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Technical Paper

Prediction of the Knock Limit and Viable Operating Range for a Homogeneous-Charge Compression-Ignition (HCCI) Engine

2003-03-03
2003-01-1092
A method is presented for predicting the viable operating range of homogeneous-charge compression-ignition (HCCI) engines. A fundamental criterion for predicting HCCI knock is described and used to predict the minimum air/fuel ratio (and hence maximum torque) available from the engine. The lean (misfire) limit is computed using a modification of the multi-zone method of Aceves et al. [1]. Numerical improvements are described which allow even very complex fuel chemistry to be rapidly modeled on a standard PC. The viable operating range for an HCCI engine burning a primary reference fuel (PRF 95) is predicted and compared with literature experimental data. The new ability to accurately predict the operating range for any given HCCI engine/fuel combination should considerably simplify the tasks of designing a robust engine and identifying suitable fuels for HCCI.
Technical Paper

Time-Resolved, Speciated Emissions from an SI Engine During Starting and Warm-Up

1996-10-01
961955
A sampling system was developed to measure the evolution of the speciated hydrocarbon emissions from a single-cylinder SI engine in a simulated starting and warm-up procedure. A sequence of exhaust samples was drawn and stored for gas chromatograph analysis. The individual sampling aperture was set at 0.13 s which corresponds to ∼ 1 cycle at 900 rpm. The positions of the apertures (in time) were controlled by a computer and were spaced appropriately to capture the warm-up process. The time resolution was of the order of 1 to 2 cycles (at 900 rpm). Results for four different fuels are reported: n-pentane/iso-octane mixture at volume ratio of 20/80 to study the effect of a light fuel component in the mixture; n-decane/iso-octane mixture at 10/90 to study the effect of a heavy fuel component in the mixture; m-xylene and iso-octane at 25/75 to study the effect of an aromatics in the mixture; and a calibration gasoline.
Technical Paper

The Influence of the Valve Stroke Design in Variable Valve Timing Systems on Load Cycle, Mixture Formation and the Combustion Process in Conjunction with Throttle-Free Load Governing

1998-02-23
981030
In conjunction with throttle-free load control on a 4-valve, single-cylinder spark-ignition engine, the influencing variables of charge cycle, mixture formation and combustion process are presented both as computer calculations and on the basis of test results. The influences of the position of the maximum of the inlet valve stroke, the position of the inlet close, the shape of the valve stroke and the load motion in relation to the maximum power and minimum fuel consumption are investigated in full load by computer calculations and in partial load by engine tests.
Technical Paper

Increased Power Density via Variable Compression/Displacement And Turbocharging Using The Alvar-Cycle Engine

1998-02-23
981027
This paper presents the analysis and design of a variable compression-ratio and displacement engine concept - the Alvar Cycle using a four-stroke engine-performance simulation. The Alvar-Cycle engine uses secondary pistons which reciprocate in auxiliary chambers housed in the cylinder head, at adjustable phase-angle differences from the primary pistons. The phase difference provides both the variable total engine displacement and compression ratio. Results indicate that the Alvar engine can operate at higher power density via a combination of higher intake boost and lower compression ratio to avoid knock at high loads, and capture the better thermal efficiency at higher compression ratios at part loads.
Technical Paper

Chemiluminescence Imaging of Autoignition in a DI Diesel Engine

1998-10-19
982685
Chemiluminescence imaging has been applied to a parametric investigation of diesel autoignition. Time-resolved images of the natural light emission were made in an optically accessible DI diesel engine of the heavy-duty size class using an intensified CCD video camera. Measurements were obtained at a base operating condition, corresponding to a motored TDC temperature and density of 992 K and 16.6 kg/m3, and for TDC temperatures and densities above and below these values. Data were taken with a 42.5 cetane number blend of the diesel reference fuels for all conditions, and measurements were also made with no. 2 diesel fuel (D2) at the base condition. For each condition, temporal sequences of images were acquired from the time of first detectable chemiluminescence up through fully sooting combustion, and the images were analyzed to obtain quantitative measurements of the average emission intensity.
Technical Paper

