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Video

HD OBD Challenges 2010 Experience to Help Launch 2013

2012-01-30
The development and release process for Cummins first US HD OBD certified product encountered numerous hurdles. Beyond the purely "technical" difficulties, there were also challenges related to our product development processes. This presentation provides recommendations for HD OBD product development processes & improvements. Topics will include: Training needs for program management, Performance tuning strategies vs. OBD needs, Planning for post-certification product changes, etc. Presenter Greg Moore, Cummins Inc.
Video

Developing OBD Products for Worldwide Markets

2012-02-01
The presenter will discuss challenges introduced by OBD in developing a product for worldwide markets and the impact of varying worldwide requirements for OBD performance and certification. Presenter Benjamin Zwissler, Cummins Inc.
Technical Paper

Interaction Between Fuel Additive and Oil Contaminant: (II) Its Impact on Fuel Stability and Filter Plugging Mechanism

2003-10-27
2003-01-3140
Sulfur containing species as well as other polar molecules provide lubricity and thermal stability to diesel fuels. During the refining process to produce low and ultra-low sulfur diesel fuels, these components are removed. As a result, fuel additives such as lubricity agents and antioxidant may be added to protect fuel stability and prevent fuel pump wear. Some lubricity additives, such as dimer acids, resulted in fuel filter plugging. The plugging mechanism was related to the capability of aliphatic acids to form agglomeration by interactions with the overbased detergents, delivered into the fuel as oil contaminants. Other sources of acids, derived from thermal degradation, can lead to the same problem. In this study, individual lubricant additives were mixed in the fuel to form single- and dual-component systems. Levels of compatibility and amounts of interaction products were evaluated for individual solutions.
Technical Paper

Sulfur Management of NOx Adsorber Technology for Diesel Light-duty Vehicle and Truck Applications

2003-10-27
2003-01-3245
Sulfur poisoning from engine fuel and lube is one of the most recognizable degradation mechanisms of a NOx adsorber catalyst system for diesel emission reduction. Even with the availability of 15 ppm sulfur diesel fuel, NOx adsorber will be deactivated without an effective sulfur management. Two general pathways are currently being explored for sulfur management: (1) the use of a disposable SOx trap that can be replaced or rejuvenated offline periodically, and (2) the use of diesel fuel injection in the exhaust and high temperature de-sulfation approach to remove the sulfur poisons to recover the NOx trapping efficiency. The major concern of the de-sulfation process is the many prolonged high temperature rich cycles that catalyst will encounter during its useful life. It is shown that NOx adsorber catalyst suffers some loss of its trapping capacity upon high temperature lean-rich exposure.
Technical Paper

Development of a Compression Ignition Heavy Duty Pilot-Ignited Natural Gas Fuelled Engine for Low NOx Emissions

2004-10-25
2004-01-2954
A heavy-duty compression ignition engine using EGR and pilot-ignited directly injected natural gas fueling was calibrated for low NOx emissions. A Cummins ISX engine using cooled EGR was fitted with a Westport HPDI™ fuel system and an oxidation catalyst. The base engine hardware was modified to increase EGR rates (up to 40%). The engine, rated at 336 kW (450 hp) and 2236Nm (1650 ft-lbs), was calibrated and tested over steady state and transient test cycles. Steady state testing over the ESC 13-mode test cycle resulted in weighted composite NOx emissions of 0.36 g/bhp-hr and particulate matter emissions of 0.04 g/bhp-hr. Transient testing over the US EPA specified FTP cycle resulted in average NOx emissions of 0.6 g/bhp-hr and PM emissions of 0.03 g/bhp-hr.
Technical Paper

The Impact of Lubricant and Fuel Derived Sulfur Species on Efficiency and Durability of Diesel NOx Adsorbers

