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Technical Paper

A Nozzle-Integrated Flow Sensor for Common-Rail Injection Systems

2001-03-05
2001-01-0614
We are the first to report about a micromachined flow sensor directly integrated in the Common Rail injection nozzle body between the double guidance and the tip of the nozzle. The thermal measurement principle is chosen, because it enables a very precise and fast detection of gaseous and liquid mass flows. Additionally, the velocity field in the nozzle is only slightly influenced by the integration of the sensor in the nozzle body due to the negligible height of the sensitive layer. For a hot film anemometer, a high pressure stable ceramic substrate can be used, fabricated in a low cost batch process. The technology, to fabricate the sensor, as well as the first flow measurements, carried out at a high pressure test set up, are presented.
Technical Paper

HSDI Diesel Engine Optimisation for GTL Diesel Fuel

2007-01-23
2007-01-0027
A Mercedes E320 CDI vehicle has been modified for more optimal operation on Gas-To-Liquids (GTL) diesel fuel, in order to demonstrate the extent of exhaust emission reductions which are enabled by the properties of this fuel. The engine hardware changes employed comprised the fitment of re-specified fuel injectors and the reduction of the compression ratio from 18:1 to 15:1, as well as a re-optimisation of the software calibration. The demonstration vehicle has achieved a NOx emission of less that 0.08 g/km in the NEDC test cycle, while all other regulated emissions still meet the Euro 4 limits, as well as those currently proposed for Euro 5. CO2 emissions and fuel consumption, were not degraded with the optimised engine. This was achieved whilst employing only cost-neutral engine modifications, and with the standard vehicle exhaust system (oxidation catalyst and diesel particulate filter) fitted.
Technical Paper

The Impact of High Cell Density Ceramic Substrates and Washcoat Properties on the Catalytic Activity of Three Way Catalysts

1999-03-01
1999-01-0272
The present paper describes the results of a joint development program focussing on a system approach to meet the EURO IV emission standards for an upper class passenger car equipped with a newly developed high displacement gasoline engine. Based on the well known catalyst systems of recent V6- and V8-engines for the EURO III emission standards with a combination of close coupled catalysts and underfloor catalysts, the specific boundary conditions of an engine with an even larger engine displacement had to be considered. These boundary conditions consist of the space requirements in the engine compartment, the power/torque requirements and the cost requirements for the complete aftertreatment system. Theoretical studies and computer modeling showed essential improvements in catalyst performance by introducing thin wall substrates with low thermal inertia as well as high cell densities with increased geometric surface area.
Technical Paper

Fuel Effects on The Low Temperature Performance of Two Generations of Mercedes-Benz Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines

1999-10-25
1999-01-3594
Cold performance is a very important issue for diesel engines. Customers expect their engines to start reliably under all ambient conditions, and to quickly deliver useful power without unacceptable noise or exhaust emissions. In this programme the low ambient temperature cold start performance of two generations of Mercedes-Benz Heavy-Duty diesel engines has been explored. Both are typical of the smaller European Heavy-Duty engine design. The OM364 LA meets Euro 2 emissions legislation using mechanical controls; the OM904 LA is the first evolution of an all-new design to replace the OM364 LA, and features a three-valve cylinder head and high pressure unit-pump injection, with fully electronic controls. Engines were tested in a temperature controlled chamber, using a procedure that studied the first few minutes of operation from cold.
Technical Paper

Possible Exhaust Gas Aftertreatment Concepts for Passenger Car Diesel Engines with Sulphur-free Fuel

1999-03-01
1999-01-1328
In order to fulfill future emissions standards, there is a need for new exhaust-gas aftertreatment concepts, with NOx-emissions reduction in passenger car diesel engines being of particular importance. The NOx storage catalyst is one of the technologies currently under discussion with high NOx conversion potential, and which is under development at DaimlerChrysler for EURO IV standards. With this system, the nitrogen oxides contained in the diesel exhaust gas are stored under lean exhaust-gas conditions and are reduced in the catalyst through an enriched air-fuel ratio of the exhaust-gas and favorable thermal conditions. Hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and hydrogen are used as reducing agents. DaimlerChrysler has analyzed the effect of sulphur contained in the fuel on the operation of various catalysts during laboratory and engine testing. The sulphur dioxide in the exhaust gas generates sulfates, which remain on the catalyst when nitrate compounds are regenerated briefly.
Technical Paper