Model-Based Air-Fuel Ratio Control of a Lean Multi-Cylinder Engine

1995-02-01
950846
Realization of the leanburn SI engine's potential for improved fuel economy strongly depends on precise control of the air-fuel ratio (AFR), especially during transients, for acceptable driveability and low exhaust emissions. The development of an adaptive-feedforward model-based AFR controller is described. A discrete, nonlinear, control-oriented engine model was developed and used in the AFR control algorithm. The engine model includes intake-manifold airflow dynamics, fuel wall-wetting dynamics, process delays inherent in the four-stroke engine cycle, and exhaust-gas oxygen (UEGO) sensor dynamics. The sampling period is synchronous with crank-angle (“event-based”) for more precise control. The controller relies on the engine speed and throttle position for load information. An intake-manifold pressure (MAP) sensor is used for identification of the airflow dynamics, but not for control. The MAP sensor would also be useful for the cold start and for engine diagnostics.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Fuel Behavior in the Spark-Ignition Engine Start-Up Process

1995-02-01
950678
An analysis method for characterizing fuel behavior during spark-ignition engine starting has been developed and applied to several sets of start-up data. The data sets were acquired from modern production vehicles during room temperature engine start-up. Two different engines, two control schemes, and two engine temperatures (cold and hot) were investigated. A cycle-by-cycle mass balance for the fuel was used to compare the amount of fuel injected with the amount burned or exhausted as unburned hydrocarbons. The difference was measured as “fuel unaccounted for”. The calculation for the amount of fuel burned used an energy release analysis of the cylinder pressure data. The results include an overview of starting behavior and a fuel accounting for each data set Overall, starting occurred quickly with combustion quality, manifold pressure, and engine speed beginning to stabilize by the seventh cycle, on average.
Technical Paper

Reduction of Hydrocarbon Emissions from SI-Engines by Use of Carbon Pistons

1995-10-01
952538
The use of pistons made of fine grain carbon was investigated in a spark-ignition engine within a European Community funded research project (TPRO-CT92-0008). Pistons were designed and manufactured and then tested in a single cylinder engine. Due to the carbon material's lower coefficient of thermal expansion the top land clearance between piston and cylinder can be reduced by a factor of three in comparison to standard aluminium designs. Under steady-state part-load operating conditions the emission of unburned hydrocarbons can be reduced by more than 15% compared to aluminium pistons, without significant penalties in NOx-emissions. Simultaneously, a small improvement in fuel economy of about 2% is observed. At full-load blow-by leakage flow is reduced by more than 50%. The piston crown temperature is about 30°C higher with the carbon piston than with the standard aluminium piston, due to the lower thermal conductivity of the carbon material.
Technical Paper

Extent of Oxidation of Hydrocarbons Desorbing from the Lubricant Oil Layer in Spark-ignition Engines

1996-02-01
960069
The extent of oxidation of hydrocarbons desorbing from the oil layer has been measured directly in a hydrogen-fueled, spark-ignited engine in which the lubricant oil was doped with a single component hydrocarbon. The amount of hydrocarbon desorbed and oxidized could be measured simultaneously as the dopant was only source of carbon-containing species. The fraction oxidized was strongly dependent on engine load, hydrogen fuel-air ratio and dopant chemical reactivity, but only modestly dependent on spark timing and nitrogen dilution levels below 20 percent. Fast FID measurements at the cylinder exit showed that the surviving hydrocarbons emerge late in the exhaust stroke.
Technical Paper

Measurement of Gasoline Absorption into Engine Lubricating Oil

1996-05-01
961229
A method to collect and speciate the components of gasoline absorbed in the lubricant oil using gas chromatography has been developed. Samples were collected continuously from the piston skirt, baffle and sump in a Saturn engine. A long (18 hours) test was performed to determine the build up of hydrocarbons in the sump, and a shorter (25 min) test was performed to determine the build up of hydrocarbons in the piston skirt and baffle during engine warm-up. The first experiment showed that the total hydrocarbon concentration in the sump oil reached a steady state of about 1.35% mass fraction after 11 hours of engine operation. The relative concentration of individual fuel hydrocarbon species absorbed in the oil increases exponentially with boiling point. Most of the identified species in the oil consist of the heavy end aromatics. Similar compositions but lower concentrations were found for samples collected from the piston skirt during engine warm-up.
Technical Paper

