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Technical Paper

Real Driving Emission Efficiency Potential of SDPF Systems without an Ammonia Slip Catalyst

2017-03-28
2017-01-0913
In order to comply with emission regulation, reach their profitability targets and minimise the in-use cost of their vehicles, OEMs are seeking solutions to optimise their aftertreatment systems. For Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) system engineers, one of the most important challenges is to reduce the system's cost, while keeping its high level of NOx emission reduction performance. Ways to achieve this cost reduction include 1. using an engine out NOx estimation model instead of a NOx sensor upstream of the SDPF (DPF coated with SCR) catalyst and 2. eliminating the Ammonia Slip Catalyst (ASC) downstream of the SDPF catalyst. Achieving these challenging targets requires actions on the complete SCR system, from the optimisation of mixing and uniformity in the SDPF catalyst to the development of robust controls. To face these challenges, a novel exhaust reverse flow concept with a blade mixer was developed.
Technical Paper

Pressure Sensor Module for High Temperature,High Pressure, and Quick Response

2018-04-03
2018-01-0759
According to the advance of engine control development, demands for direct sensing of physical quantity have been growing. Regarding pressure sensing, key properties for direct sensing are robustness against high temperature and pressure, and response time in addition to accuracy. In this work, a pressure sensor module with these key properties was developed. First of all, a piezoelectric device was selected as a suitable sensing principle for the required properties because of its thermally stable piezoelectric effect and potential for simple installation structure. Regarding robustness against temperature, the sensor module was designed to form thermal isolation layer with outer housing which is optimized according to its application. Regarding robustness against pressure and response time, breakage of the piezoelectric element is the main technical issue.
Technical Paper

Hexagonal Cell Ceramic Substrates for Lower Emission and Backpressure

2008-04-14
2008-01-0805
Stringent emission regulations call for advanced catalyst substrates with thinner walls and higher cell density. However, substrates with higher cell density increase backpressure, thinner cell wall substrates have lower mechanical characteristics. Therefore we will focus on cell configurations that will show a positive effect on backpressure and emission performance. We found that hexagonal cells have a greater effect on emission and backpressure performance versus square or round cell configurations. This paper will describe in detail the advantage of hexagonal cell configuration versus round or square configurations with respect to the following features: 1 High Oxygen Storage Capacity (OSC) performance due to uniformity of the catalyst coating layer 2 Low backpressure due to the large hydraulic diameter of the catalyst cell 3 Quick light off characteristics due to efficient heat transfer and low thermal mass
Technical Paper

Water Cooled Charge Air Cooler Development

2016-04-05
2016-01-0651
Due to the recent trend emphasizing on environmental friendly, engine supercharger downsizing technology has been under development globally. In this report, the technical knowledge for high performance and high quality water-cooled CAC development is provided. For higher cooling performance, the optimum fin and tube core matrix water-cooled CAC, delivering best performance and quality have been developed. For higher reliability against thermal stress, the detail specifications of water-cooled CAC based on the transient analysis and the simulation technology have been established.
Technical Paper

4th Generation Diesel Piezo Injector (Realizing Enhanced High Response Injector)

2016-04-05
2016-01-0846
Diesel common rail injectors are required to utilize a higher injection pressure and to achieve higher injection accuracy in order to meet increasingly severe emissions, less fuel consumption, and higher engine performance demand. In addition to those requirements, in conjunction with optimized nozzle geometry, a more rectangular injection rate and stable multiple injections with shorter intervals are required for further emissions and engine performance improvement by optimizing the combustion efficiency.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Influence Factors for Partial Discharge Inception Voltage between Magnet-Wires on Rotating Machines

