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HD OBD Challenges 2010 Experience to Help Launch 2013

2012-01-30
The development and release process for Cummins first US HD OBD certified product encountered numerous hurdles. Beyond the purely "technical" difficulties, there were also challenges related to our product development processes. This presentation provides recommendations for HD OBD product development processes & improvements. Topics will include: Training needs for program management, Performance tuning strategies vs. OBD needs, Planning for post-certification product changes, etc. Presenter Greg Moore, Cummins Inc.
Technical Paper

Cummins Light Truck Diesel Engine Progress Report, 2001

2001-05-14
2001-01-2065
Cummins has studied requirements of the Light Truck Automotive market in the United States and believes that the proposed V-family of engines meets those needs. Design and development of the V-family engine system continues and has expanded. The engine system is a difficult one, since the combined requirements of a very fuel-efficient commercial diesel, and the performance and sociability requirements of a gasoline engine are needed. Results of testing show that the engine can meet requirements for fuel economy and emissions in the Tier 2 interim period from 2004 to 2008. Advanced results show that the full Tier 2 results for 2008 and beyond can be achieved on a laboratory basis.
Technical Paper

Cylinder Deactivation for Increased Engine Efficiency and Aftertreatment Thermal Management in Diesel Engines

2018-04-03
2018-01-0384
Diesel engine cylinder deactivation (CDA) can be used to reduce petroleum consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of the global freight transportation system. Heavy duty trucks require complex exhaust aftertreatment (A/T) in order to meet stringent emission regulations. Efficient reduction of engine-out emissions require a certain A/T system temperature range, which is achieved by thermal management via control of engine exhaust flow and temperature. Fuel efficient thermal management is a significant challenge, particularly during cold start, extended idle, urban driving, and vehicle operation in cold ambient conditions. CDA results in airflow reductions at low loads. Airflow reductions generally result in higher exhaust gas temperatures and lower exhaust flow rates, which are beneficial for maintaining already elevated component temperatures. Airflow reductions also reduce pumping work, which improves fuel efficiency.
Technical Paper

Diesel Engine Cylinder Deactivation for Improved System Performance over Transient Real-World Drive Cycles

2018-04-03
2018-01-0880
Effective control of exhaust emissions from modern diesel engines requires the use of aftertreatment systems. Elevated aftertreatment component temperatures are required for engine-out emissions reductions to acceptable tailpipe limits. Maintaining elevated aftertreatment components temperatures is particularly problematic during prolonged low speed, low load operation of the engine (i.e. idle, creep, stop and go traffic), on account of low engine-outlet temperatures during these operating conditions. Conventional techniques to achieve elevated aftertreatment component temperatures include delayed fuel injections and over-squeezing the turbocharger, both of which result in a significant fuel consumption penalty. Cylinder deactivation (CDA) has been studied as a candidate strategy to maintain favorable aftertreatment temperatures, in a fuel efficient manner, via reduced airflow through the engine.
Technical Paper

Design and Development of a Self-Contained Engine Stand for NVH Troubleshooting and Testing of Diesel Engines

2009-05-19
2009-01-2083
Diesel engine NVH is an important characteristic of light and medium duty vehicles in today's market. Typical NVH related issues like idle gear clatter, gear whine and cab shake at low speed and load conditions are perceived as unpleasant and are unacceptable to the end customer. The root cause of many of these NVH concerns is frequently associated with powertrain structures and the excitation of different mechanical components within the engine. This paper focuses on development of robust and self-contained engine test stand which can help both for troubleshooting NVH concerns and for setting relevant targets at the subsystem levels to mitigate NVH risks. The motivation behind developing this unique test stand is given with examples and the advantages are demonstrated for relevant engine NVH testing applications.
Technical Paper

Development of a Hybrid, Auto-Ignition/Flame-Propagation Model and Validation Against Engine Experiments and Flame Liftoff

