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Technical Paper

Effect of Fuel Composition and Altitude on Regulated Emissions from a Lean-Burn, Closed Loop Controlled Natural Gas Engine

Natural gas presents several challenges to engine manufacturers for use as a heavy-duty, lean burn engine fuel. This is because natural gas can vary in composition and the variation is large enough to produce significant changes in the stoichiometry of the fuel and its octane number. Similarly, operation at high altitude can present challenges. The most significant effect of altitude is lower barometric pressure, typically 630 mm Hg at 1600 m compared to a sea level value of 760 mm. This can lower turbocharger boost at low speeds leading to mixtures richer than desired. The purpose of this test program was to determine the effect of natural gas composition and altitude on regulated emissions and performance of a Cummins B5.9G engine. The engine is a lean-burn, closed loop control, spark ignited, dedicated natural gas engine. For fuel composition testing the engine was operating at approximately 1600 m (5,280 ft) above sea level.
Technical Paper

Tribological Investigations for an Insulated Diesel Engine

A Minimum Cooled Engine (MCE) has been successfully run for 250 hours at rated condition of 298 kW and 1900 rpm. This engine was all metallic without any coolant in the block and lower part of the heads. Ring/liner/lubricant system and thermal loading on the liner at top ring reversal (TRR) as well as on the piston are presented and discussed. Ring/liner wear is given as well as oil consumption and blow-by data during the endurance run. Another engine build with a different top ring coating and several lubricants suggested that a 1500 hours endurance run of MCE is achievable. Rig test data for screening ring materials and synthetic lubricants necessary for a successful operation of a so-called Adiabatic Engine with the ring/ceramic liner (SiN) interface temperature up to 650°C are presented and discussed.
Technical Paper

Combustion Chamber Insulation Effect on the Performance of a Low Heat Rejection Cummins V-903 Engine

Cummins Engine Company is developing a low heat rejection 450 kW engine under contract for the US Army Tank & Automotive Command. This paper discusses progress made toward achieving the program goals of 6.6 kcal/kW-min brake specific heat rejection and 200 g/kW-hr brake specific fuel consumption. Methodology for measuring heat rejection on a low heat rejection engine is presented. Design improvements of the base engine are discussed along with their effect on improving fuel consumption. Performance test data is assessed in terms of the first law energy balance and cooling load distribution. The heat rejection data provides insights on the performance of insulating components and two cooling system designs. Diesel cycle simulations are compared to the test data and are used to predict the effect of ceramic insulation on engine heat rejection.
Technical Paper

Collection and Characterization of Particulate and Gaseous-Phase Hydrocarbons in Diesel Exhaust Modified by Ceramic Particulate Traps

Protocols for sampling and analysis of particulate and gaseous-phase diesel emissions were developed to characterize the chemical and biological effects of using ceramic traps as particulate control devices. A stainless-steel sampler was designed, constructed, and tested with XAD-2 sorbent for the collection of volatile organic compounds (VOC). Raw exhaust levels of TPM and SOF and mutagenicity of the SOF and VOC were all reduced when the traps were used. Hydrocarbon mass balances indicated that some hydrocarbons were not collected by the sampling system and that the proportions of collected SOF and VOC were altered by the use of the traps. SOF hydrocarbons appeared to be derived mainly from engine lubricating oil; VOC hydrocarbons were apparently fuel-derived. There was no apparent effect on SOF mutagenicity due to either sampling time or reexposure of particulate to exhaust gases.
Technical Paper

Reduced Durability due to a Friction Modifier in Heavy Duty Diesel Lubricants

RAPID CORROSIVE WEAR OF COPPER ALLOYS caused by a friction reducing additive was encountered in field tests of experimental lubricants. This oil soluble molybdenum, sulphur, and phosphorous containing additive subsequently was used in several commercial heavy duty diesel lubricants although the additive manufacturer did not recommend it for such applications. Numerous engine failures occurred due to the aggressiveness of this additive toward copper. Standard laboratory engine test methods or standard bench test methods did not predict the severe field problem. A new laboratory engine test method has been shown to duplicate the field failures. Bench test methods to duplicate the field failures are discussed. The mode of failure is shown and described.
Technical Paper

