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Technical Paper

Computational design of commercial vehicle for reconciling aerodynamics and engine cooling performance

2000-06-12
2000-05-0344
As the global environmental protection becomes the world consensus recently, the regulations of the fuel consumption and the exhaust gas have large effects on the performance and the fundamental structure of commercial vehicles. Especially the technology concerning "fluid" and "heat" has a close relationship with those issues. Owing to above circumstances, commercial vehicles such as large trucks and buses are forced to be designed near the limit of allowance. Furthermore, a rapid design is another requirement. However, though significant number of variations, i.e., cab configuration, wheel base, rear body configuration, engine specification, etc., are prepared, it is impossible to improve the performance of all those combinations by experiments which cost a lot. Accordingly, the quantitative prediction using computer will become indispensable at the beginning term of new car development.
Technical Paper

The development of vibration transmissivity calculation of full-foam seat cushions

2000-06-12
2000-05-0351
Full-foam-type seat cushion for vehicle is made of such elements as panel, foam pad, and surface seat and each element individually effects on dynamic vibration comfort performance during riding. The most important requirement is to reduce resonance magnification of seat close to 6 Hz, which is the natural frequency of the human body''s internal organs. Conventionally, the prediction of the resonance frequency characteristics of the seat cushion is seldom done by calculation at design stage before evaluation of prototype test. This paper reports that it becomes possible to predict vibration property of seat cushion at design stage by solving vibration equation, which is obtained by replacing seat cushion structure with vibration system model having spring element and damping element equivalent to designed seat cushion and by making graph of resonance frequency characteristics using calculation program provided in this paper.
Technical Paper

Booming noise analysis of passenger car using integrated approach of CAT/CAE

2000-06-12
2000-05-0293
The need of lightweight vehicle design is motivated by the recent global trend of less fuel consumption and lower emission in vehicle. However in NVH development of vehicle, it becomes more difficult for the lightweight vehicle to reach low vibro-acoustic sensitivity than, for the heavy weight one to do so. Inthis environment, this paper describes about the practical finite element (FE) modeling of vehicle structure and acoustics, in order to predict "boom" response to powertrain excitation. The FE modeling process through validation and updating with experimental mode makes, the accumulation of considerable expertise for improving prediction accuracy, possible. FE analysis based on this modeling process is so useful for predicting "boom" levels up to 200 Hz. Using the result of FE analysis, structural optimization is executed in order to improve "boom" level of 80 Hz.
Technical Paper

Investigation on Measurement of Diesel Spray Breakup Length by Using Doppler Signals

2001-03-05
2001-01-0533
New measuring methods of diesel spray characteristics were investigated by using laser Doppler signals, when diesel spray was injected into a high pressure vessel at room temperature(Injection under the high pressure means the simulation of injection atmosphere of diesel engine). We describe two methods of breakup length measurement, and these have great advantage compared with the conventional method using spray photographs. First, spray tip penetration was measured by the delay time of Doppler signals from injection start to spray tip arrival at each measuring point (measuring volume of Laser Doppler Velocimeter (LDV)), traversing the measuring point along the spray axis center line or offset line of the center line from nozzle hole towards downstream. Spray breakup length was measured as the inflection point of the curve drawing the delay time of Doppler signals versus the measuring points.
Technical Paper

Idling Stop System Coupled with Quick Start Features of Gasoline Direct Injection

2001-03-05
2001-01-0545
The gasoline direct injection engine starts significantly faster than a conventional engine. Fuel can be injected into the cylinder during the compression stroke at the same time of cranking start. When the spark plug ignites the mixture at the end of compression stroke, the engine has its first combustion, that is, the first combustion occurs within 0.2 sec after the start of cranking. This unique characteristic of quick startability has realized a idle stop system, which enables drivers to operate the vehicle in a natural manner.
Technical Paper

Mixing Control and Combustion in Gasoline Direct Injection Engines for Reducing Cold-Start Emissions

2001-03-05
2001-01-0550
A two-stage combustion is one of the Mitsubishi GDI™ technologies for a quick catalyst warm-up on a cold-start. However, when the combustion is continued for a long time, an increase in the fuel consumption is a considerable problem. To solve the problem, a stratified slight-lean combustion is newly introduced for utilization of catalysis. The stratified mixture with slightly lean overall air-fuel ratio is prepared by the late stage injection during the compression stroke. By optimizing an interval between the injection and the spark timing, the combustion simultaneously supplies substantial CO and surplus O2 to a catalyst while avoiding the soot generation and the fouling of a spark plug. The CO oxidation on the catalyst is utilized to reduce the cold-start emissions. Immediately after the cold-start, the catalyst is preheated for the minimum time to start the CO oxidation by using the two-stage combustion. Following that, the stratified slight-lean combustion is performed.
Technical Paper

Prediction of Occupant's Thermal Sensation under the Transient Environment in a Vehicle Compartment

