Refine Your Search

Topic

Author

Affiliation

Search Results

Journal Article

Why Cu- and Fe-Zeolite SCR Catalysts Behave Differently At Low Temperatures

2010-04-12
2010-01-1182
Cu- and Fe-zeolite SCR catalysts emerged in recent years as the primary candidates for meeting the increasingly stringent lean exhaust emission regulations, due to their outstanding activity and durability characteristics. It is commonly known that Cu-zeolite catalysts possess superior activity to Fe-zeolites, in particular at low temperatures and sub-optimal NO₂/NOx ratios. In this work, we elucidate some underlying mechanistic differences between these two classes of catalysts, first based on their NO oxidation abilities, and then based on the relative properties of the two types of exchanged metal sites. Finally, by using the ammonia coverage-dependent NOx performance, we illustrate that state-of-the-art Fe-zeolites can perform better under certain transient conditions than in steady-state.
Journal Article

Spatially-Resolved Thermal Degradation Induced Temperature Pattern Changes along a Commercial Lean NOX Trap Catalyst

2010-04-12
2010-01-1214
The low-temperature performance characteristics of a commercial lean NOX trap catalyst were evaluated using infra-red thermography (IRT) before and after a high-temperature aging step. Reaction tests included propylene oxidation, oxygen storage capacity measurements, and simulated cycling conditions for NOX reduction, using H₂ as the reductant during the regeneration step of the cycle. Testing with and without NO in the lean phase showed thermal differences between the reductant used in reducing the stored oxygen and that for nitrate decomposition and reduction. IRT clearly demonstrated where NOX trapping and regeneration were occurring spatially as a function of regeneration conditions, with variables including hydrogen content of the regeneration phase and lean- and rich-phase cycle times.
Journal Article

Characteristics of Ion Current Signals in Compression Ignition and Spark Ignition Engines

2010-04-12
2010-01-0567
Ion current sensors have been considered for the feedback electronic control of gasoline and diesel engines and for onboard vehicles powered by both engines, while operating on their conventional cycles or on the HCCI mode. The characteristics of the ion current signal depend on the progression of the combustion process and the properties of the combustion products in each engine. There are large differences in the properties of the combustible mixture, ignition process and combustion in both engines, when they operate on their conventional cycles. In SI engines, the charge is homogeneous with an equivalence ratio close to unity, ignition is initiated by an electric spark and combustion is through a flame propagating from the spark plug into the rest of the charge.
Journal Article

Impact of Carbonaceous Compounds Present in Real-World Diesel Exhaust on NOx Conversion over Vanadia-SCR Catalyst

2016-04-05
2016-01-0921
Abstract Exposure of hydrocarbons (HCs) and particulate matter (PM) under certain real-world operating conditions leads to carbonaceous deposit formation on V-SCR catalysts and causes reversible degradation of its NOx conversion. In addition, uncontrolled oxidation of such carbonaceous deposits can also cause the exotherm that can irreversibly degrade V-SCR catalyst performance. Therefore carbonaceous deposit mitigation strategies, based on their characterization, are needed to minimize their impact on performance. The nature and the amount of the deposits, formed upon exposure to real-world conditions, were primarily carried out by the controlled oxidation of the deposits to classify these carbonaceous deposits into three major classes of species: i) HCs, ii) coke, and iii) soot. The reversible NOx conversion degradation can be largely correlated to coke, a major constituent of the deposit, and to soot which causes face-plugging that leads to decreased catalyst accessibility.
Journal Article

Impact of Rh Oxidation State on NOx Reduction Performance of Multi-Component Lean NOx Trap (LNT) Catalyst

2016-04-05
2016-01-0947
Typical Lean NOx Trap (LNT) catalyst composition includes precious metal components (Pt, Pd, and/or Rh), responsible for NO oxidation during lean operation and NOx reduction during rich operation. It was found that redox history of commercial LNT catalyst plays a significant role on deciding its NOx conversion under Lean/Rich cyclic condition. Further test had shown that fully formulated LNT catalyst being pre-reduced had shown much better NO reduction activity during the temperature-programmed reduction (TPRx) of NO than the same LNT catalyst being oxidized. The following study with Rh-only and Pt-only catalyst had demonstrated that Rh plays a key role on the large variation of the NO reduction function due to oxidation state change over LNT catalyst.
Technical Paper