2007-04-16
2007-01-0171
In previous publications, Singh et al. [1, 2] have shown that direct integration of CFD with a detailed chemistry auto-ignition model (KIVA-CHEMKIN) performs reasonably well for predicting combustion, emissions, and flame structure for stratified diesel engine operation. In this publication, it is shown that the same model fails to predict combustion for partially premixed dual-fuel engines. In general, models that account for chemistry alone, greatly under-predict cylinder pressure. This is shown to be due to the inability of such models to simulate a propagating flame, which is the major source of heat release in partially premixed dual-fuel engines, under certain operating conditions. To extend the range of the existing model, a level-set-based, hybrid, auto-ignition/flame-propagation (KIVA-CHEMKIN-G) model is proposed, validated and applied for both stratified diesel engine and partially premixed dual-fuel engine operation.
Technical Paper

Finite Element Method Based Fatigue Analysis of a Gray Cast Iron Component

2013-04-08
2013-01-1205
Good understanding and accurate prediction of component fatigue strength is crucial in the development of modern engine. In this paper a detail analysis was conducted on an engine component made of gray cast iron with finite element method to evaluate the fatigue strength. This component has notches that cause local stress concentration. It is well known that fatigue behavior of a notch is not uniquely defined by the local maximum stress but depends on other factors determined by notch geometry and local stress distribution. The component fatigue strength was underestimated by only considering the stresses on the notch surface for fatigue life prediction. The critical distance approach was adopted to predict the fatigue behavior of this component. Good agreements are observed between predicted life by the critical distance method and actual field data.
Technical Paper

Brake Thermal Efficiency Improvements of a Commercially Based Diesel Engine Modified for Operation on JP 8 Fuel

2011-04-12
2011-01-0120
The majority of commercial diesel engines rely on EGR to meet increasingly stringent emissions standards, creating a potential issue for military applications that use JP-8 as a fuel. EGR components would be susceptible to corrosion from sulfur in JP-8, which can reach levels of 3000 ppm. Starting with a Cummins 2007 ISL 8.9L production engine, modifications to remove EGR and operate on JP-8 fuel are investigated with a key goal of demonstrating 48% brake thermal efficiency (BTE) at an emissions level consistent with 1998 EPA standards. The effects of injector cup flow, improved turbo match, increased compression ratio with revised piston bowl geometry, increased cylinder pressure, and revised intake manifold for improved breathing, are all investigated. Testing focused on a single operating point, full load at 1600 RPM. This engine uses a variable geometry turbo and high pressure common rail fuel system, allowing control over air fuel ratio, rail pressure, and start of injection.
Technical Paper

Development of a New 13L Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Using Analysis-Led Design

2008-06-23
2008-01-1515
The paper covers the design and development of a new 13L heavy-duty diesel engine intended primarily for heavy truck applications in China. It provides information on the specific characteristics of the engine that make it particularly suitable for operation in China, and describes in detail some of the design techniques that were used. To meet these exacting requirements, extensive use was made of Analysis-Led Design, which allows components, sub-systems and the entire engine, aftertreatment and vehicle system to be modeled before designs are taken to prototype hardware. This enables a level of system and sub-system optimization not previously available. The paper describes the emissions strategy for China, and the physical design strategy for the new engine, and provides some engine performance robustness details. The engine architecture is discussed and the paper details the analysis of the major components - cylinder block, head, head seal, power cylinder and bearings.
Technical Paper

Application of Artificial Neural Networks to Aftertreatment Thermal Modeling

2012-04-16
2012-01-1302
Accurate estimation of catalyst bed temperatures is very crucial for effective control and diagnostics of aftertreatment systems. The architecture of most aftertreatment systems contains temperature sensors for measuring the exhaust gas temperatures at the inlet and outlet of the aftertreatment systems. However, the temperature that correctly reflects the temperature of the chemical reactions taking place on the catalyst surface is the catalyst bed temperature. From the Arrhenius relationship which governs the chemical reaction kinetics occurring in different aftertreatment systems, the rate of chemical reaction is very sensitive to the reaction temperature. Considerable changes in tailpipe emissions can result from small changes in the reaction temperature and robust emissions control systems should be able to compensate for these changes in reaction temperature to achieve the desired tailpipe emissions.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of the Oil Pressure Regulator Buzz Noise on Diesel Engines