2001-03-05
2001-01-0586
New numerical simulation system and experimental evaluation system has been developed to predict and evaluate occupant's thermal sensation in a passenger compartment in which environment is not steady and not uniform. Transitional effective temperature, which is new index of thermal sensation, is proposed and verified to correspond with subjects' thermal sensation votes. The simulation system has two advantage beside the prediction of thermal sensation; automatic generation of a computational model and coupling analysis of temperature including an analysis of temperature distribution inside a cabin, refrigerating cycle, solar radiation, and so on. It was verified that this system well predicts occupant's thermal sensation in a short time.
Technical Paper

An Intelligent Catalyst

2001-03-05
2001-01-1301
The catalyst of the crystalline ceramics known as a perovskite-type oxide was designed and controlled at the atomic level in order to create a new function for self-regeneration of precious metals in a usage ambience without auxiliary treatment. We have already reported that a catalyst with Pd supported on the perovskite-type oxide has higher activity than a catalyst with Pd supported on alumina. It was also found that Pd supported on the perovskite catalyst is finely dispersed [1, 2 and 3] The object of this study was to investigate the mechanism of self-regeneration by using hyper-analytical facilities. XAFS analysis, at SPring-8 (8 GeV), revealed that Pd is in six-fold coordinations with oxygen in a perovskite crystal, which indicating that Pd occupies the B site of the unit formula of ABO3 in the perovskite crystal structure under oxidation atmosphere.
Technical Paper

Development of the NOx Adsorber Catalyst for Use with High-Temperature Condition

2001-03-05
2001-01-1298
NOx adsorber has already been used for the after-treatment system of series production vehicle installed with a lean burn or direct injection engine [1,2,3]. In order to improve NOx adsorbability at high temperatures, many researchers have recently been trying an addition of potassium (K) as well as other conventional NOx adsorbents. Potassium, however, reacts easily with the cordierite honeycomb substrate at high temperatures, and not only causes a loss in NOx adsorbability but also damages the substrate. Three new technologies have been proposed in consideration of the above circumstances. First, a new concept of K-capture is applied in washcoat design, mixed with zeolite, to improve thermal stability of K and to keep high NOx conversion efficiency, under high temperatures, of NOx adsorber catalyst. Second, another new technology, pre-coating silica over the boundary of a substrate and washcoat, is proposed to prevent the reaction between potassium and cordierite.
Technical Paper

Innovative injection rate control with next-generation, common-rail fuel injection system

2000-06-12
2000-05-0061
Injection rate control is an important capability of the ideal injection system of the future. However, in a conventional Common-Rail System (CRS) the injection pressure is constant throughout the injection period, resulting in a nearly rectangular injection rate shape and offering no control of the injection rate. Thus, in order to realize injection rate control with a CRS, a "Next- generation Common-Rail System (NCRS)" was conceptualized, designed, and fabricated. The NCRS has two common rails, for low- and high-pressure fuel, and switches the fuel pressure supplied to the injector from the low- to the high- pressure rail during the injection period, resulting in control over the injection rate shape. The effects of injection rate shape on exhaust emissions and fuel consumption were investigated by applying this NCRS to a single- cylinder research engine.
Technical Paper

Stratification Features of Swirl Nozzle Sprays and Slit Nozzle Spray in DI Gasoline Combustion

2003-05-19
2003-01-1812
The stratification feature of DI gasoline combustion was studied by using a constant volume combustion vessel. An index of stratification degree, defined as volumetric burning velocity, has been proposed based on the thermodynamic analysis of the indicated pressure data. The burning feature analysis using this stratification degree and the fuel vapor concentration measurement using He-Ne laser ray absorption method were carried out for the swirl nozzle spray with 90° cone angle and the slit nozzle spray with 60° fan angle. Ambient pressure and ambient temperature were changed from atmospheric condition to 0.5∼0.6 MPa and 465 K, respectively. Air Swirl with swirl ratio of 0∼1.0 were added for the 90° swirl nozzle spray. Single component fuels with different volatility and self-ignitability from each other were used besides gasoline fuel. The major findings are as follows. High ambient temperature improves stratification degree due to the enhanced fuel vaporization and vapor diffusion.
Technical Paper

Oxygen Storage Capacity on Cerium Oxide - Precious Metal System

1997-02-24
970464
Cerium oxide (CeO2) is known to have good oxygen storage capacity (OSC) and is used widely in three-way catalysts for automobiles, but it has a problem of inferior heat stability. In our previous work, cerium-zirconiumyttrium (Ce Zr-Y) oxide systems were investigated with the aim of improving the heat stability of CeO2-based oxide systems, and we found an optimum composition of Ce-Zr-Y oxide with platinum (Pt) showed good OSC even after high temperature aging. In this study OSC and thermal stability of Ce-Zr-Y oxide with varying the types of precious metals were investigated to evaluate the effect of precious metals. The results show that, Palladium (Pd) and Rhodium (Rh) are also available for Ce-Zr-Y oxide with precious metal system to improve OSC after thermal aging. In particular, Rh exhibited higher improvement than others at the composition of lower Ce content.
Technical Paper