2004-10-25
2004-01-3011
Global emission legislations for diesel engines are becoming increasingly stringent. While the exhaust gas composition requirements for prior iterations of emission legislation could be met with improvements in the engine's combustion process, the next issue of European, North American and Japanese emission limits greater than 2005 will require more rigorous measures, mainly employment of exhaust gas aftertreatment systems. As a result, many American diesel OEMs are considering NOx adsorbers as a means to achieve 2007+ emission standards. Since the efficacy of a NOx adsorber over its lifetime is significantly affected by sulfur (“sulfur poisoning”), forthcoming reductions in diesel fuel sulfur (down to 15 ppm), have raised industry concerns regarding compatibility and possible poisoning effects of sulfur from the lubricant.
Technical Paper

The Prediction of Connecting Rod Fretting and Fretting Initiated Fatigue Fracture

2004-10-25
2004-01-3015
The influence of big-end bore fretting on connecting rod fatigue fracture is investigated. A finite element model, including rod-bearing contact interaction, is developed to simulate a fatigue test rig where the connecting rod is subjected to an alternating uniaxial load. Comparison of the model results with a rod fracture from the fatigue rig shows good correlation between the fracture location and the peak ‘Ruiz’ criterion, rather than the peak tensile stress location, indicating the potential of fretting to initiate a fatigue fracture and the usefulness of the ‘Ruiz’ criterion as a measure of location and severity. The model is extended to simulate a full engine cycle using pressure loads from a bearing EHL analysis. A fretting map and a ‘Ruiz’ criterion map are developed for the full engine cycle, giving an indication of a safe ‘Ruiz’ level from an existing engine which has been in service for more than 5 years.
Technical Paper

An Overview of Onboard Coolant Filtration for Heavy Duty Diesel Engines

2005-05-10
2005-01-2014
Coolant filters have been used for nearly 50 years by heavy duty engine manufacturers but little has been published in the technical literature documenting their performance. In heavy duty cooling systems an extender is periodically added to the system to prevent the coolant from becoming corrosive and replenish additives that stop the build-up of deposits which reduce heat transfer. Not only is the coolant filter the most convenient and reliable method to deliver the extender to the cooling system, it also removes debris from the coolant which can cause deposits and wear, aggravate corrosion, and even plug heat exchangers. Additionally, the used coolant filter serves as a diagnostic trouble shooting tool. This paper concentrates on the value or importance of filtering debris from the coolant of heavy duty diesel engine cooling systems. Published literature is reviewed and recent data from lab testing is reported.
Journal Article

Impact of Carbonaceous Compounds Present in Real-World Diesel Exhaust on NOx Conversion over Vanadia-SCR Catalyst

2016-04-05
2016-01-0921
Exposure of hydrocarbons (HCs) and particulate matter (PM) under certain real-world operating conditions leads to carbonaceous deposit formation on V-SCR catalysts and causes reversible degradation of its NOx conversion. In addition, uncontrolled oxidation of such carbonaceous deposits can also cause the exotherm that can irreversibly degrade V-SCR catalyst performance. Therefore carbonaceous deposit mitigation strategies, based on their characterization, are needed to minimize their impact on performance. The nature and the amount of the deposits, formed upon exposure to real-world conditions, were primarily carried out by the controlled oxidation of the deposits to classify these carbonaceous deposits into three major classes of species: i) HCs, ii) coke, and iii) soot. The reversible NOx conversion degradation can be largely correlated to coke, a major constituent of the deposit, and to soot which causes face-plugging that leads to decreased catalyst accessibility.
Journal Article

Piston Cooling Nozzle Oil Jet Evaluation Using CFD and a High Speed Camera

2016-09-27
2016-01-8100
Piston cooling nozzles/jets play several crucial roles in the power cylinder of an internal combustion engine. Primarily, they help with the thermal management of the piston and provide lubrication to the cylinder liner and the piston’s wrist pin. In order to evaluate the oil jet characteristics from various piston cooling nozzle (PCN) designs, a quantitative and objective process was developed. The PCN characterization began with a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) turbulent model to analyze the mean oil velocity and flow distribution at the nozzle exit/tip. Subsequently, the PCN was tested on a rig for a given oil temperature and pressure. A high-speed camera captured images at 2500 frames per second to observe the evolution of the oil stream as a function of distance from the nozzle exit. An algorithm comprised of standard digital image processing techniques was created to calculate the oil jet width and density.
Journal Article