Automotive Selective Catalytic Reduction System Model-Based Estimators for On-ECU Implementation: A Brief Overview

2016-04-05
2016-01-0972
Abstract The amount of ammonia stored on the walls of the catalyst (or ammonia storage) is a parameter with significant impact on NOx reduction efficiency and undesired ammonia slip of Selective Catalytic Reduction catalysts. This makes the ammonia storage interesting for utilization in urea injection control. However, ammonia storage is not directly measurable onboard vehicles, it can only be estimated. Model-based online estimation requires models that are capable of capturing the main phenomena of the SCR and at the same time can be computed onboard vehicle. While the modeling of SCR and model-based control is well present in the literature, it is apparent that few attempts of implementing the models on production ECUs were published. This paper reviews literature on ammonia storage, outlet NH3 and NOx concentration estimation in SCR and SCR/DPF systems-including the estimation of NOx sensor cross-sensitive to NH3-in order to present the state of the art.
Journal Article

Analytic Solution for the Flow Distribution and Pressure Drop of Ceramic Partially-Plugged Wall Flow Diesel Particulate Filters

2015-04-14
2015-01-1056
A 1-dimensional analytic solution has been developed to evaluate the pressure drop and filtration performance of ceramic wall-flow partial diesel particulate filters (PFs). An axially resolved mathematical model for the static pressure and velocity profiles prevailing inside wall-flow filters, with such unique plugging configurations, is being proposed for the first time. So far, the PF models that have been developed are either iterative/numerical in nature [1], or based on commercial CFD packages [7]. In comparison, an analytic solution approach is a transparent and computationally inexpensive tool that is capable of accurately predicting trends as well as, offering explanations to fundamental performance behavior. The simple mathematical expressions that have been obtained facilitate rational decision-making when designing partial filters, and could also reduce the complexity of OBD logic necessary to control onboard filter performance.
Journal Article

Simulation of Organic Rankine Cycle Power Generation with Exhaust Heat Recovery from a 15 liter Diesel Engine

2015-04-14
2015-01-0339
Abstract The performance of an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) that recovers heat from the exhaust of a heavy-duty diesel engine was simulated. The work was an extension of a prior study that simulated the performance of an experimental ORC system developed and tested at Oak Ridge National laboratory (ORNL). The experimental data were used to set model parameters and validate the results of that simulation. For the current study the model was adapted to consider a 15 liter turbocharged engine versus the original 1.9 liter light-duty automotive turbodiesel studied by ORNL. Exhaust flow rate and temperature data for the heavy-duty engine were obtained from Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) for a range of steady-state engine speeds and loads without EGR. Because of the considerably higher exhaust gas flow rates of the heavy-duty engine, relative to the engine tested by ORNL, a different heat exchanger type was considered in order to keep exhaust pressure drop within practical bounds.
Journal Article

Modeling Approach to Estimate EGR Cooler Thermal Fatigue Life

2015-04-14
2015-01-1654
Abstract Cooled EGR continues to be a key technology to meet emission regulations, with EGR coolers performing a critical role in the EGR system. Designing EGR coolers that reliably manage thermal loads is a challenge with thermal fatigue being a top concern. The ability to estimate EGR cooler thermal fatigue life early in the product design and validation cycle allows for robust designs that meet engine component reliability requirements and customer expectations. This paper describes a process to create an EGR cooler thermal fatigue life model. Components which make up the EGR cooler have differing thermal responses, consequently conjugate transient CFD must be used to accurately model metal temperatures during heating and cooling cycles. Those metal temperatures are then imported into FEA software for structural analysis. Results from both the CFD and FEA are then used in a simplified numerical model to estimate the virtual strain of the EGR cooler.
Journal Article

Effects of Methyl Ester Biodiesel Blends on NOx Emissions

2008-04-14
2008-01-0078
Effects of methyl ester biodiesel fuel blends on NOx emissions are studied experimentally and analytically. A precisely controlled single cylinder diesel engine experiment was conducted to determine the impact of a 20% blend of soy methyl ester biodiesel (B20) on NOx emissions. The data were then used to calibrate KIVA chemical kinetics models which were used to determine how the biodiesel blend affects NOx production during the combustion process. In addition, the impact on the engine control system of the lower specific energy content of biodiesel was determined. Both factors, combustion and controls, must be taken into account when determining the net NOx effect of biodiesel compared to conventional diesel fuel. Because the magnitude and even direction of NOx effect changes with engine load, the NOx effect associated with burning biodiesel blends over a duty cycle depends on the duty cycle average power and fuel cetane number.
Technical Paper