2013-05-13
2013-01-1903
Due to increasing expectations for gasoline like sound quality, today's diesel engines for light and medium duty automotive markets needs to be carefully designed from NVH perspective. Typical engine operating conditions such as low idle, light tip in, tip out demand more attention as they are more prone to generating sound quality concerns. Any abrupt change in the noise signature may be perceived as a sign of malfunction and could have a potential to generate warranty claims. In this paper, an experimental investigation was carried out to determine the root cause of the transient oil pressure regulator buzz noise which occurred during no load transients at low engine speeds. The root cause of the objectionable noise was found to be associated with the impacts of the regulator plunger on the valve seat at certain engine speeds. Noise and vibration diagnostic tests confirmed that the plunger impacts at the seat caused the objectionable buzz noise.
Technical Paper

Multivariable Control of Dual Loop EGR Diesel Engine with a Variable Geometry Turbo

2014-04-01
2014-01-1357
In this paper we consider the issues facing the design of a practical multivariable controller for a diesel engine with dual exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) loops. This engine architecture requires the control of two EGR valves (high pressure and low pressure), an exhaust throttle (ET) and a variable geometry turbocharger (VGT). A systematic approach suitable for production-intent air handling control using Model Predictive Control (MPC) for diesel engines is proposed. Furthermore, the tuning process of the proposed design is outlined. Experimental results for the performance of the proposed design are implemented on a 2.8L light duty diesel engine. Transient data over an LA-4 cycle for the closed loop performance of the controller are included to prove the effectiveness of the proposed design process.
Technical Paper

Development of the Methodology for Quantifying the 3D PM Distribution in a Catalyzed Particulate Filter with a Terahertz Wave Scanner

2014-04-01
2014-01-1573
Optimizing the performance of the aftertreatment system used on heavy duty diesel engines requires a thorough understanding of the operational characteristics of the individual components. Within this, understanding the performance of the catalyzed particulate filter (CPF), and the development of an accurate CPF model, requires knowledge of the particulate matter (PM) distribution throughout the substrate. Experimental measurements of the PM distribution provide the detailed interactions of PM loading, passive oxidation, and active regeneration. Recently, a terahertz wave scanner has been developed that can non-destructively measure the three dimensional (3D) PM distribution. To enable quantitative comparisons of the PM distributions collected under different operational conditions, it is beneficial if the results can be discussed in terms of the axial, radial, and angular directions.
Technical Paper

Round Robin Noise Measurement System Analysis Using Light Duty Diesel Engine

2015-06-15
2015-01-2299
NVH development of light duty diesel engines require significant collaboration with the OEM as compared to medium duty and heavy duty diesel engines. Typically, competitive benchmark studies and customer expectations define the NVH targets at the vehicle level and are subsequently cascaded down to the powertrain level. For engine manufacturing companies like Cummins Inc., it is imperative to work closely with OEM to deliver on the NVH expectations. In certain situations, engine level NVH targets needs to be demonstrated in the OEM or 3rd party acoustic test facility for customer satisfaction or commercial purposes. Engine noise tests across different noise test facilities may introduce some variation due to differences in the acoustic test facilities, test hardware, instrumentation differences, etc. In addition, the engine itself is a major source of variation.
Technical Paper

Concept Analysis and Initial Results of Engine-Out NOx Estimator Suitable for on ECM Implementation

2016-04-05
2016-01-0611
The interest for NOx estimators (also known as virtual sensors or inferential sensors) has increased over the recent years due to benefits attributed to cost and performance. NOx estimators are typically installed to improve On-Board Diagnostics (OBD) monitors or to lower bill of material costs by replacing physical NOx sensors. This paper presents initial development results of a virtual engine-out NOx estimator planned for the implementation on an ECM. The presented estimator consists of an airpath observer and a NOx combustion model. The role of the airpath observer is to provide input values for the NOx combustion model such as the states of the gas at the intake and exhaust manifolds. It contains a nonlinear mean-value model of the airpath suitably transformed for an efficient and robust implementation on an ECM. The airpath model uses available sensory information in the vehicle to correct predictions of the gas states.
Technical Paper