2016-04-05
2016-01-1226
In automobiles, Integrated Starter Generators (ISGs) are important components since they ensure significant fuel economy improvements. With motors that operate at high voltage such as ISGs, it is important to accurately know partial discharge inception voltages (PDIVs) for the assured insulation reliability of the motors. However, the PDIVs vary due to various factors including the environment (temperature, atmospheric pressure and humidity), materials (water absorption and degradation) and voltage waveforms. Consequently, it is not easy either empirically or analytically to ascertain the PDIVs in a complex environment (involving, for example, high temperature, low atmospheric pressure and high humidity) in which many factors vary simultaneously, as with invehicle environments. As a well-known method, PDIVs can be analyzed in terms of two voltage values, which are the breakdown voltage of the air (called “Paschen curve”) and the shared voltage of the air layer.
Technical Paper

Development of Diesel Engine using New Fuel Injection System - Direct Monitoring of Fuel Injection Pressure using Injector with Built-in Sensor, and its Applications

2013-04-08
2013-01-1739
Recently, diesel engine manufacturers have been improving the tolerance of fuel injection quantity and timing in response to the strengthening of emissions regulations and the introduction of various kinds of diesel fuels. This paper describes the Intelligent Accuracy Refinement Technology (i-ART) system, which has been developed as a way of achieving substantially improved tolerances. The i-ART system consists of a fuel pressure sensor installed in the injectors. It calculates the injection quantity and timing at high speed using a dedicated microcomputer designed for pressure waveform analysis. As the injector can directly measure the fuel injection pressure waveform for each injection, it can compensate the injection quantity and timing tolerance at any time. Toyota Motor Corporation has introduced this system in Brazilian market vehicles. In Brazil, the PROCONVE L6 emissions regulations will be introduced in 2012, and the market also uses various kinds of diesel fuels.
Technical Paper

Diesel Powertrain Energy Management via thermal Management and Electrification

2017-03-28
2017-01-0156
The coming Diesel powertrains will remain as key technology in Europe to achieve the stringent 2025 CO2 emission targets. Especially for applications which are unlikely to be powered by pure EV technology like Light Duty vehicles and C/D segment vehicles which require a long driving range this is the case. To cope with these low CO2 targets the amount of electrification e.g. in form of 48V Belt-driven integrated Starter Generator (BSG) systems will increase. On the other hand the efficiency of the Diesel engine will increase which will result in lower exhaust gas temperatures resulting in a challenge to keep the required NOx reduction system efficiencies under Real Drive Emissions (RDE) driving conditions. In order to comply with the RDE legislation down to -7 °C ambient an efficient thermal management is one potential approach. Commonly utilized means to increase exhaust gas temperature are late injection and/or intake throttling, which enable sufficient NOx reduction efficiency.
Technical Paper

High-Precision Modeling of Heat Exchanger Core on Vehicle Engine Room Airflow Analysis

2017-03-28
2017-01-0129
In general, CFD analysis with porous media is precise enough to simulate airflow behavior in a heat exchanger core, placed in the vehicle. In a case when the airflow behavior is complex, however, the precision lowers according to our study. Therefore, we developed a new modeling method to keep high-precision and applied it to analysis of airflow in the vehicle. The concept is at first that the shape of tubes and the distance between the tubes are as the actual product so that the airflow with an oblique angle is to pass through a core. With this concept, airflow with an oblique angle hits the surface of tubes and passes through a core with changing the direction. Next, the concept is to reproduce the air pressure loss in actually-shaped fins, and therefore, we use a porous medium for the modeling of the fins instead of the product shape modeling to combine with the the tubes.
Technical Paper

Development of High Accuracy Rear A/F Sensor

2017-03-28
2017-01-0949
New 2A/F systems different from usual A/F-O2 systems are being developed to cope with strict regulation of exhaust gas. In the 2A/F systems, 2A/F sensors are equipped in front and rear of a three-way catalyst. The A/F-O2 systems are ideas which use a rear O2 to detect exhaust gas leaked from three-way catalyst early and feed back. On the other hand, the 2A/F systems are ideas which use a rear A/F sensor to detect nearly stoichiometric gas discharged from the three-way catalyst accurately, and to prevent leakage of exhaust gas from the three-way catalyst. Therefore, accurate detection of nearly stoichiometric gas by the rear A/F sensor is the most importrant for the 2A/F systems. In general, the A/F sensors can be classified into two types, so called, one-cell type and two-cell type. Because the one-cell type A/F sensors don’t have hysteresis, they have potential for higher accuracy.
Technical Paper

