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Video

HD OBD Challenges 2010 Experience to Help Launch 2013

2012-01-30
The development and release process for Cummins first US HD OBD certified product encountered numerous hurdles. Beyond the purely "technical" difficulties, there were also challenges related to our product development processes. This presentation provides recommendations for HD OBD product development processes & improvements. Topics will include: Training needs for program management, Performance tuning strategies vs. OBD needs, Planning for post-certification product changes, etc. Presenter Greg Moore, Cummins Inc.
Video

Developing OBD Products for Worldwide Markets

2012-02-01
The presenter will discuss challenges introduced by OBD in developing a product for worldwide markets and the impact of varying worldwide requirements for OBD performance and certification. Presenter Benjamin Zwissler, Cummins Inc.
Technical Paper

Drive by Noise System and Corresponding Facility Upgrades for Test Efficiency, Data Quality and Customer Satisfaction

2011-05-17
2011-01-1611
An existing pass by noise data acquisition system was upgraded to provide the sophisticated data analysis techniques and test site efficiency required to comply with the current and future drive by noise regulations. Use of six sigma tool such as voice of the customer helped in defining the customer requirements which were then translated into the desired engineering characteristics using QFD. Pugh concept matrix narrowed down the best option suitable for the test site modifications taking into account the critical constraints such as test complexity, system cost & transparency to the existing drive by noise setup. Features of the new system include data telemetry, frequency analysis, portability and efficient data management through the use of advanced data acquisition system. Wireless mode of the data transmission helped significantly avoid most of the test site modifications, which in turn helped to reduce the overall system implementation cost.
Journal Article

New Insights into Reaction Mechanism of Selective Catalytic Ammonia Oxidation Technology for Diesel Aftertreatment Applications

2011-04-12
2011-01-1314
Mitigation of ammonia slip from SCR system is critical to meeting the evolving NH₃ emission standards, while achieving maximum NOx conversion efficiency. Ammonia slip catalysts (ASC) are expected to balance high activity, required to oxidize ammonia across a broad range of operating conditions, with high selectivity of converting NH₃ to N₂, thus avoiding such undesirable byproducts as NOx or N₂O. In this work, new insights into the behavior of an advanced ammonia slip catalyst have been developed by using accelerated progressive catalyst aging as a tool for catalyst property interrogation. The overall behavior was deconstructed to several underlying functions, and referenced to an active but non-selective NH₃ oxidation function of a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and to the highly selective but minimally active NH₃ oxidation function of an SCR catalyst.
Journal Article

Smart Sensing and Decomposition of NOx and NH3 Components from Production NOx Sensor Signals

2011-04-12
2011-01-1157
Production NO sensors have a strong cross-sensitivity to ammonia which limits their use for closed-loop SCR control and diagnostics since increases in sensor output can be caused by either gas component. Recently, Ammonia/NO Ratio (ANR) perturbation methods have been proposed for determining the dominant component in the post-SCR exhaust as part of the overall SCR control strategy, but these methods or the issue of sensor cross-sensitivity have not been critically evaluated or studied in their own right. In this paper the dynamic sensor direct- and cross-sensitivities are estimated from experimental FTIR data (after compensating for the dynamics of the gas sampling system) and compared to nominal values provided by the manufacturer. The ANR perturbation method and the use of different input excitations are then discussed within an analytical framework, and applied to experimental data from a large diesel engine.
Journal Article

Measurement of Dioxin and Furan Emissions during Transient and Multi-Mode Engine Operation

