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Technical Paper

Investigation of the Dilution Process for Measurement of Particulate Matter from Spark-Ignition Engines

1998-10-19
982601
Measurements of particulate matter (PM) from spark ignition (SI) engine exhaust using dilution tunnels will become more prevalent as emission standards are tightened. Hence, a study of the dilution process was undertaken in order to understand how various dilution related parameters affect the accuracy with which PM sizes and concentrations can be determined. A SI and a compression ignition (CI) engine were separately used to examine parameters of the dilution process; the present work discusses the results in the context of SI exhaust dilution. A Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) was used to measure the size distribution, number density, and volume fraction of PM. Temperature measurements in the exhaust pipe and dilution tunnel reveal the degree of mixing between exhaust and dilution air, the effect of flowrate on heat transfer from undiluted and diluted exhaust to the environment, and the minimum permissible dilution ratio for a maximum sample temperature of 52°C.
Technical Paper

Effect of Engine Operating Parameters on Hydrocarbon Oxidation in the Exhaust Port and Runner of a Spark-Ignited Engine

1995-02-01
950159
The effect of engine operating parameters (speed, spark timing, and fuel-air equivalence ratio [Φ]) on hydrocarbon (HC) oxidation within the cylinder and exhaust system is examined using propane or isooctane fuel. Quench gas (CO2) is introduced at two locations in the exhaust system (exhaust valve or port exit) to stop the oxidation process. Increasing the speed from 1500 to 2500 RPM at MBT spark timing decreases the total, cylinder-exit HC emissions by ∼50% while oxidation in the exhaust system remains at 40% for both fuels. For propane fuel at 1500 rpm, increasing Φ from 0.9 (fuel lean) to 1.1 (fuel rich) reduces oxidation in the exhaust system from 42% to 26%; at 2500 RPM, exhaust system oxidation decreases from 40% to approximately 0% for Φ = 0.9 and 1.1, respectively. Retarded spark increases oxidation in the cylinder and exhaust system for both fuels. Decreases in total HC emissions are accompanied by increased olefinic content and atmospheric reactivity.
Technical Paper

Time Resolved Measurements of Exhaust Composition and Flow Rate in a Wankel Engine

1975-02-01
750024
Measurements were made of exhaust histories of the following species: unburned hydrocarbons (HC), carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, oxygen, and nitric oxide (NO). The measurements show that the exhaust flow can be divided into two distinct phases: a leading gas low in HC and high in NO followed by a trailing gas high in HC and low in NO. Calculations of time resolved equivalence ratio throughout the exhaust process show no evidence of a stratified combustion. The exhaust mass flow rate is time resolved by forcing the flow to be locally quasi-steady at an orifice placed in the exhaust pipe. The results with the quasi-steady assumption are shown to be consistent with the measurements. Predictions are made of time resolved mass flow rate which compare favorably to the experimental data base. The composition and flow histories provide sufficient information to calculate the time resolved flow rates of the individual species measured.
Technical Paper

Modeling the Spark Ignition Engine Warm-Up Process to Predict Component Temperatures and Hydrocarbon Emissions

1991-02-01
910302
In order to understand better the operation of spark-ignition engines during the warm-up period, a computer model had been developed which simulates the thermal processes of the engine. This model is based on lumped thermal capacitance methods for the major engine components, as well as the exhaust system. Coolant and oil flows, and their respective heat transfer rates are modeled, as well as friction heat generation relations. Piston-liner heat transfer is calculated based on a thermal resistance method, which includes the effects of piston and ring material and design, oil film thickness, and piston-liner crevice. Piston/liner crevice changes are calculated based on thermal expansion rates and are used in conjunction with a crevice-region unburned hydrocarbon model to predict the contribution to emissions from this source.
Technical Paper

Development of a Kinetic Model to Evaluate Water Storage on Commercial Cu-Zeolite SCR Catalysts during Cold Start

2017-03-28
2017-01-0968
Commercial Cu-Zeolite SCR catalyst can store and subsequently release significant amount of H2O. The process is accompanied by large heat effects. It is critical to model this phenomenon to design aftertreatment systems and to provide robust tuning strategies to meet cold start emissions and low temperature operation. The complex reaction mechanism of water adsorption and desorption over a Cu-exchanged SAPO-34 catalyst at low temperature was studied through steady state and transient experiments. Steady state isotherms were generated using a gravimetric method and then utilized to predict water storage interactions with respect to feed concentration and catalyst temperature. Transient temperature programmed desorption (TPD) experiments provided the kinetic information required to develop a global kinetic model from the experimental data. The model captures fundamental characteristics of water adsorption and desorption accompanied by the heat effects.
Technical Paper