Testing Procedures for Introduction of Silicon Carbide and Carbon Water Pump Seal Faces into Heavy Duty Diesel Service

Testing procedures to evaluate new coolant pump seal face materials and new coolant pump seal designs were evaluated. Rig testing of materials and seals followed by engine dynamometer testing enabled changes in the seal materials or design to be validated prior to field testing and limited production. These procedures were used to test and implement a coolant pump seal face material change to silicon carbide versus carbon. The change resulted in higher reliability for the coolant pump seal and reduced warranty cost for the engine.
Technical Paper

Cooling Higher Horsepower Highway Diesel Engines

The increase in power-to-weight ratio that results from the use of higher-horsepower diesel engines in highway service prompted this study of engine cooling. This paper covers the results obtained in testing different power-to-weight ratios on grades from sea level to over 11,000 ft and compares these results with those obtained from chassis and towing dynamometer cooling trials.
Technical Paper

Cummins K-Series Engines

New heavy-duty diesel engines of 6-, 8-, 12-, and 16-cyl rated 75 hp/cyl turbocharged and 100 hp/cyl turbocharged and aftercooled are being developed. Design and development objectives include maximizing engine durability/reliability and use of common parts in all engine models. Fuel consumption, smoke, exhaust gas emissions, and engine noise equal or better than the best current engines within engine configurations readily adaptable to current automotive and construction equipment are also prime considerations. Initial models of the engine series meet the design and development objectives.
Technical Paper

Wind Tunnel Investigation of the Effects of Installation Parameters on Truck Cooling System Performance

The effect of eight installation and component parameters on cooling system heat rejection and air flow were examined in detail in a wind tunnel facility. A quarter-replicate, two level factorial test plan was followed. Within the ranges of each parameter tested, the fan characteristics and the projection of fan into the shroud are highly significant parameters. The fan to radiator distance, the radiator characteristics, and the fan tip to shroud clearance are significant parameters. The fan to engine block distance and the type of shroud are not significant parameters.
Technical Paper

A Transient Spray Mixing Model for Diesel Combustion

A transient spray mixing model forming the basis of heterogeneous combustion in direct injection diesel engines is described. Experimental results of transient fuel sprays in a high pressure, high temperature chamber form the basis of spray growth equations. Use of similarity of concentration profile across the spray in conjunction with spray geometry and mass conservation yields a complete description of spatial and temporal fuel-air distribution. Fuel preparation and air entrainment rates are calculated from the history of fuel-air distribution. Progressive evolution of combustion zones is determined by the fuel-air mixing process. Energy conservation and chemical kinetics calculations in each zone yield cylinder pressure and local nitric oxide concentration. The role of fuel-air mixing in diesel combustion is discussed. The model results are compared with experimental data.
Technical Paper

Vechicle Testing of Cummins Turbocompound Diesel Engine

Two turbocompound diesel engines were assembled and dynamometer tested in preparation for vehicle tests. Both engines met the 1980 California gaseous emission requirement and achieved a minimum BSFC of .313 lb/bhp-hr and a BSFC at rated conditions of .323 lb/bhp-hr. These engines were then installed in Class VIII heavy-duty vehicles to determine the fuel consumption and performance characteristics. Fuel consumption testing showed a 14.8% improvement for the turbocompound engine in comparison to a production NTC-400 used as a baseline. The turbocompound engine also achieved lower noise levels, improved drive-ability, improved gradeability, and moderately increased engine retardation. The second turbocompound engine was placed in commercial service and accumulated 50,000 miles on a cross-country route without malfunction. Tank mileage revealed a 15.92% improvement over a production NTCC-400 which was operating on the same route.
Technical Paper