2011-04-12
2011-01-1158
This study analyzed the impact of transient and multi-mode engine conditions on emissions of dioxins and furans from a variety of diesel aftertreatment configurations. Exhaust aftertreatment systems included combinations of diesel oxidation catalyst, diesel particulate filter, and either Cu/zeolite or Fe/zeolite selective catalytic reduction catalyst. EPA method TO-9A was modified for proportional exhaust gas sampling, whereas EPA method 0023A was modified for raw exhaust gas sampling. Dioxin and furan emissions were first measured with modified method TO-9A during Federal Test Procedure transient cycles, but no toxic dioxins or furans were detected. Measurements were then taken with modified method 0023A during Ramped Mode Cycles-Supplemental Emissions Test experiments. Because more rigorous pre-cleaning and sample extraction procedures were used with this method and lower detection limits were achieved by the analytical laboratory, some dioxin and furan congeners were detected.
Technical Paper

Decoupling the Interactions of Hydrocarbons and Oxides of Nitrogen Over Diesel Oxidation Catalysts

2011-04-12
2011-01-1137
Oxidation of NO to NO₂ over a Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC) plays an important role in different types of aftertreatment systems, by enhancing NOx storage on adsorber catalysts, improving the NOx reduction efficiency of SCR catalysts, and enabling the passive regeneration of Diesel Particulate Filters (DPF). The presence of hydrocarbon (HC) species in the exhaust is known to affect the NO oxidation performance over a DOC; however, specific details of this effect, including its underlying mechanism, remain poorly understood. Two major pathways are commonly considered to be responsible for the overall effect: NO oxidation inhibition, due to the presence of HC, and the consumption of the NO₂ produced by reaction with hydrocarbons. In this work we have attempted to decouple these two pathways, by adjusting the catalyst inlet concentrations of NO and NO₂ to the thermodynamic equilibrium levels and measuring the composition changes over the catalyst in the presence of HC species.
Journal Article

Cylinder Head Gasket with Integrated Combustion Pressure Sensors for Advanced Engine Controls

2011-04-12
2011-01-0938
The cylinder head gasket with integrated combustion pressure sensors (CHGICPS) reported here targets advanced engine controls and in particular those based on the HCCI, PCCI, or LTC combustion principles, for gasoline, diesel, and alternative fuel engines. Due to the fiber optic combustion pressure sensor's (CPS) accuracy at low pressure during compression integrated into the CHGICPS, this device aims at in-cylinder prediction of mass air flow as well as in-cycle closed loop control of pilot fuel injection in a diesel engine. This paper reports on a replaceable CPS which allows installation and removal from the cylinder head gasket (CHG) without the need for removing the engine head. At the same time the distance layer thickness of CHGICPS is minimized to 2.5 mm and 3.4 mm, depending on the access ability and space constraints around coolant and lubrication ports in the engine.
Technical Paper

Cummins Vehicle Mission Simulation Tool: Software Architecture and Applications

2010-10-05
2010-01-1997
This paper presents the business purpose, software architecture, technology integration, and applications of the Cummins Vehicle Mission Simulation (VMS) software. VMS is the value-based analysis tool used by the marketing, sales, and product engineering functions to simulate vehicle missions quickly and to gauge, communicate, and improve the value proposition of Cummins engines to customers. VMS leverages the best of software architecture practices and proven technologies available today. It consists of a close integration of MATLAB and Simulink with Java, XML, and JDBC technologies. This Windows compatible application software uses stand-alone mathematical models compiled using Real Time Workshop. A built-in MySQL database contains product data for engines, driveline components, vehicles, and topographic routes. This paper outlines the database governance model that facilitates effective management, control, and distribution of engine and vehicle data across the enterprise.
Technical Paper

Impact of Different Forms of Sulfur Poisoning on Diesel Oxidation Catalyst Performance

2013-04-08
2013-01-0514
Despite drastic reduction of sulfur content in diesel fuel in the recent years, especially with the introduction of Ultra-Low Sulfur Diesel (ULSD), sulfur poisoning remains one of the most significant factors impacting performance of various catalysts in diesel aftertreatment systems. This is because even with ULSD, cumulative exposure of a catalyst over its lifetime in a heavy-duty diesel system may amount to kilograms of sulfur. In this study, we have found that the impact of sulfur poisoning on the performance of various diesel oxidation catalysts (DOC) strongly depends on the catalyst's operation history. For example, exposing a DOC to limited amounts of freshly deposited sulfur in bench reactor testing was shown to have a substantial detrimental effect. On the other hand, several samples which returned from vehicle or test-cell aging with high sulfur loading, have shown no signs of poisoning.
Technical Paper