Application to Body Parts of High-Strength Steel Sheet Containing Large Volume Fraction of Retained Austenite

1998-02-23
980954
Several different steel sheets were tested for energy absorption, using hat square columns and dynamic crash testing. Results indicate that steel sheets containing large volume fraction of retained austenite have relatively high energy absorption. The relationship between retained austenite and energy absorption was analyzed. These special steel sheets have already been successfully used for production body parts, such a front-side-member, without difficulties arising in volume production.
Technical Paper

The Aerodynamic Development of a Small Specialty Car

1994-03-01
940325
Aerodynamic drag reduction is one of the most important aspects of enhancing overall vehicle performance. Many car manufacturers have been working to establish drag reduction techniques. This paper describes the development process of a new small speciality car which achieved coefficient of drag(CD) of 0.25. A description of the test facilities and the systems used for developing the aerodynamic aspect of the car are also introduced briefly.
Technical Paper

CFD In-Cylinder Flow Simulation of an Engine and Flow Visualization

1995-02-01
950288
Multi-dimensional transient scavenging flow simulation of a schnule scavenged two-stroke cycle engine has been carried out under motoring conditions. This paper presents the differences of the flow characteristics between crankcase compression and roots blower scavenging, obtained by different initial and boundary conditions of scavenging pressure. Furthermore, the influence of scavenging port's slant angle are shown by using the CFD visualization technique.
Technical Paper

A Study on the Effects of the Active Yaw Moment Control

1995-02-01
950303
This paper presents a new torque distribution system-“Right/Left Torque Control System”, aimed at improving a vehicle's cornering properties by using yaw moment control. The torque transfer mechanisms of this system have been analyzed. Also, a yaw moment control algorithm using yaw rate feedback control has been designed. Next, vehicle cornering properties were evaluated using numerical simulation developed from data taken from an actual vehicle. As a result, improvements were achieved in the maneuverability and stability of a vehicle during cornering.
Technical Paper

Excellent Oxygen Storage Capacity of Perovskite-PD Three way Catalysts

1995-02-01
950256
Increasingly stringent emissions controls have led to a greater emphasis on strategies designed to minimize emission during cold start. One strategy employed is that of close-coupling the catalyst to the exhaust manifold of the engine in an effort to minimize catalyst light-off time. In this configuration, the catalyst must exhibit a high degree of thermal stability. Further, since the catalyst is situated nearer to the engine, it is more liable to sense cylinder-to-cylinder variations in exhaust gas composition and thus needs to possess a wider operating window than a catalyst positioned further underbody. We have previously reported that Perovskite-Pd catalysts exhibit excellent heat resistance and have three-way catalyst activity comparable with or superior to that of Pt-Rh/ Al2O3 catalysts and Pd/Al2O3 catalysts [1]*. Durability at high temperatures and oxygen storage capacity under large air/fuel (A/F) ratio fluctuation conditions have now been tested.
Technical Paper

A Method of Predicting Dent Resistance of Automobile Body Panels

1995-02-01
950574
Optimizing the design of automobile outer panels for weight reductions requires a consideration of stiffness and dent resistance. This paper presents a finite element analysis method for predicting the dent resistance of automobile body panels. The method is based on elastoplasticity analysis and nonlinear contact analysis. The analysis shows that dent resistance is greatly influenced not only by the stress-strain curve of the formed panel but also by the residual stress in the panel. An increase in yield stress improves dent resistance. The computed results obtained with this method compare favorably with experimental data, thereby validating this approach.
Technical Paper

A Study of the Durability of Diesel Oxidation Catalysts

1995-11-01
952650
Diesel emission control is being addressed worldwide to help preserve the global environment. In 1994, emission controls in the U.S. called for reduction of diesel particulate matter (PM) to 10 to 20% of 1986's initial limit. In the same year, we developed and marketed small and medium duty trucks which were equipped with PM reduction systems that oxidize soluble organic fraction (SOF) contained in the PM, in order to satisfy these new regulations. Prior to their marketing, a catalyst was selected from among several types of candidate catalysts. Durability tests were performed using a catalytic converter-equipped small duty truck to verify the durability of the chosen catalyst. The durability test course was set up combining urban areas and expressways in the southern part of California, U.S.A.. The cumulative total distance covered on the test course reached 200,000 km. During the durability test, the catalyst was evaluated by measurement of PM emission using a chassis dynamometer.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Stiffness of Truck Door Panel Effective Arrangement of Stiffeners for Improving Stiffness

1995-11-01
952678
Since it is more difficult for truck door panels to realize curvature than passenger car door panels, internal stiffeners are mounted between the outer panel and inner panel through the use of an adhesive for ensuring stiffness. For this reason, a problem occurs as to the proper placement of the stiffeners so as to effectively improve stiffness. By FEM prediction and experimentation, the following have been clarified: (1) Arrangement of stiffeners for effectively improving stiffness (2) Stiffness share of stiffeners and outer panel against stiffness
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