Refine Your Search

Search Results

Video

Development of High Strength Polymer Based Bearing for Automotive Parts under Boundary Lubrication

2012-05-23
Composite bearings of PTFE as the base material have been widely used for automotive parts. However, in recent years, due to downsizing, faster sliding speeds, and tendency to increase the bearing load with high performance, particularly for boundary lubrication conditions, the PTFE-based composite bearing is often worn, making it difficult to apply to some applications. A high strength polymer was selected as an alternative to PTFE base material, and the mechanical properties and performance in a start-stop test, reciprocating sliding test and seizure test were evaluated. Focusing on the characteristics of high strength, by applying a PEEK resin, in each evaluation, it was confirmed that superior performance was achieved compared with a conventional PTFE based composite bearing. Presenter Yohei Takada, Daido Metal Co., Ltd.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study for the Oil Flow Supplied from Oil Hole on Statically Loaded Bearings

1995-02-01
950947
This study focuses on the oil flow, supplied from the oil hole in plain bearings; the oil flow in bearings that were statically loaded was measured precisely using a test rig. In the case that oil was supplied through an oil hole, experimental results showed that the bearing oil flow depended largely on the circumferential angle of the oil feed hole in relation to the loading direction. When compared with the results of conventional theoretical analysis, it became obvious that the conventional analysis method could not make an exact prediction. The authors have assumed that such difference would come from the oil film extent. Using a transparent bearing so that the behavior of the oil film within the bearing clearance could be visible, the oil film extent for different circumferential positions of the oil feed hole were observed. The bearing oil flow was calculated based on the actually measured oil film extent. The calculated result was compared with the experimental one.
Technical Paper

Development of Bearing with Composite Overlay for High-Performance Engines

1996-02-01
960988
Recently, there has been a tendency of high power and high speed in automotive engines. In addition they have been also required high reliability. And engine bearings have been required to be advanced in wear resistance as well as seizure resistance. Therefore, copper-lead alloy bearings with overlay, which have better seizure resistance, have been widely used for high speed engines up to the present. But it becomes very important for them to advance the overlay wear resistance. In this paper, the composite overlay is mainly researched to improve wear resistance regarding kind of hard particles and their amounts in the overlay.
Technical Paper

Improvement of Multi-Layer Aluminum-Silicon-Tin Bearings for High Power Engines Through a Reinforced Intermediate Layer

1994-03-01
940691
The recent trend toward the compact and light-weight construction of automotive engines with high power output has been imposing higher requirements of fatigue strength, anti-seizure property and conformability on bearings. In order to meet these requirements, the authors analyzed the property of each layer of multi-layer Al-Si-Sn bearings and investigated its influence on bearing performance. Improvement was achieved as to the bearing alloy and the intermediate bonding layer based on the results of the investigation. As a result, this newly improved bearing has been concluded to provide better fatigue strength than conventional bearings. It has thus become possible to apply it as a bearing for the recent engines used under harsh conditions.
Technical Paper

Properties of Engine Bearings Lubricated with Low HTHS Viscosity Oil

1998-02-23
980702
Properties of engine bearings were investigated with different bearing materials and different HTHS viscosity oils by means of both an engine test and a rig test. The rig test well simulated the bearing wear which occurred in the engine test. Lead-bronze bearings with lead-tin-indium overlay gave the least amount of wear in operating under high speed and heavy load conditions even with low HTHS viscosity oil. Aluminum bearings without overlay gave good wear resistance in the case of no seizure occurrence. The wear amount of bearings were well correlated with HTHS viscosity, not with kinematic viscosity.
Technical Paper

A Study of Three Layer Copper-Lead Bearings Without Nickel Barrier

1997-02-24
970214
The advent of high-performance, compact, and lightweight engines in recent years brings forth a tendency to increase the load for engine bearings and demands on producing even higher levels of durability and reliability in bearing products against fatigue, seizure, wear, and corrosion. Based on the perspective of extending the bearing life, the authors have studied the problems that are encountered with the current three layer copper-lead alloy bearings after their overlay has worn out. Then, we studied the issues of lowered seizure resistance that results from the exposure of the nickel barrier, and of deficient corrosion resistance that results from the exposure of the bearing alloy. In order to improve upon these areas, we focused on diffusion phenomenon of overlay elements without the nickel barrier and also studied the feasibility of creating engine bearings whose alloy composition has been partially modified.
Technical Paper

Development of Three Layers Copper-Lead Bearings for Higher Speed Automotive Engines

1991-02-01
910161
As the recent automotive engines are designed for higher performance, the rotating speed of the engines have been increased drastically. Therefore the engine bearings should be further improved to have better anti-seizure and wear properties under the high temperature at the high rotating speed. The authors have analyzed the necessary functions of the three layers copper-lead bearings at such operating conditions, and then improved and developed the overlay and the copper based bearing alloy with steel back. Physical and chemical properties for this new bearing were studied. Then the bearing performance tests were carried out including the high speed seizure tests and engine tests. From these test results, it was confirmed that this new bearing could be applied for the recent very high speed automotive engines.
Technical Paper