Meeting the US 2007 Heavy-Duty Diesel Emission Standards - Designing for the Customer

2007-10-30
2007-01-4170
The paper covers the design and development of Heavy-Duty (HD) Diesel engines that meet the 2007 HD US EPA emission standards. These standards are the most stringent standards in the world for on-highway HD diesel engines, and have driven the application of new technologies, which includes: particulate aftertreatment, crankcase ventilation systems, and second generation cooled EGR. The paper emphasizes the importance of designing the product to meet the tough expectations of the trucking industry - for lowest total cost of ownership, lowest operating costs, high uptime, ease of maintenance, high performance and durability. A key objective was that these new low emission engines should meet or exceed the performance, reliability and fuel economy standards set by the products they replace. Additionally, these engines were designed to be fully compatible and emissions compliant with bio-diesel B20 blends that meet the ASTM and EMA fuel standards.
Technical Paper

Rapid In Situ Measurement of Fuel Dilution of Oil in a Diesel Engine using Laser-Induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy

2007-10-29
2007-01-4108
A technique for rapid in situ measurement of the fuel dilution of oil in a diesel engine is presented. Fuel dilution can occur when advanced in-cylinder fuel injection techniques are employed for the purpose of producing rich exhaust for lean NOx trap catalyst regeneration. Laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) spectroscopy is used to monitor the oil in a Mercedes 1.7-liter engine operated on a dynamometer platform. A fluorescent dye suitable for use in diesel fuel and oil systems is added to the engine fuel. The LIF spectra are monitored to detect the growth of the dye signal relative to the background oil fluorescence; fuel mass concentration is quantified based on a known sample set. The technique was implemented with fiber optic probes which can be inserted at various points in the engine oil system. A low cost 532-nm laser diode was used for excitation.
Journal Article

Diesel Particulate Filter System - Effect of Critical Variables on the Regeneration Strategy Development and Optimization

2008-04-14
2008-01-0329
Regeneration of diesel particulate filters poses major challenges in developing the particulate matter emission control technology to meet EPA 2007/2010 emissions regulations. The problem areas are multifold due to the complexity involved in designing the filter system, developing regeneration strategies and controlling the regeneration process. This paper discusses the need for active regeneration systems. It also addresses several key limitations and trade-offs between the regeneration strategy, chemical kinetics, exhaust gas temperature and the regeneration efficiency. Passive regeneration of diesel particulate filter systems is known to be highly dependent on the engine-out [NOx/PM] ratio as well as exhaust temperature over the duty cycle. Using catalytic oxidation of auxiliary fuel injected into the system, the exhaust gas temperature can be successfully enhanced for filter regeneration.
Journal Article

Perception of Diesel Engine Gear Rattle Noise

2015-06-15
2015-01-2333
Abstract Component sound quality is an important factor in the design of competitive diesel engines. One component noise that causes complaints is the gear rattle that originates in the front-of-engine gear train which drives the fuel pump and other accessories. The rattle is caused by repeated tooth impacts resulting from fluctuations in differential torsional acceleration of the driving gears. These impacts generate a broadband, impulsive noise that is often perceived as annoying. In most previous work, the overall sound quality of diesel engines has been considered without specifically focusing on predicting the perception of gear rattle. Gear rattle level has been quantified based on angular acceleration measurements, but those measurements can be difficult to perform. Here, the emphasis was on developing a metric based on subjective testing of the perception of gear rattle.
Technical Paper

Round Robin Noise Measurement System Analysis Using Light Duty Diesel Engine

2015-06-15
2015-01-2299
Abstract NVH development of light duty diesel engines require significant collaboration with the OEM as compared to medium duty and heavy duty diesel engines. Typically, competitive benchmark studies and customer expectations define the NVH targets at the vehicle level and are subsequently cascaded down to the powertrain level. For engine manufacturing companies like Cummins Inc., it is imperative to work closely with OEM to deliver on the NVH expectations. In certain situations, engine level NVH targets needs to be demonstrated in the OEM or 3rd party acoustic test facility for customer satisfaction or commercial purposes. Engine noise tests across different noise test facilities may introduce some variation due to differences in the acoustic test facilities, test hardware, instrumentation differences, etc. In addition, the engine itself is a major source of variation.
Technical Paper