Multi-Domain Simulation Model of a Wheel Loader

2016-09-27
2016-01-8055
Wheel loader subsystems are multi-domain in nature, including controls, mechanisms, hydraulics, and thermal. This paper describes the process of developing a multi-domain simulation of a wheel loader. Working hydraulics, kinematics of the working tool, driveline, engine, and cooling system are modeled in LMS Imagine.Lab Amesim. Contacts between boom/bucket and bucket/ground are defined to constrain the movement of the bucket and boom. The wheel loader has four heat exchangers: charge air cooler, radiator, transmission oil cooler, and hydraulic oil cooler. Heat rejection from engine, energy losses from driveline, and hydraulic subsystem are inputs to the heat exchangers. 3D CFD modeling was done to calibrate airflows through heat exchangers in LMS Amesim. CFD modeling was done in ANSYS FLUENT® using a standard k - ε model with detailed fan and underhood geometry.
Technical Paper

Analysis and Design Validation of Medium Duty Truck Cooling System

2016-09-27
2016-01-8073
Various 1D simulation tools (KULI & LMS Amesim) and 3D simulation tools (ANSYS FLUENT®) can be used to size and evaluate truck cooling system design. In this paper, ANSYS FLUENT is used to analyze and validate the design of medium duty truck cooling systems. LMS Amesim is used to verify the quality of heat exchanger input data. This paper discusses design and simulation of parent and derivative trucks. As a first step, the parent truck was modeled in FLUENT (using standard' k - ε model) with detailed fan and underhood geometry. The fan is modeled using Multiple Reference Frame (MRF) method. Detailed geometry of heat exchangers is skipped. The heat exchangers are represented by regular shape cell zones with porous medium and dual cell heat exchanger models to account for their contributions to the entire system in both flow and temperature distribution. Good agreement is observed between numerical and experimental engine out temperatures at different engine operating conditions.
Technical Paper

Development and Demonstration of a Soot Generator Integrated Bench Reactor

2014-04-01
2014-01-1589
Experimental evaluation of soot trapping and oxidation behaviors of various diesel particulate filters (DPF) has been traditionally hampered by several experimental difficulties, such as the deposition of soot particles with well-characterized and consistent properties, and the tracking of the soot oxidation rate in real time. In the present study, an integrated bench flow-reactor system with a soot generator has been developed and its capabilities were demonstrated with regards to: Consistently and controllably loading soot on DPF samples; Monitoring the exhaust gas composition by FTIR, including quantification of the soot oxidation rate using CO and CO2; Measuring soot oxidation characteristics of various DPF samples. Soot particles were produced from a laminar propane co-flow diffusion flame.
Technical Paper

Development of the Methodology for Quantifying the 3D PM Distribution in a Catalyzed Particulate Filter with a Terahertz Wave Scanner

2014-04-01
2014-01-1573
Optimizing the performance of the aftertreatment system used on heavy duty diesel engines requires a thorough understanding of the operational characteristics of the individual components. Within this, understanding the performance of the catalyzed particulate filter (CPF), and the development of an accurate CPF model, requires knowledge of the particulate matter (PM) distribution throughout the substrate. Experimental measurements of the PM distribution provide the detailed interactions of PM loading, passive oxidation, and active regeneration. Recently, a terahertz wave scanner has been developed that can non-destructively measure the three dimensional (3D) PM distribution. To enable quantitative comparisons of the PM distributions collected under different operational conditions, it is beneficial if the results can be discussed in terms of the axial, radial, and angular directions.
Journal Article

Measurement of Dioxin and Furan Emissions during Transient and Multi-Mode Engine Operation