New Type Fatigue Phenomenon of Aluminum-Based Engine Bearings

1989-02-01
890556
Heavily-loaded engine bearings in recent years have frequently utilized aluminum-tin-silicon alloy which does not require overlay. It has been found that some special fatigue damage may occur in these aluminum alloys under certain heavy-load application. A microscopic examination of such fatigue revealed a structural change inside the aluminum alloy. In this paper such fatigue phenomenon was studied in detail and reproduction tests were carried out on the bearing test machines. As a result, we have developed a new high-strength aluminum alloy which can prevent such fatigue damage.
Technical Paper

Diffusion Behavior of Overlay for Three Layers Engine Bearings

1989-02-01
890555
The diffusion phenomena of tin and indium which are contained in the lead-base overlay of 3-layer copper-lead alloy bearings were studied. Easier diffusion of tin compared with indium decreases the corrosion resistance of the overlay, and the tin reacts with the underlayer to form brittle Ni-Sn or Cu-Sn intermetallic compound, resulting in weak bonding strength. Addition of copper into Pb-In overlay markedly restrains the diffusion of indium and therefore stabilizes the characteristics of corrosion resistance, bonding strength and mechanical properties for a long period. Cavitation tests, seizure tests and bearing fatigue tests were conducted on Pb-In-Cu overlay to study the feasibility of its application to actual engine bearings.
Technical Paper

Fretting Phenomenon on Outer Surface of Connecting Rod Bearings for Automotive Engines

1993-03-01
931022
Recent automotive engines for high performance vehicles have been designed for higher speeds and outputs. Not only the combustion load but also the inertia force applied on the connecting rod has been increasing. Automotive engines have also become compact and lighter in weight for needs of lower fuel consumption. For these reasons, the rigidity of the connecting rod has been reduced in comparison with the increasing inertia force. As a result, fretting damage may occur between two surfaces of the connecting rod big end bore and the bearing outer surface, causing breakage of the connecting rod itself. Countermeasures for fretting such as a tighter bearing fit ( interference ) and higher rigidity of the connecting rod big end are generally adopted. But the details for these countermeasures can not be easily predicted at the design stage. Rather they are obtained only by durability tests on the actual engines.
Technical Paper

Measurement of Bearing Friction Loss Under Dynamic Load

1988-02-01
880547
Friction loss of bearings under dynamic load is often measured by motoring on an actual engine. Motoring, however, is not capable of reproducing the bearing load during the firing. The authors developed a dynamic load simulating machine, which applies variable load corresponding to one engine load cycle by means of a hydraulic pressure controlled with servo valves. Friction loss and the shaft center locus were measured under the static load and the dynamic load simulating to the main bearing load of V-engine. The variation was studied while changing various dimensions of a bearing such as clearance, bearing length, revolution speed, shaft diameter, and presence of a circumferential groove. By comparing the test results with theoretical values, good agreement in the basic tendency was obtained.
Technical Paper

Improvement of Aluminum-Lead Bearings by New Manufacturing Method

1990-02-01
900123
A sintered aluminum-lead alloy of the bimetal type was manufactured in Japan (1977), and has been widely used in main and crankpin bearings for automobile engines. However, the recent trend of automobile engines toward high power output, light-weight and compact construction increases the bearing load. As a result, the margin of fatigue strength of the conventional sintered aluminum-lead alloy has been diminishing. In this paper, a new method of manufacturing bearing material by the hot extrusion process is reported. The new method makes it possible to produce the optimum lead grain distribution and strong adhesion between powder particles. The new manufacturing method produces the aluminum-lead bearing material which has 30% or more increase in fatigue strength over the conventional sintered aluminum-lead bearing material.
Technical Paper

Development of New Aluminum-Zinc-Silicon Bearings for Heavy Load Applications in Uprated Engines

1990-02-01
900124
The recent trend toward the compact and light-weight construction of diesel engines with high power output has been imposing higher requirements of fatigue strength and antiseizure characteristics on bearings. In order to meet these requirements, the authors developed a new bearing alloy of higher fatigue strength for use in heavy load engines, through the analysis of the Al-Zn-Si alloy which has high corrosion resistance. Experimental results of this new alloy to study its physical properties and bearing performances indicate that it can be applied to bearings in diesel engines which operate in harsh conditions.
Technical Paper

Development of High Strength Polymer Based Bearing for Automotive Parts under Boundary Lubrication

2012-04-16
2012-01-0751
Composite bearings of PTFE as the base material have been widely used for automotive parts. However, in recent years, due to downsizing, faster sliding speeds, and tendency to increase the bearing load with high performance, particularly for boundary lubrication conditions, the PTFE-based composite bearing is often worn, making it difficult to apply to some applications. A high strength polymer was selected as an alternative to PTFE base material, and the mechanical properties and performance in a start-stop test, reciprocating sliding test and seizure test were evaluated. Focusing on the characteristics of high strength, by applying a PEEK resin, in each evaluation, it was confirmed that superior performance was achieved compared with a conventional PTFE based composite bearing.
Technical Paper