Axial NO2 Utilization Measurements within a Partial Flow Filter during Passive Regeneration

2017-03-28
2017-01-0988
Measuring axial exhaust species concentration distributions within a wall-flow aftertreatment device provides unique and significant insights regarding the performance of complex devices like the SCR-on-filter. In this particular study, a less complex aftertreatment configuration which includes a DOC followed by two uncoated partial flow filters (PFF) was used to demonstrate the potential and challenges. The PFF design in this study was a particulate filter with alternating open and plugged channels. A SpaciMS [1] instrument was used to measure the axial NO2 profiles within adjacent open and plugged channels of each filter element during an extended passive regeneration event using a full-scale engine and catalyst system. By estimating the mass flow through the open and plugged channels, the axial soot load profile history could be assessed.
Technical Paper

Lab Study of Urea Deposit Formation and Chemical Transformation Process of Diesel Aftertreatment System

2017-03-28
2017-01-0915
Diesel exhaust fluid, DEF, (32.5 wt.% urea aqueous solution) is widely used as the NH3 source for selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOx in diesel aftertreatment systems. The transformation of sprayed liquid phase DEF droplets to gas phase NH3 is a complex physical and chemical process. Briefly, it experiences water vaporization, urea thermolysis/decomposition and hydrolysis. Depending on the DEF doser, decomposition reaction tube (DRT) design and operating conditions, incomplete decomposition of injected urea could lead to solid urea deposit formation in the diesel aftertreatment system. The formed deposits could lead to engine back pressure increase and DeNOx performance deterioration etc. The formed urea deposits could be further transformed to chemically more stable substances upon exposure to hot exhaust gas, therefore it is critical to understand this transformation process.
Technical Paper

Cylinder Deactivation for Increased Engine Efficiency and Aftertreatment Thermal Management in Diesel Engines

2018-04-03
2018-01-0384
Diesel engine cylinder deactivation (CDA) can be used to reduce petroleum consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of the global freight transportation system. Heavy duty trucks require complex exhaust aftertreatment (A/T) in order to meet stringent emission regulations. Efficient reduction of engine-out emissions require a certain A/T system temperature range, which is achieved by thermal management via control of engine exhaust flow and temperature. Fuel efficient thermal management is a significant challenge, particularly during cold start, extended idle, urban driving, and vehicle operation in cold ambient conditions. CDA results in airflow reductions at low loads. Airflow reductions generally result in higher exhaust gas temperatures and lower exhaust flow rates, which are beneficial for maintaining already elevated component temperatures. Airflow reductions also reduce pumping work, which improves fuel efficiency.
Technical Paper

LOOP SCAVENGING versus THROUGH SCAVENGING of TWO-STROKE ENGINES

1958-01-01
580044
THIS paper reports the latest investigation of the relative merits of loop scavenging versus through scavenging. The authors hope that the conditions of the work permitted an objective evaluation of the two types of engines. The results of the study may be summarized as follows: 1. With symmetrical timing, neither cylinder shows significant advantage in trapping efficiency. 2. With symmetrical timing, the best ratio of exhaust-port to inlet-port effective area seems to be about 0.6. 3. Unsymmetrical timing is an effective method of improving trapping efficiency. 4. The value of net indicated fuel economy shows no significant difference between the two cylinders. The authors point out that because the areas were equal it is unlikely that the optimum port design of each type was used in comparing the cylinders. If optimum porting had been used, the two types might have shown more difference.
Technical Paper

Time-Resolved Measurements of Hydrocarbon Mass Flowrate in the Exhaust of a Spark-Ignition Engine

1972-02-01
720112
Experimental measurements of the instantaneous exhaust gas temperature, mass flowrate, and hydrocarbon concentration have been made in the exhaust of a single cylinder research engine. The temperature measurements were accomplished using an infrared optical technique and observing the radiation of the exhaust gas at the 4.4 μm band of CO2. Instantaneous exhaust gas mass flowrates were monitored by placing a restriction in the exhaust manifold and measuring the instantaneous pressures across the restriction. Time-resolved hydrocarbon concentrations were measured using a fast-acting sampling valve with an open time of 2 ms. From these measurements, the hydrocarbon mass flowrate is calculated as a function of crank angle.
Technical Paper