Analytical Evaluation of Integrated Drivetrain NVH Phenomena

2015-09-29
2015-01-2781
This paper demonstrates the use of a system level model that includes torsional models of a Cummins diesel engine and an Allison transmission to study and improve system NVH behavior. The study is a case where the two suppliers of key powertrain components, Cummins Inc. and Allison Transmission Inc., have collaborated to solve an observed NVH problem for a vehicle customer. A common commercial tool, Siemens' AMESim, was used to develop the drivetrain torsional system model. This paper describes a method of modelling and calibration of baseline engine and transmission models to identify the source of vibration. Natural frequencies, modal shapes, and forced response were calculated for each vehicle drive gear ratio to study the torsional vibration. Several parametric studies such as damping, inertia, and stiffness were carried out to understand their impact on torsional vibration of the system.
Technical Paper

A Full-Cycle Multi-Zone Quasi-Dimensional Direct Injection Diesel Engine Model Based on a Conceptual Model Developed from Imaging Experiments

2017-03-28
2017-01-0537
A quasi-dimensional model for a direct injection diesel engine was developed based on experiments at Sandia National Laboratory. The Sandia researchers obtained images describing diesel spray evolution, spray mixing, premixed combustion, mixing controlled combustion, soot formation, and NOx formation. Dec [1] combined all of the available images to develop a conceptual diesel combustion model to describe diesel combustion from the start of injection up to the quasi-steady form of the jet. The end of injection behavior was left undescribed in this conceptual model because no clear image was available due to the chaotic behavior of diesel combustion. A conceptual end-of-injection diesel combustion behavior model was developed to capture diesel combustion throughout its life span. The compression, expansion, and gas exchange stages are modeled via zero-dimensional single zone calculations.
Technical Paper

Lean Breakthrough Phenomena Analysis for TWC OBD on a Natural Gas Engine using a Dual-Site Dynamic Oxygen Storage Capacity Model

2017-03-28
2017-01-0962
Oxygen storage capacity (OSC) is one of the most critical characteristics of a three-way catalyst (TWC) and is closely related to the catalyst aging and performance. In this study, a dynamic OSC model involving two oxygen storage sites with distinct kinetics was developed. The dual-site OSC model was validated on a bench reactor and a natural gas engine. The model was capable of predicting temperature dependence on OSC with H2, CO and CH4 as reductants. Also, the effects of oxygen concentration and space velocity on the amount of OSC were captured by the model. The validated OSC model was applied to simulate lean breakthrough phenomena with varied space velocities and oxygen concentrations. It is found that OSC during lean breakthrough is not a constant for a particular TWC catalyst and is dependent on space velocity and oxygen concentration. Specifically, breakthrough time exhibits a non-linear, inverse correlation to oxygen flux.
Technical Paper

Diesel Engines Gear Whine: Production Plant Perspective

2017-06-05
2017-01-1809
Engine noise is one of the significant aspects of product quality for light and medium duty diesel engine market applications. Gear whine is one of those noise issues, which is considered objectionable and impacts the customer’s perception of the product quality. Gear whine could result due to defects in the gear manufacturing process and/or due to inaccurate design of the gear macro and micro geometry. The focus of this technical paper is to discuss gear whine considerations from the production plant perspective. This includes quick overview of the measurement process, test cell environment, noise acceptance criteria considerations. A gear whine case study is presented based on the data collected in the test cell at the engine plant. Gear whine data acquired on current product and next generation of prototype engines is analyzed and presented. This paper concludes by highlighting the lessons learned from the case study.
Technical Paper

Diesel Engine Noise Source Visualization with Wideband Acoustical Holography

2017-06-05
2017-01-1874
Wideband Acoustical Holography (WBH), which is a monopole-based, equivalent source procedure (J. Hald, “Wideband Acoustical Holography,” INTER-NOISE 2014), has proven to offer accurate noise source visualization results in experiments with a simple noise source: e.g., a loudspeaker (T. Shi, Y. Liu, J.S. Bolton, “The Use of Wideband Holography for Noise Source Visualization”, NOISE-CON 2016). From a previous study, it was found that the advantage of this procedure is the ability to optimize the solution in the case of an under-determined system: i.e., when the number of measurements is much smaller than the number of parameters that must be estimated in the model. In the present work, a diesel engine noise source was measured by using one set of measurements from a thirty-five channel combo-array placed in front of the engine.
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