Development of Lead-Free Copper Alloy Bearing Material with Improved Conformability

2015-04-14
2015-01-0520
There has been a requirement for automotive bearings materials to be free of the toxic material lead, in accordance with ELV regulations and from the perspective of environmental problems. Currently, bismuth is used as a replacement for lead in copper alloy based main journal bearings and connecting rod bearings for automotive engines. In recent years, there has been changing to lead-free materials for truck engine bearings. Compared with automotive engines, lots of contaminations in the oil and local contact between the shaft and bearings can occur in truck engines. The ability to tolerate contamination and local contact is therefore required for truck engine bearings. In this development, we find that the addition of 8 mass% bismuth and 1.5 mass% molybdenum carbide particles into copper-tin alloy is effective for improving the ability which allow the contamination and local contacts. The development of above mentioned lead-free copper alloy bearing material is described here.
Technical Paper

Effect of Noise Factors on Seizure Limit Performance in Engine Main Bearings

2016-04-05
2016-01-0488
In order to determine the seizure limit of the main bearings of passenger vehicles under actual operating conditions, evaluations were conducted in environments containing noise factors (Various factors which designer cannot adjust and which make function vary were defined as noise factors in this paper.) [1,2] It was shown that noise factors have an effect on seizure limit performance in relation to performance under ideal test conditions (test conditions in which no noise is present). In relation to oil properties, the results showed that a reduction in viscosity as a result of dilution affected seizure limit performance. In relation to the shape of the sliding sections of the test shaft, seizure limit performance declined in a shaft in which the central section was swollen (“convex shaft” below).
Technical Paper

Development of Resin Overlay Bearing Material for Recent Automotive Engine

2017-03-28
2017-01-0460
The number of vehicles with engines using idling stop systems and hybrid systems to improve fuel consumption has recently been increasing. However, with such systems the frequent starts and stops of the engine, where the oil film between the bearings and shaft is squeezed out and direct contact between the components is more likely, can result in increased wear of the engine bearings, particularly in the main bearing. Bearings with resin overlays have been shown to display superior resistance to wear from such start-stop cycles. Moreover, cast iron shafts without quenching treatment have also been used in engines for cost reduction. Because the cast shaft has low hardness and unstable surface graphite after abrasive finishing, increase in the wear amount cannot be suppressed by conventional resin overlay in comparison with steel shaft. Therefore, the resin overlay with improved wear resistance achieved by adding hard particles was developed.
Technical Paper

A Study of Resin Overlay Bearing Material for Recent Automotive Engines

2013-04-08
2013-01-1394
With increased awareness of environmental issues and regulations, developments for recent automotive engines are progressing towards engines with low fuel consumption. Due to these changes, automotive engine bearings are increasingly used in harsher environments, with higher loading and corresponding wear. From this background, resin overlays, where solid lubricant is dispersed in a resin binder, are being developed. Resin overlays show excellent sliding properties under boundary lubrication conditions, and are known to have superior wear and fatigue resistance compared with conventional aluminium based bearings. However, while conventional resin overlay bearings display excellent sliding properties, they tend to have inferior seizure resistance compared to Al-Sn-Si alloy bearings. In this study, by optimizing the strength of the resin overlay layer with addition of calcium carbonate particles, a resin overlay with equal wear resistance but improved seizure resistance was developed.
Technical Paper

A Study for Wear and Fatigue of Engine Bearings on Rig Test by Using Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication Analysis

1999-03-01
1999-01-0287
Engine bearings today are operating under very harsh conditions. Consequently, a wear propagates for a short time and a fatigue sometimes occurs on the bearings. In present study, on the rig test machine, the operating conditions of engine bearing were simulated to reproduce the bearing damage. The bearing wear was measured until the fatigue crack occurred. The bearing wear increased at the edges of the bearing length and the crack also was observed near the edges. The experimental results were compared to the calculated results based on the elastohydrodynamic lubrication (EHL) theory. The correlations between the bearing damage and the bearing performances by the theoretical analysis were investigated.
Technical Paper

Basic Characteristics of Lead-free Aluminum Alloy Bearings with Low Frictional Property of Adhered Molybdenum Disulfide

2007-04-16
2007-01-1570
A newly developed bearing is a lead-free aluminum alloy bearing with low frictional layer which consists of molybdenum disulfide in thicknesses of sub-micron levels on the bearing surface without required binders such as resin. The new bearing had a 50% lower static friction coefficient compared to the conventional aluminum alloy bearing, and exhibited comparable anti-seizure property and fatigue strength to the conventional bearing by evaluation of rig tests. These rig tests verified that the new bearing showed excellent frictional reduction properties. This paper describes details and performances of this newly developed bearing.
X