Comparison of SCR Catalyst Performance on RMC SET Emission Cycle between an Engine and a High Flow Burner Rig

2013-04-08
2013-01-1070
Government agencies like EPA play an important role through regulation to reduce emissions and fuel consumption and to drive technological developments to reduce the environmental impact of burning petroleum fuels. Emissions testing and control is one of the leading and growing fields in the development of modern vehicles. Recently, Cummins Emissions Solutions (CES) and Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) worked jointly in order to achieve a method to conduct emissions testing efficiently and effectively. The collaborative work between the two organizations led to the usage of FOCAS HGTR™ (a diesel-based burner test rig at SwRI) to simulate the exhaust conditions generated by a 2010 ISX Cummins production engine operating over an EPA standard Ramped Modal Cycle Supplemental Emissions Test (RMC SET) cycle.
Journal Article

Internal Diesel Injector Deposits: Theory and Investigations into Organic and Inorganic Based Deposits

2013-10-14
2013-01-2670
Over the last two decades, global emission regulations have become more stringent and have required the use of more advanced fuel injection systems. This includes the use of tighter tolerances, more rapid injections and internal components actuated by weaker injection forces. Unfortunately, these design features make the entire system more susceptible to fuel contaminants. Over the last six years, the composition of these contaminants has evolved from hard insoluble debris, such as dust and rocks, to soluble chemical contaminants. Recent research by the diesel engine manufacturers, fuel injection equipment suppliers and the fuel and fuel additive industry has discovered a major source of the soluble chemical contaminant that leads to injector deposits to be derived from cost effective and commonly used additives used to protect against pipeline corrosion.
Journal Article

Diesel Engine Technologies Enabling Powertrain Optimization to Meet U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions

2013-09-08
2013-24-0094
The world-wide commercial vehicle industry is faced with numerous challenges to reduce oil consumption and greenhouse gases, meet stringent emissions regulations, provide customer value, and improve safety. This work focuses on the new U.S. regulation of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from commercial vehicles and diesel engines and the most likely technologies to meet future anticipated standards while improving transportation freight efficiency. In the U.S., EPA and NHTSA have issued a joint proposed GHG rule that sets limits for CO2 and other GHGs from pick-up trucks and vans, vocational vehicles, semi-tractors, and heavy duty diesel engines. This paper discusses and compares different technologies to meet GHG regulations for diesel engines based on considerations of cost, complexity, real-world fidelity, and environmental benefit.
Technical Paper

New Insights into the Unique Operation of Small Pore Cu-Zeolite SCR Catalyst: Overlapping NH3 Desorption and Oxidation Characteristics for Minimizing Undesired Products

2014-04-01
2014-01-1542
An operational challenge associated with SCR catalysts is the NH3 slip control, particularly for commercial small pore Cu-zeolite formulations as a consequence of their significant ammonia storage capacity. The desorption of NH3 during increasing temperature transients is one example of this challenge. Ammonia slipping from SCR catalyst typically passes through a platinum based ammonia oxidation catalyst (AMOx), leading to the formation of the undesired byproducts NOx and N2O. We have discovered a distinctive characteristic, an overlapping NH3 desorption and oxidation, in a state-of-the-art Cu-zeolite SCR catalyst that can minimize NH3 slip during temperature transients encountered in real-world operation of a vehicle.
Technical Paper