Aggregate Vehicle Emission Estimates for Evaluating Control Strategies

1994-03-01
940303
Currently, states that are out of compliance with the National Ambient Air Quality Standards must, according to the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA), develop and implement control strategies that demonstrate specific degrees of reduction in emissions-with the degree of reduction depending upon the severity of the problem. One tool that has been developed to aid regulators in both deciding an appropriate course of action and to demonstrate the desired reductions in mobile emissions is EPA's Mobile 5a emission estimation model. In our study, Mobile 5a has been used to examine the effects of regulatory strategies, as applied to the Northeast United States, on vehicle emissions under worst-case ozone-forming conditions.
Technical Paper

Auto-Oil Program Phase II Heavy Hydrocarbon Study: Analysis of Engine-Out Hydrocarbon Emissions Data

1994-10-01
941966
The engine-out (EO) total and speciated hydrocarbon emissions data from the Auto-Oil Program Phase II Heavy Hydrocarbon Study had been analyzed. The methodology was to first investigate the stabilized EO emissions (Bag 2) of a specific vehicle (Vehicle 04B, a 1989 Model Year Ford Taurus); then the vehicle-to-vehicle differences in Bag2 emissions were considered. Finally, the differences in the Bag2 and the starting/warm-up EO emissions (Bag1) were examined. The speciated emissions may be interpreted as a “feed-through” part due to the unreacted fuel species, and an “offset” part due to the decomposition products. The significant non-fuel emitted species were methane and the olefins. The HC emissions for vehicles with different total emissions were similar in species composition. For both the total and speciated emissions, there was no substantial difference between the Bag1 and Bag2 values for Vehicle 04B.
Technical Paper

Novel Experiment on In-Cylinder Desorption of Fuel from the Oil Layer

1994-10-01
941963
A technique has been developed to measure the desorption and subsequent oxidation of fuel in the oil layer by spiking the oil with liquid fuel and firing the engine on gaseous fuel or motoring with air. Experiments suggest that fuel desorption is not diffusion limited above 50 °C and indicated that approximately two to four percent of the cylinder oil layer is fresh oil from the sump. The increase in hydrocarbon emissions is of the order of 100 ppmC1 per 1% liquid fuel introduced into the fresh oil in a methane fired engine at mid-speed and light load conditions. Calculations indicate that fuel desorbing from oil is much more likely to produce hydrocarbon emissions than fuel emerging from crevices.
Technical Paper

Integration of Liquid Cooling, Thermal and Thermomechanical Design for the Lifetime Prediction of Electrical Power Modules

1998-02-23
980339
In this paper a systematic approach is presented for the design and optimization of forced liquid cooled electronic modules with high power dissipation. The steps of the design cycle include hydrodynamical evaluation of the heat sink, thermal management, thermomechanical optimization and especially lifetime prediction of soldered joints. Utilized engineering tools comprise Computational Fluid Dynamics, Finite Differences and Finite Element programs. These are coupled via software interfaces in order to enable data exchange as well as efficient cooperation of the designers. Applying these means performance, reliability and costs of a certain module have been optimized. By use of a design-for-reliability procedure substantial savings with regard to development time, prototyping effort and consequently costs can been achieved.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Operating Conditions at Idle in the S.I. Engine

1997-10-01
972990
A gasoline engine with an electronically controlled fuel injection system has substantially better fuel economy and lower emissions than a carburetted engine. In general, the stability of engine operation is improved with fuel injector, but the stability of engine operation at idle is not improved compared with a carburetted gasoline engine. In addition, the increase in time that an engine is at idle due to traffic congestion has an effect on the engine stability and vehicle reliability. Therefore, in this research, we will study the influence of fuel injection timing, spark timing, dwell angle, and air-fuel ratio on engine stability at idle.
Technical Paper