Modeling Study of Metal Fiber Diesel Particulate Filter Performance

2015-04-14
2015-01-1047
Sintered metal fiber (SMF) diesel particulate filters (DPF) has more than one order of magnitude lower pressure drop compared to a granular or reaction-born DPF of the same (clean) filtration efficiency. To better understand the filtration process and optimize the filter performance, metal fiber filter models are developed in this study. The major previous theoretical models for clean fibrous filter are summarized and compared with experimental data. Furthermore, a metal fiber DPF soot loading model, using similar concept developed in high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter modeling, is built to simulate filter soot loading performance. Compared with experimental results, the soot loading model has relatively good predictions of filter pressure drop and filtration efficiency.
Technical Paper

Scavenging the 2-Stroke Engine

1954-01-01
540258
THE indicated output of a 2-stroke engine is primarily dependent upon the success with which the products of combustion are driven from the cylinder and are replaced by fresh air or mixture during the scavenging period. Such replacement must, of course, be accomplished with a minimum of blower power. This paper deals with various aspects of 2-stroke research conducted at M.I.T. during the past 10 years. Among the subjects discussed are the methods used in the prediction and measurement of scavenging efficiency, and the effect of engine design and operating variables on the scavenging blower requirements as reflected by the scavenging ratio.
Technical Paper

A Model of Quench Layer Entrainment During Blowdown and Exhaust of the Cylinder of an Internal Combustion Engine

1975-02-01
750477
An aerodynamic model of the entrainment of the head wall quench layer during blowdown and exhaust of an internal combustion engine has been developed. The model may be used to calculate the time resolved concentration and mass flowrate of hydrocarbons (HC) in the exhaust, from a knowledge of engine geometry and operating conditions. It predicts that the area As from which HC are swept will be proportional to the cube root of the ratio of the quench layer thickness δq to the thickness of the viscous boundary layer δv. Since the mass of HC emitted is proportional to the product of the HC density ρHC, the area As and the thickness δq, the HC emissions will be proportional to the product ρHC δq4/3 and this is the most important factor determining the emissions.
Technical Paper

Decoupling the Interactions of Hydrocarbons and Oxides of Nitrogen Over Diesel Oxidation Catalysts

2011-04-12
2011-01-1137
Oxidation of NO to NO₂ over a Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC) plays an important role in different types of aftertreatment systems, by enhancing NOx storage on adsorber catalysts, improving the NOx reduction efficiency of SCR catalysts, and enabling the passive regeneration of Diesel Particulate Filters (DPF). The presence of hydrocarbon (HC) species in the exhaust is known to affect the NO oxidation performance over a DOC; however, specific details of this effect, including its underlying mechanism, remain poorly understood. Two major pathways are commonly considered to be responsible for the overall effect: NO oxidation inhibition, due to the presence of HC, and the consumption of the NO₂ produced by reaction with hydrocarbons. In this work we have attempted to decouple these two pathways, by adjusting the catalyst inlet concentrations of NO and NO₂ to the thermodynamic equilibrium levels and measuring the composition changes over the catalyst in the presence of HC species.
Technical Paper

Influence of Material Properties and Pore Design Parameters on Non-Catalyzed Diesel Particulate Filter Performance with Ash Accumulation

2012-09-10
2012-01-1728
Diesel particulate filters (DPF) are a common component in emission-control systems of modern clean diesel vehicles. Several DPF materials have been used in various applications. Silicone Carbide (SiC) is common for passenger vehicles because of its thermal robustness derived from its high specific gravity and heat conductivity. However, a segmented structure is required to relieve thermal stress due to SiC's higher coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE). Cordierite (Cd) is a popular material for heavy-duty vehicles. Cordierite which has less mass per given volume, exhibits superior light-off performance, and is also adequate for use in larger monolith structures, due to its lower CTE. SiC and cordierite are recognized as the most prevalent DPF materials since the 2000's. The DPF traps not only combustible particles (soot) but also incombustible ash. Ash accumulates in the DPF and remains in the filter until being physically removed.
Technical Paper