Advanced System Simulation Wheel Loader Model for Transient Response and Architecture Studies

2015-09-29
2015-01-2824
Abstract Understanding the complex and dynamic nature of wheel-loader's operation requires a detailed system model. This paper describes the development of a conventional wheel-loader's system model that can be used to evaluate the transient response. The model includes engine details such as a mean value engine model, which takes into account turbocharger dynamics and engine governor controller. This allows the model to predict realistic performance and fuel consumption over a drive cycle. The wheel-loader machine is modeled in LMS Amesim® and the engine governor controller is modeled in Matlab/SIMULINK®. In order to simplify the model, hydraulic loads from the boom / bucket mechanism, steering and cooling fan are modeled as hydraulic load inputs obtained from typical short V-drive cycle. Critical wheel-loader drive cycle inputs into the model have been obtained from testing and have been used to validate the system response and cycle fuel consumption.
Technical Paper

Analysis Lead Drivability Assessment

2015-09-29
2015-01-2804
Abstract Drivability and powertrain refinement continue to gain importance in the assessment of overall vehicle quality. This notion has transcended its light duty origins and is beginning to gain considerable traction in the medium and heavy duty markets. However, with drivability assessment and refinement also comes the high costs associated with vehicle testing, including items such as test facilities, prototype component evaluation, fuel and human resources. Taking all of this into account, any and all measures must be used to reduce the cost of drivability evaluation and powertrain refinement. This paper describes an analysis based co-simulation methodology, where sophisticated powertrain simulation and objective drivability evaluation tools can be used to predict vehicle drivability. A fast running GT power engine model combined with simplified controls representation in Matlab/Simulink was used to predict engine transients and responses.
Technical Paper

Analytical Evaluation of Integrated Drivetrain NVH Phenomena

2015-09-29
2015-01-2781
Abstract This paper demonstrates the use of a system level model that includes torsional models of a Cummins diesel engine and an Allison transmission to study and improve system NVH behavior. The study is a case where the two suppliers of key powertrain components, Cummins Inc. and Allison Transmission Inc., have collaborated to solve an observed NVH problem for a vehicle customer. A common commercial tool, Siemens' AMESim, was used to develop the drivetrain torsional system model. This paper describes a method of modelling and calibration of baseline engine and transmission models to identify the source of vibration. Natural frequencies, modal shapes, and forced response were calculated for each vehicle drive gear ratio to study the torsional vibration. Several parametric studies such as damping, inertia, and stiffness were carried out to understand their impact on torsional vibration of the system.
Journal Article

An Engine and Powertrain Mapping Approach for Simulation of Vehicle CO2 Emissions

2015-09-29
2015-01-2777
Abstract Simulations used to estimate carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and fuel consumption of medium- and heavy-duty vehicles over prescribed drive cycles often employ engine fuel maps consisting of engine measurements at numerous steady-state operating conditions. However, simulating the engine in this way has limitations as engine controls become more complex, particularly when attempting to use steady-state measurements to represent transient operation. This paper explores an alternative approach to vehicle simulation that uses a “cycle average” engine map rather than a steady state engine fuel map. The map contains engine CO2 values measured on an engine dynamometer on cycles derived from vehicle drive cycles for a range of generic vehicles. A similar cycle average mapping approach is developed for a powertrain (engine and transmission) in order to show the specific CO2 improvements due to powertrain optimization that would not be recognized in other approaches.
Journal Article

The Impact of Ammonium Nitrate Species on Low Temperature NOx Conversion Over Cu/CHA SCR Catalyst

2017-03-28
2017-01-0953
Abstract Cu/CHA catalysts have been widely used in the industry, due to their desirable performance characteristics including the unmatched hydrothermal stability. While broadly recognized for their outstanding activity at or above 200°C, these catalysts may not show desired levels of NOx conversion at lower temperatures. To achieve high NOx conversions it is desirable to have NO2/NOx close to 0.5 for fast SCR. However even under such optimal gas feed conditions, sustained use of Cu/CHA below 200°C leads to ammonium nitrate formation and accumulation, resulting in the inhibition of NOx conversion. In this contribution, the formation and decomposition of NH4NO3 on a commercial Cu/CHA catalyst have been investigated systematically. First, the impact of NH4NO3 self-inhibition on SCR activity as a function of temperature and NO2/NOx ratios was investigated through reactor testing.
X