Stratified Diesel Fuel-Water-Diesel Fuel Injection Combined with EGR-The Most Efficient In-Cylinder NOx and PM Reduction Technology

1997-10-01
972962
For meeting 21st-century exhaust emission standards for HD diesel engines, new methods are necessary for reducing NOx and PM emissions without increasing fuel consumption. The stratified diesel fuel-water-diesel fuel (DWD) injection in combination with exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is as a means for NOx and PM reduction without any negative effect on fuel economy. The investigation was performed on a charged HD single-cylinder direct-injection diesel engine with a modern low-swirl combustion system, 4-valve technology and high pressure injection. The application of DWD injection combined with EGR resulted in a 60 percent lower NOx emission at full load and a 75 percent reduced NOx emission at part load when compared with present day (EURO II) technology. This was achieved without any fuel economy penalty, but with an additional PM emission reduction.
Technical Paper

Advanced Engine Control and Exhaust Gas Aftertreatment of a Leanburn SI Engine

1997-10-01
972873
The development of a leanburn engine is described, in which optimized engine design, innovative engine management and exhaust gas aftertreatment using a special NOx-storage catalyst were combined to yield a significant improvement in fuel economy with reduced NOx emissions. To achieve stable combustion near the lean limit a swirl system was used and the appropriate parameters of the 2.2 I 4-cyIinder 4-valve SI engine were optimized. As a result, the mixture formation was improved and the lean limit was extended to higher air-fuel ratios. An adaptive lambda controller which was based on the evaluation of engine-smoothness calculated from the RPM-sensor was implemented to control each cylinder individually close to the lean limit. A model-based control system was developed to achieve extremely accurate air-fuel ratio control during transients.
Technical Paper

Engine-Out “Dry” Particular Matter Emissions from SI Engines

1997-10-01
972890
The Engine-Out Particulate Matter (EOPM) was collected from a spark ignition engine operating in steady state using a heated quartz fiber filter. The samples were weighted to obtain an EOPMindex and were analyzed using Scanning Electron Microscopy. The EOP Mindex was not sensitive to the engine rpm and load. When the mixture is very rich (air equivalence ratio λ less than ∼ 0.7), the EOPM comprise mostly of soot particles from fuel combustion. In the lean to slightly rich region (0.8 < λ < 1.2), however, the EOPM are dominated by particles derived from the lubrication oil.
Technical Paper

Making the Case for a Next Generation Automotive Electrical System

1998-10-19
98C006
Introduction of an array of new electrical and electronic features into future vehicles is generating vehicle electrical power requirements that exceed the capabilities of today's 14 volt electrical systems. In the near term (5 to 10 years), the existing 14V system will be marginally capable of supporting the expected additional loads with escalating costs for the associated charging system. However, significant increases in vehicle functional content are expected as future requirements to meet longer-term (beyond 10 years) needs in the areas of emission control, fuel economy, safety, and passenger comfort. A higher voltage electrical system will be required to meet these future requirements. This paper explores the functional needs that will mandate a higher voltage system and the benefits derivable from its implementation.
Technical Paper

Simultaneous Piston Ring Friction and Oil Film Thickness Measurements in a Reciprocating Test Rig

1995-10-01
952470
A reciprocating test apparatus was constructed in which the friction of a single piston ring against a liner segment was measured. The lubrication oil film thickness was also measured simultaneously at the mid stroke of the ring travel using a laser fluorescence technique. The apparatus development and operation are described. Results are presented from a test matrix consisting of five different lubrication oils of viscosity (at 30°C) ranging from 49 to 357 cP; at three mean piston speeds of 0.45, 0.89 and 1.34 m/s; and at three ring normal loading of 1.4, 2.9 and 5.7 MPa. At mid stroke, the oil film thickness under the ring was ∼0.5 to 4 μm; the frictional coefficient was ∼0.02 to 0.1. The frictional coefficient for all the lubricants tested increased with normal load, and decreased with piston velocity. Both mixed and hydrodynamic lubrication regimes were observed. The friction behaviors were consistent with the Stribeck diagram.
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