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Technical Paper

Towards a Model-Based Energy System Design Process

2012-10-22
2012-01-2219
Advanced modeling and simulation techniques are becoming more important in today's industrial design processes and for aircraft energy systems in specific. They enable early and integrated design as well as validation of finalized system and component designs. This paper describes the main methods and tools that can be applied for different phases of the energy design process. For demonstration, the object-oriented modeling language Modelica was chosen, since it enables convenient modeling of multi-physical systems. Based on this standard, common modeling guidelines, a modeling library template, and common interfaces have been provided. A common modeling infrastructure is proposed with considerations on additional libraries needed for local tasks in the energy design process. The developed methods and tools have been tested by means of some predefined use cases, which are performed in cooperation with diverse aircraft industrial partners.
Technical Paper

Model-Based Energy Management Functions for Aircraft Electrical Systems

2012-10-22
2012-01-2175
Intelligent software functions for energy management form a crucial element for aircraft electrical and thermal systems. In the electrical system, these are currently electrical load or power management functions that can cut and reconnect loads based on fixed priorities. The main aim of these functions is to prevent overload in failure mode of electrical generators, for example if one generator fails and another one has to take over its loads. For more-electric or all-electric aircraft, these functions should also cut loads during normal operation, since the electrical systems will not be sized to simultaneously provide maximum power to all loads. Additionally, energy management functions shall deal with multiple, parallel sources and should split power off-take in a way to reach maximum system efficiency. This paper provides an object-oriented tool and a method that enable a more intuitive development of an energy management function using economic models.
Technical Paper

Optimal Control Allocation for Electric Aircraft Taxi Systems: A Preliminary Study

2014-09-16
2014-01-2137
Demonstrators and research projects about electric aircraft taxi systems testify the current interest in low- or zero-emission ground propulsion technologies to lower the overall fuel consumption and emissions of commercial flights. Electric motors fitted in the main landing gears are one of the most promising layouts for these systems especially for narrow-body commercial aircraft. From a control theory point of view, the aircraft on ground becomes an over-actuated plant through adoption of this technology, i.e. a commanded ground trajectory can be reached through different combinations of actuator efforts. A strategy is required to choose the most suitable of these combinations in order to reach the best efficiency. This work aims to investigate a strategy for an optimal control allocation during path-following of prescribed ground trajectories.
Technical Paper

Model-Based Thermal Management Functions for Aircraft Systems

2014-09-16
2014-01-2203
This paper describes a novel Thermal Management Function (TMF) and its design process developed in the framework of the Clean Sky project. This TMF is capable of calculating optimized control signals in real-time for thermal management systems by using model-based system knowledge. This can be either a physical model of the system or a data record generated from this model. The TMF provides control signals to the air and vapor cycle which are possible sources of cooling power, as well as load reduction or shedding signals. To determine an optimal cooling split between air cycle, vapor cycle, and its associated ram air channels, trade factors are being used to make electrical power offtake and ram air usage (i.e. drag) comparable, since both have influence on fuel consumption. An associated development process is being elaborated that enables a fast adaptation of the TMF to new architectures and systems. This will be illustrated by means of a bleedless thermal management architecture.
Technical Paper

Model Based System Level Studies of More Electric Aircraft

2014-09-16
2014-01-2177
Aiming at the global energy optimization of aircraft, the More Electric Aircraft (MEA) concept becomes more interesting for the aeronautical industry. The MEA concept is based on utilizing electric power to drive aircraft subsystems that historically have been driven by a combination of hydraulic, electric, pneumatic and mechanical power transfer systems. The development of the future MEA systems is a challenging task: the system integration is becoming a central topic. In all phases of the system development process, the respective subsystems within the MEA will be treated in a highly integrated manner to achieve optimum efficiency and performance at aircraft and systems level. Concerning the electric network in the future MEA, advanced design and analysis methods based on mathematical models are required to face the potential issues accompanying the MEA. For this purpose, the use of advanced modelling and simulation technologies is a key success factor.
Technical Paper

Advanced Temperature Control in Aircraft Cabins - A Digital Prototype

2017-09-19
2017-01-2161
For thermal cabin control of commercial aircraft, the cabin is usually divided into a small number of temperature zones. Each zone features its own air supply pipe. The necessary installation space for ducting increases significantly with the number of zones. This requires the number of temperature zones to be low. Factors such as seating layout, galley placement and passenger density result in deviations in heat flux throughout the cabin. These deviations cannot be compensated by the control system, if they occur within the same temperature zone. This work presents a novel temperature regulation concept based on local mixing. In this concept, two main ducts span the complete cabin length, and provide moderately warm and cold air. At each temperature zone, cabin supply air is locally mixed using butterfly valves. In this way, the number of temperature zones can be individually scaled up without any additional ducting, only requiring additional valves for each temperature zone.
Technical Paper

Structural Concept of an Adaptive Shock Control Bump Spoiler

2017-09-19
2017-01-2164
Drag reduction technologies in aircraft design are the key enabler for reducing emissions and for sustainable growth of commercial aviation. Laminar wing technologies promise a significant benefit by drag reduction and are therefore under investigation in various European projects. However, of the established moveable concepts and high-lift systems, thus far most do not cope with the requirements for natural laminar flow wings. To this aim new leading edge high-lift systems have been the focus of research activities in the last five years. Such leading edge devices investigated in projects include a laminar flow-compatible Kruger flap [1] and the Droop Nose concept [2, 3] and these can be considered as alternatives to the conventional slat. Hybrid laminar flow concepts are also under investigation at several research institutes in Europe [4].
Technical Paper

Exploitation Strategies of Cabin and Galley Thermal Dynamics

2017-09-19
2017-01-2037
The thermal inertia of aircraft cabins and galleys is significant for commercial aircraft. The aircraft cabin is controlled by the Environment Control System (ECS) to reach, among other targets, a prescribed temperature. By allowing a temperature band of ± 2 K instead of a fixed temperature, it is possible to use this thermal dynamic of the cabin as energy storage. This storage can then be used to reduce electrical peak power, increase efficiency of the ECS, reduce thermal cooling peak power, or reduce engine offtake if it is costly or not sufficiently available. In the same way, also the aircraft galleys can be exploited. Since ECS and galleys are among the largest consumers of electrical power or bleed air, there is a large potential on improving energy efficiency or reducing system mass to reduce fuel consumption of aircraft. This paper investigates different exploitation strategies of cabin and galley dynamics using modelling and simulation.
Journal Article

Assessing Environmental Benefits of Electric Aircraft Taxiing through Object-Oriented Simulation

2012-10-22
2012-01-2218
A number of promising technologies to perform ground movements without main engines are currently being researched. Notably, onboard ground propulsion systems have been proposed featuring electric motors in the landing gear. While such on-board systems will help save fuel and avoid emissions while on ground, they add significant weight to the aircraft, which has an impact on the performances in flight. A tool to assess the global benefits in terms of fuel consumption and emissions is presented in this work. A concept of an aircraft-integrated ground propulsion system is firstly considered and its performances and weights are determined, assuming the Auxiliary Power Unit or a zero-emission device like a fuel-cell as power source for the system. Afterwards, a model of the propulsion system integrated into an object-oriented, mid-sized aircraft model is generated, capable of precisely simulating a whole aircraft mission.
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