2011-04-12
2011-01-1158
This study analyzed the impact of transient and multi-mode engine conditions on emissions of dioxins and furans from a variety of diesel aftertreatment configurations. Exhaust aftertreatment systems included combinations of diesel oxidation catalyst, diesel particulate filter, and either Cu/zeolite or Fe/zeolite selective catalytic reduction catalyst. EPA method TO-9A was modified for proportional exhaust gas sampling, whereas EPA method 0023A was modified for raw exhaust gas sampling. Dioxin and furan emissions were first measured with modified method TO-9A during Federal Test Procedure transient cycles, but no toxic dioxins or furans were detected. Measurements were then taken with modified method 0023A during Ramped Mode Cycles-Supplemental Emissions Test experiments. Because more rigorous pre-cleaning and sample extraction procedures were used with this method and lower detection limits were achieved by the analytical laboratory, some dioxin and furan congeners were detected.
Journal Article

Smart Sensing and Decomposition of NOx and NH3 Components from Production NOx Sensor Signals

2011-04-12
2011-01-1157
Production NO sensors have a strong cross-sensitivity to ammonia which limits their use for closed-loop SCR control and diagnostics since increases in sensor output can be caused by either gas component. Recently, Ammonia/NO Ratio (ANR) perturbation methods have been proposed for determining the dominant component in the post-SCR exhaust as part of the overall SCR control strategy, but these methods or the issue of sensor cross-sensitivity have not been critically evaluated or studied in their own right. In this paper the dynamic sensor direct- and cross-sensitivities are estimated from experimental FTIR data (after compensating for the dynamics of the gas sampling system) and compared to nominal values provided by the manufacturer. The ANR perturbation method and the use of different input excitations are then discussed within an analytical framework, and applied to experimental data from a large diesel engine.
Journal Article

Systematic Development of Highly Efficient and Clean Engines to Meet Future Commercial Vehicle Greenhouse Gas Regulations

2013-09-24
2013-01-2421
With increasing energy prices and concerns about the environmental impact of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, a growing number of national governments are putting emphasis on improving the energy efficiency of the equipment employed throughout their transportation systems. Within the U.S. transportation sector, energy use in commercial vehicles has been increasing at a faster rate than that of automobiles. A 23% increase in fuel consumption for the U.S. heavy duty truck segment is expected from 2009 to 2020. The heavy duty vehicle oil consumption is projected to grow while light duty vehicle (LDV) fuel consumption will eventually experience a decrease. By 2050, the oil consumption rate by LDVs is anticipated to decrease below 2009 levels due to CAFE standards and biofuel use. In contrast, the heavy duty oil consumption rate is anticipated to double. The increasing trend in oil consumption for heavy trucks is linked to the vitality, security, and growth of the U.S. and global economies.
Technical Paper

FEM Simulation Methodology for Accurately Capturing the Experimental Vibration Response of ECM Assembly on a Commercial Vehicle

2018-04-03
2018-01-0467
This paper presents an experimental setup and an equivalent FEM simulation methodology to accurately predict the response of Engine Control Module (ECM) assembly mounted on a commercial vehicle subjected to road vibrations. Comprehensive vibration study is carried out. It involved Modal characteristics determination followed by random vibration characterization of the ECM assembly. A hammer impact experiment is first performed in lab to estimate the natural frequencies and mode shapes of ECM assembly. Mounting conditions in test specimen are kept similar to the actual mounting settings on vehicle. Natural frequencies and mode shapes predicted from free vibration experiment are compared with finite element (FE) based modal analysis. The importance of capturing the assembly stiffness more accurately by incorporating pre-stress effects like bolt-pretension and gravity, is emphasized.
Technical Paper

Analysis Lead Drivability Assessment

2015-09-29
2015-01-2804
Drivability and powertrain refinement continue to gain importance in the assessment of overall vehicle quality. This notion has transcended its light duty origins and is beginning to gain considerable traction in the medium and heavy duty markets. However, with drivability assessment and refinement also comes the high costs associated with vehicle testing, including items such as test facilities, prototype component evaluation, fuel and human resources. Taking all of this into account, any and all measures must be used to reduce the cost of drivability evaluation and powertrain refinement. This paper describes an analysis based co-simulation methodology, where sophisticated powertrain simulation and objective drivability evaluation tools can be used to predict vehicle drivability. A fast running GT power engine model combined with simplified controls representation in Matlab/Simulink was used to predict engine transients and responses.
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