Impact of Sulfur-Oxides on the Ammonia Slip Catalyst Performance

2014-04-01
2014-01-1545
The ammonia slip catalyst (ASC), typically composed of Pt oxidation catalyst overlaid with SCR catalyst, is employed for the mitigation of NH3 slip originating from SCR catalysts. Oxidation and SCR functionalities in an ASC can degrade through two key mechanisms i) irreversible degradation due to thermal aging and ii) reversible degradation caused by sulfur-oxides. The impact of thermal aging is well understood and it mainly degrades the SCR function of the ASC and increases the NH3 conversion to undesired products [1]. This paper describes the impact of sulfur-oxides on critical functions of ASC and on NH3 oxidation activity and selectivity towards N2, NOx and N2O. Furthermore impact of desulfation under selected conditions and its extent of ASC performance recovery is explained.
Technical Paper

Development and Demonstration of a Soot Generator Integrated Bench Reactor

2014-04-01
2014-01-1589
Experimental evaluation of soot trapping and oxidation behaviors of various diesel particulate filters (DPF) has been traditionally hampered by several experimental difficulties, such as the deposition of soot particles with well-characterized and consistent properties, and the tracking of the soot oxidation rate in real time. In the present study, an integrated bench flow-reactor system with a soot generator has been developed and its capabilities were demonstrated with regards to: Consistently and controllably loading soot on DPF samples; Monitoring the exhaust gas composition by FTIR, including quantification of the soot oxidation rate using CO and CO2; Measuring soot oxidation characteristics of various DPF samples. Soot particles were produced from a laminar propane co-flow diffusion flame.
Technical Paper

Development of the Methodology for Quantifying the 3D PM Distribution in a Catalyzed Particulate Filter with a Terahertz Wave Scanner

2014-04-01
2014-01-1573
Optimizing the performance of the aftertreatment system used on heavy duty diesel engines requires a thorough understanding of the operational characteristics of the individual components. Within this, understanding the performance of the catalyzed particulate filter (CPF), and the development of an accurate CPF model, requires knowledge of the particulate matter (PM) distribution throughout the substrate. Experimental measurements of the PM distribution provide the detailed interactions of PM loading, passive oxidation, and active regeneration. Recently, a terahertz wave scanner has been developed that can non-destructively measure the three dimensional (3D) PM distribution. To enable quantitative comparisons of the PM distributions collected under different operational conditions, it is beneficial if the results can be discussed in terms of the axial, radial, and angular directions.
Journal Article

Characteristics of Ion Current Signals in Compression Ignition and Spark Ignition Engines

2010-04-12
2010-01-0567
Ion current sensors have been considered for the feedback electronic control of gasoline and diesel engines and for onboard vehicles powered by both engines, while operating on their conventional cycles or on the HCCI mode. The characteristics of the ion current signal depend on the progression of the combustion process and the properties of the combustion products in each engine. There are large differences in the properties of the combustible mixture, ignition process and combustion in both engines, when they operate on their conventional cycles. In SI engines, the charge is homogeneous with an equivalence ratio close to unity, ignition is initiated by an electric spark and combustion is through a flame propagating from the spark plug into the rest of the charge.
Journal Article

Meeting the US Heavy-Duty EPA 2010 Standards and Providing Increased Value for the Customer

2010-10-05
2010-01-1934
The paper will discuss the design and development of heavy-duty diesel engines to meet the US EPA 2010 on-highway standards - 0.2 g/HP-hr NOx and 0.01 g/HP-hr particulate matter (PM). In meeting these standards a combination of in-cylinder control and aftertreatment control for both NOx and particulate has been used. For NOx control, a combination of cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) is used. The SCR catalyst uses copper zeolite to achieve high levels of NOx conversion efficiency with minimal ammonia slip and unparalleled thermal durability. For particulate control, a diesel particulate filter (DPF) with upstream oxidation catalyst (DOC) is used. While the DPF may be actively regenerated when required, it operates predominantly with passive regeneration - enabled by the high NOx levels between the engine and the DPF, associated with high efficiency SCR systems and NO₂ production across the DOC.
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