Development of the Methodology for Quantifying the 3D PM Distribution in a Catalyzed Particulate Filter with a Terahertz Wave Scanner

2014-04-01
2014-01-1573
Optimizing the performance of the aftertreatment system used on heavy duty diesel engines requires a thorough understanding of the operational characteristics of the individual components. Within this, understanding the performance of the catalyzed particulate filter (CPF), and the development of an accurate CPF model, requires knowledge of the particulate matter (PM) distribution throughout the substrate. Experimental measurements of the PM distribution provide the detailed interactions of PM loading, passive oxidation, and active regeneration. Recently, a terahertz wave scanner has been developed that can non-destructively measure the three dimensional (3D) PM distribution. To enable quantitative comparisons of the PM distributions collected under different operational conditions, it is beneficial if the results can be discussed in terms of the axial, radial, and angular directions.
Technical Paper

Development and Demonstration of a Soot Generator Integrated Bench Reactor

2014-04-01
2014-01-1589
Experimental evaluation of soot trapping and oxidation behaviors of various diesel particulate filters (DPF) has been traditionally hampered by several experimental difficulties, such as the deposition of soot particles with well-characterized and consistent properties, and the tracking of the soot oxidation rate in real time. In the present study, an integrated bench flow-reactor system with a soot generator has been developed and its capabilities were demonstrated with regards to: Consistently and controllably loading soot on DPF samples; Monitoring the exhaust gas composition by FTIR, including quantification of the soot oxidation rate using CO and CO2; Measuring soot oxidation characteristics of various DPF samples. Soot particles were produced from a laminar propane co-flow diffusion flame.
Technical Paper

Concept Analysis and Initial Results of Engine-Out NOx Estimator Suitable for on ECM Implementation

2016-04-05
2016-01-0611
The interest for NOx estimators (also known as virtual sensors or inferential sensors) has increased over the recent years due to benefits attributed to cost and performance. NOx estimators are typically installed to improve On-Board Diagnostics (OBD) monitors or to lower bill of material costs by replacing physical NOx sensors. This paper presents initial development results of a virtual engine-out NOx estimator planned for the implementation on an ECM. The presented estimator consists of an airpath observer and a NOx combustion model. The role of the airpath observer is to provide input values for the NOx combustion model such as the states of the gas at the intake and exhaust manifolds. It contains a nonlinear mean-value model of the airpath suitably transformed for an efficient and robust implementation on an ECM. The airpath model uses available sensory information in the vehicle to correct predictions of the gas states.
Technical Paper

Automotive Selective Catalytic Reduction System Model-Based Estimators for On-ECU Implementation: A Brief Overview

2016-04-05
2016-01-0972
The amount of ammonia stored on the walls of the catalyst (or ammonia storage) is a parameter with significant impact on NOx reduction efficiency and undesired ammonia slip of Selective Catalytic Reduction catalysts. This makes the ammonia storage interesting for utilization in urea injection control. However, ammonia storage is not directly measurable onboard vehicles, it can only be estimated. Model-based online estimation requires models that are capable of capturing the main phenomena of the SCR and at the same time can be computed onboard vehicle. While the modeling of SCR and model-based control is well present in the literature, it is apparent that few attempts of implementing the models on production ECUs were published. This paper reviews literature on ammonia storage, outlet NH3 and NOx concentration estimation in SCR and SCR/DPF systems-including the estimation of NOx sensor cross-sensitive to NH3-in order to present the state of the art.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Mid-Channel Ash Plug on DPF Pressure Drop

2016-04-05
2016-01-0966
It has been observed that a certain percentage of diesel particulate filters (DPFs) from the field form mid-channel ash plugs both in light duty and heavy duty applications. As revealed in a post mortem study, some field samples have ash plugs of 3-10 cm length in the middle of DPF inlet channels, which can potentially reduce the inlet channel volume by more than 50%. As a result, the mid-channel ash plug reduces the effective filtration area and decreases the effective channel open width in the middle of the channel. This explains why these filters are reported as having large increases in pressure drop. Moreover, the mid-channel ash deposits reduce the DPF service life and render the filter cleaning process ineffective. In the present study, an open source CFD tool is applied to study the 3D flow crossing two representative inlet and outlet DPF channels where the inlet channels have mid-channel ash plugs.
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