Lube Oil Filtration Effect on Diesel Engine Wear

A series of comparative evaluation tests to determine the effect of various full-flow and combination full-flow and bypass filter systems on diesel engine piston ring and crankshaft bearings was made using radioactive tracer wear measurement and component weight loss techniques. The results of these tests indicate that bypass lube oil filtration combined with good full-flow lube oil filtration result in lowest engine wear rate and lowest total cost for the engine user.
Technical Paper

Cavitation Intensity Measurements for Internal Combustion Engines

Recent engine design trends towards increasing power, reducing weight, advancing of injection timing and increasing of injection rate and pressure could result in increased incidence of liner pitting. Liner pitting due to coolant cavitation is a complex function of many engine design parameters and operating conditions as described in reference [1]*. Traditionally, liner cavitation problems were not detected early in the development cycle. Traditional liner vibration and coolant pressure measurements in conjunction with a numerous amount of expensive engine endurance tests were then needed to resolve cavitation problems. A method newly developed by the author and described in reference [2] for cavitation intensity measurements was successfully utilized to map out engine operating condition and develop limit curves. This method could also be applied in a non intrusive fashion.
Technical Paper

Real Time Captivation Detection Method

Cavitation corrosion is a very complex phenomenon that is governed by a formidable amount of factors and parameters. The phenomenon is a multi-disciplinary one which involves several aspects of physical sciences and engineering. This process is a slow progressive phenomenon with its detrimental effects being felt after severe damage has already occurred. A real time detection method for the severity of fluid cavitation and bubble collapse is described. The results are correlated to dynamic instantaneous pressure fluctuation measurements. The method is fast, reliable, and less restrictive of the sensing location. It has been tested and verified through a specially designed cavitation test rig and instrumentation setup. The method can be used for cavitation studies on ultrasonic bench rig tests and for cavitation measurements on running engines. The method was used to shed some light on characteristic cavitation differences between water and glycol which is used in engine coolants.
Technical Paper

Experimental Results on the Effect of Piston Surface Roughness and Porosity on Diesel Engine Combustion

Measurements have been made to determine the effect of piston crown surface properties on combustion. Back-to-back engine tests were conducted to compare surface modified pistons to a production piston. Each modified piston was found to prolong combustion duration. Porous coatings and a non porous, roughened piston were observed to increase fuel consumption. Increase in fuel consumption was determined to be the result of increased heat release duration. The data show surface roughness alone affects the duration of heat release. The shift in magnitude of the centroid of heat release was similar to the shift observed in insulated engine experiments.
Technical Paper

A Powertrain Simulation for Engine Control System Development

A dynamic simulation of a school bus powertrain has been constructed for the purpose of assisting in the development of engine control strategies. With some extensions, this model can also be used as a first approximation to support the development of transmission shift control strategies, predict vehicle performance and drivability as well as estimate transient loads on the powertrain components. The simulation was constructed using the Matlab* computing environment along with the Simulink* toolbox, a package for the graphical development of dynamic simulation models. The vehicle model was validated against test data measured in the target vehicle powered by a natural gas engine to ensure that the simulation model yielded sensible predictions of the dynamic powertrain behavior. Equipped with a validated model, the control engineer can now use the simulation tool to assist in algorithm development. Sample applications are illustrated.
Technical Paper

An Assessment of Turbocharging Systems for Diesel Engines from First and Second Law Perspectives

A number of turbocharging systems have been proposed for improving the drivability of diesel engines for heavy duty trucks. The systems studied here included resonant intake, wastegate, and variable geometry turbocharging. By imposing a fixed power, torque rise, and engine speed range, it was possible to evaluate the fuel economy impact of each approach. First Law and Second Law balances are included to illustrate the differences in the systems. It was found that variable geometry turbocharging provided the best fuel economy.