applications. Numerous engine failures occurred due to the aggressiveness of this additive toward copper. Standard laboratory engine test methods or standard bench test methods did not predict the severe field problem. A new laboratory engine test method has been shown to duplicate the field failures. Bench test methods to duplicate the field failures are discussed. The mode of failure is shown and described.
Technical Paper

Testing Procedures for Introduction of Silicon Carbide and Carbon Water Pump Seal Faces into Heavy Duty Diesel Service

1993-03-01
930585
Testing procedures to evaluate new coolant pump seal face materials and new coolant pump seal designs were evaluated. Rig testing of materials and seals followed by engine dynamometer testing enabled changes in the seal materials or design to be validated prior to field testing and limited production. These procedures were used to test and implement a coolant pump seal face material change to silicon carbide versus carbon. The change resulted in higher reliability for the coolant pump seal and reduced warranty cost for the engine.
Technical Paper

Cooling Higher Horsepower Highway Diesel Engines

1975-02-01
750131
The increase in power-to-weight ratio that results from the use of higher-horsepower diesel engines in highway service prompted this study of engine cooling. This paper covers the results obtained in testing different power-to-weight ratios on grades from sea level to over 11,000 ft and compares these results with those obtained from chassis and towing dynamometer cooling trials.
Technical Paper

Wind Tunnel Investigation of the Effects of Installation Parameters on Truck Cooling System Performance

1976-02-01
760832
The effect of eight installation and component parameters on cooling system heat rejection and air flow were examined in detail in a wind tunnel facility. A quarter-replicate, two level factorial test plan was followed. Within the ranges of each parameter tested, the fan characteristics and the projection of fan into the shroud are highly significant parameters. The fan to radiator distance, the radiator characteristics, and the fan tip to shroud clearance are significant parameters. The fan to engine block distance and the type of shroud are not significant parameters.
Technical Paper

Measurement and Evaluation of Diesel Smoke

1973-02-01
730212
The development of smoke measurement procedures and instruments has been one of the significant factors contributing to the reduction of smoke from diesel-powered trucks. There is a need, however, for better information on the relation between measurements and the appearance of the smoke plume, for improved smokemeters, and for common international test procedures. Studies of smoke plumes using jet theory, alumina tracer, and hydraulic analog techniques indicate that the plumes are sometimes unstable and subject to large-scale shedding in the region where free-plume smokemeters are located. This introduces a significant random variation into smoke measurements made in this location. A future test procedure based on smoke measurements made with a long path (500 mm) in-line smokemeter during a dynamic cycle is suggested for consideration. Smoke limits would be based on tests similar to those conducted by MIRA to relate smoke levels and engine size to human response.
Technical Paper

Cavitation Intensity Measurements for Internal Combustion Engines

1996-02-01
960884
Recent engine design trends towards increasing power, reducing weight, advancing of injection timing and increasing of injection rate and pressure could result in increased incidence of liner pitting. Liner pitting due to coolant cavitation is a complex function of many engine design parameters and operating conditions as described in reference [1]*. Traditionally, liner cavitation problems were not detected early in the development cycle. Traditional liner vibration and coolant pressure measurements in conjunction with a numerous amount of expensive engine endurance tests were then needed to resolve cavitation problems. A method newly developed by the author and described in reference [2] for cavitation intensity measurements was successfully utilized to map out engine operating condition and develop limit curves. This method could also be applied in a non intrusive fashion.
Technical Paper

Real Time Captivation Detection Method

1996-02-01
960878
Cavitation corrosion is a very complex phenomenon that is governed by a formidable amount of factors and parameters. The phenomenon is a multi-disciplinary one which involves several aspects of physical sciences and engineering. This process is a slow progressive phenomenon with its detrimental effects being felt after severe damage has already occurred. A real time detection method for the severity of fluid cavitation and bubble collapse is described. The results are correlated to dynamic instantaneous pressure fluctuation measurements. The method is fast, reliable, and less restrictive of the sensing location. It has been tested and verified through a specially designed cavitation test rig and instrumentation setup. The method can be used for cavitation studies on ultrasonic bench rig tests and for cavitation measurements on running engines. The method was used to shed some light on characteristic cavitation differences between water and glycol which is used in engine coolants.
Technical Paper

Electronic Systems Integration: The Engine Manufacturer's Perspective

1996-10-01
962179
The increased use of on-board and off-board electronic systems with medium duty and heavy duty trucks and buses presents challenges with compatibility and proper integration. The vehicle architecture is taking shape to establish three areas of computer control-the powertrain, the cab instrument panel, and the cab operations center. The critical element of pursuing proper integration of these systems requires established and clear standards and test methods. Clear roles and responsibilities, a defined system architecture and common test methods are required between subsystem electronic product suppliers and vehicle manufacturers. The electronics integration challenges are presented in the context of the U.S. medium duty and heavy duty automotive industry but have broad applicability to other heavy vehicles and markets worldwide. SAE and ISO forums are needed to address these issues.
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