Advanced Electronics for a Clean Diesel Engine Management System

2006-10-16
2006-21-0059
With the economic development of countries around the world led by BRICs(Brazil, Russia, India, China), the total number of automobiles in the world continues to rise. From the standpoint of preserving limited petroleum resources and reducing CO2 emissions, improved fuel consumption is necessary if we are to continue enjoying the use of automobiles. In Europe, significant development of diesel engine technology as a power source for automobiles has taken place to reduce fuel consumption and to enhance the “Fun to Drive” experience, and market share of diesel engines has increased in this area. However, with increasing environmental awareness worldwide, all areas of the globe are seeing tightened regulations for not only fuel consumption, but also exhaust emissions, including those for PM(Particulate Matter) and NOx. Of these regulations, the requirement for vehicles to satisfy the US Tier 2 Bin 5 rating, regardless of whether they are gasoline or dieselpowered, is the most stringent.
Technical Paper

Measurement and Modeling on Wall Wetted Fuel Film Profile and Mixture Preparation in Intake Port of SI Engine

1999-03-01
1999-01-0798
In SI engines with port injection system, the injected fuel spray adheres surely on the port wall and the inlet valve, consequently, the spray-wall interaction process leads to the generation of unburned hydrocarbons and uncontrollable mixture formation. This paper deals with the fuel mixture preparation process including basic research on characteristics of the wall-wetted fuel film on a flat wall inside a constant volume vessel. In the experiments, iso-octane mixed with biacetyl as a tracer dopant was injected through a pintle type injector against a flat glass wall under the ambient conditions of atmospheric pressure and room temperature. The thickness of the adhered fuel film on the wall was quantitatively measured by using laser induced fluorescence (LIF) technique, which provides 2-D distribution information with high special resolution as a function of the injection duration, the impingement distance from the injector to the wall, and the impingement angle against the wall.
Technical Paper

Cam and Crank Rotation Sensor with Reverse Rotation Detection

2006-04-03
2006-01-1460
In order to improve the performance of Engine Management System (EMS), it becomes more important to accurately detect the position of cam and crank with rotation sensors, usually as referred cam and crank sensor. In addition, expectations for the idle stop system to follow the reinforcement of emission regulations require cam and crank sensors to implement the function of reverse rotation detection. This paper discusses our development of a new generation rotation sensor (MR3) that uses AMR (Anisotropic Magneto Resistance) for accurate rotation detection to meet all system and market demands with minimum number of components to achieve high quality but less expensive price.
Technical Paper

Multiple-hole Nozzle Atomization for SI Engines

1999-03-01
1999-01-0564
Fuel atomization is known as an effective means of reducing exhaust emissions from internal combustion engines. In this study, we present a cost-effective atomization method for multiple-hole nozzle gasoline injection systems that requires no auxiliary device or external energy source to carry out atomization. While many studies have been conducted before on the atomization mechanism, most assume that the key to atomization lies in the nozzle configuration or the interaction between the fuel spray and ambient air. We, on the other hand, paid particular attention to the fuel nozzle upstream flow and found how it plays a crucial role in fuel atomization. In case of using multiple-hole nozzle in particular, atomization is greatly influenced by impingement of upstream flow of the fuel nozzle, which leads to rapid directional change in the fuel flow.
Technical Paper

Evaporative Leak Check System by Depressurization Method

2004-03-08
2004-01-0143
Changes to OBDII regulations in North America are requiring more frequent leak checks to the evaporative emissions system. Conventional methods are unable to comply with the required 0.26 performance ratio due to various factors such as unstable tank pressure and fuel evaporation. These strict regulations require an innovative detection device. Utilizing a vacuum pump, a leak check module with high detection frequency, leak diagnostic accuracy, and reliability has been developed. In the present paper, the details of ELCM based on the depressurization method are reported together with the results of study on the pressurization method.
Technical Paper

Development of PZEV Exhaust Emission Control System

2003-03-03
2003-01-0817
A new exhaust emission control system has been developed which complies with the world's most severe emission standard: CARB PZEV. Leaner combustion in cold condition was enabled and rapid warm-up of a close-coupled catalyst was realized by utilizing a newly developed Intake Air Control Valve (IACV) system and hyper-atomization fuel injector. In addition, the newly developed HC adsorbing type 3-way catalyst realized cold HC reduction at lower cost. For further reduction of the exhaust emission, the Variable Valve Timing-Intelligent (VVT-i) system was positively operated immediately after the cold start. By the suitable operation of Variable Valve Timing (VVT), the blow-back from the cylinder enhanced the fuel atomization and re-burning of remaining unburned hydrocarbons (HCs), and increased in-cylinder residual gas reduces NOx.
Technical Paper

Glow Plug with Combustion Pressure Sensor

2003-03-03
2003-01-0707
Combustion-pressure-data-based feedback control of fuel injection and EGR is the most promising diesel system, since it can reduce fuel consumption and emissions, as well as noise and vibration, and improve the evaluation efficiency for adapting engine performance to. We developed a combustion pressure sensor installed inside the glow plug. This is superior in maintainability and ease of installation, and can detect the combustion pressure in each cylinder at high accuracy and low cost, with no need for engine modification.
Journal Article

Capacitive Humidity Sensors Using Highly Durable Polyimide Membrane

2013-04-08
2013-01-1337
Humidity sensors used in automatic windshield defogging controls contribute to the improvement of fuel consumption. The optimum control of air conditioning systems can be realized by adding humidity information to conventional systems which have used only temperature information. While resistive humidity sensors have been widely used, their sensing range and responsiveness are observed as issues. Resistive sensors cannot function at a humidity range of around 100% RH as well as at a low temperature range, and have a low response rate to sudden changes in humidity. It is considered that resistive humidity sensors will be replaced with capacitive ones which have a wide sensing range and high responsiveness.
Journal Article

Ejector Energy-Saving Technology for Mobile Air Conditioning Systems

2017-03-28
2017-01-0120
This study reports on a new generation ECS (Ejector Cycle System) which includes a highly efficient ejector and a novel system configuration. The ejector is working as a fluid jet pump that recovers expansion energy which is wasted in the conventional refrigeration cycle decompression process, and converts the recovered expansion energy into pressure energy and raises the compressor suction pressure. Consequently, the ejector system can reduce power consumption of the compressor by using the above mentioned pressure-rising effect and improve energy efficiency of the refrigeration cycle. The ejector consists of a nozzle, a suction section, a mixing section and a diffuser. The objective of this study is to improve actual fuel economy of all vehicles by ejector technology. The previous generation ECS was reported in 2012 SAE World Congress1. Now, a new generation ECS has been successfully developed and released in the market for Mobile Air Conditioning systems as of 2013.
Journal Article

Development of Ignition Technology for Dilute Combustion Engines

2017-03-28
2017-01-0676
In recent years, from a viewpoint of global warming and energy issues, the need to improve vehicle fuel economy to reduce CO2 emission has become apparent. One of the ways to improve this is to enhance engine thermal efficiency, and for that, automakers have been developing the technologies of high compression ratio and dilute combustion such as exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), and lean combustion. Since excessive dilute combustion causes the failure of flame propagation, combustion promotion by intensifying in-cylinder turbulence has been indispensable. However, instability of flame kernel formation by gas flow fluctuation between combustion cycles is becoming an issue. Therefore, achieving stable flame kernel formation and propagation under a high dilute condition is important technology.
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