Potential of Common Rail Injection System for Passenger Car DI Diesel Engines

2000-03-06
2000-01-0944
The improvement of DI diesel engines for passenger cars to fulfil pollutant emission limits and lower fuel consumption and noise is closely linked to continued development of the injection system. Today's injection systems demonstrate varying potential in terms of the flexibility of injection parameters for improving mixture formation and combustion. DaimlerChrysler evaluated the potential of different injection systems, looking particularly at the distributor pump, unit injection system and Common Rail system. Based on the results of these investigations, the Common Rail system was selected. The tests presented in this paper were performed on a single-cylinder engine with Common Rail system. They focused on increased rail pressure in combination with different nozzle geometries. The results show significant benefits in NOx/smoke trade off at part load conditions with high EGR rate.
Technical Paper

Current Status and Prospects for Gasoline Engine Emission Control Technology - Paving the Way for Minimal Emissions

2000-03-06
2000-01-0856
The background for the development activities of the motor vehicle industry is strongly influenced by lawmakers, with engine development, in particular, coming under increasing pressure from the requirements of emissions legislation. Demands for CO2 reduction and thus corresponding savings in consumption contrast with regulations which call for compliance with extremely low emission levels, featuring the extreme of zero tailpipe emissions, and alternative low emission levels which make accurate measurement a problem even with current analysis technology. An example of such requirements are the SULEV limits of California law. These standards have given rise to a wide variety of emission control concepts, each of which, however, has certain limitations in its application. In the context of this general setting, the paper shows that the phase directly subsequent to cold start should be focused upon if these ambitious targets are to be reached.
Technical Paper

A New Approach to Particulate Measurement on Transient Test Cycles: Partial Flow Dilution as Alternative to CVS Full Flow Systems

2000-03-06
2000-01-1134
In a subproject of the aim to develop a worldwide certification procedure for heavy-duty on-highway engines (WHDC), the measuring technique for future low emitting engines was evaluated. One aspect is the introduction of partial flow dilution systems for the particulates measurement during transient test cycles instead of the currently required full flow dilution systems. This paper presents an investigation about the influence of sensitive sampling parameters on particulate mass and composition under steady state and transient engine operating conditions, and their effect on the correlation between partial flow and full flow dilution systems. The study has shown that the sampling parameters investigated have no or only minor influence on particulate mass and composition. Both partial flow dilution systems proved their transient capability by tracking the exhaust flow signal very well.
Technical Paper

Optimizing Common Rail-Injection by Optical Diagnostics in a Transparent Production Type Diesel Engine

1999-10-25
1999-01-3646
The paper describes results from investigating Common Rail (CR) injection in a dedicated optical engine with optimum access to the whole cross section of the engine cylinder through piston. This engine maintains all production-type details of the combustion chamber geometry being crucial to the flow fields required for optimum engine performance. This optical engine is used along with 2D optical diagnostics for temperature, soot and OH as well as spray shadowgraphy to analyze all phases of injection and combustion under virtually real engine conditions. By using special prototype CR injectors, the effects of engine design and operation strategies on ignition, combustion and pollutant formation are studied and controlling parameters are isolated. Special emphasis is devoted to the effects of injector stability, spray symmetry, nozzle geometry, injection rate, pilot injection and swirl effects.
Technical Paper

Potential of Synthetic Fuels in Future Combustion Systems for HSDI Diesel Engines

2006-04-03
2006-01-0232
In view of limited crude oil resources, alternative fuels for internal combustion engines are currently being intensively researched. Synthetic fuels from natural gas offer a promising interim option before the development of CO2-neutral fuels. Up to a certain degree, these fuels can be tailored to the demands of modern engines, thus allowing a concurrent optimization of both the engine and the fuel. This paper summarizes investigations of a Gas-To-Liquid (GTL) diesel fuel in a modern, post-EURO 4 compliant diesel engine. The focus of the investigations was on power output, emissions performance and fuel economy, as well as acoustic performance, in comparison to a commercial EU diesel fuel. The engine investigations were accompanied by injection laboratory studies in order to assist in the performance analyses.
Technical Paper

Catalyst Temperature Rise during Deceleration with Fuel Cut

2006-04-03
2006-01-0411
Automotive catalysts close coupled to gasoline engines operated under high load are frequently subjected to bed temperatures well above 950 °C. Upon deceleration engine fuel cut is usually applied for the sake of fuel economy, robustness and driveability. Even though catalyst inlet gas temperatures drop down immediately after fuel cut - catalyst bed temperatures may rise significantly. Sources for catalyst temperature rise upon deceleration with fuel cut are discussed in this contribution.
Technical Paper

Numerical Simulation of NO/NO2/NH3 Reactions on SCR-Catalytic Converters:Model Development and Applications

2006-04-03
2006-01-0468
A 1D+1D numerical model describing the ammonia based SCR process of NO and NO2 on vanadia-titania catalysts is presented. The model is able to simulate coated and extruded monoliths. Basing on a fundamental investigation of the catalytic processes a reaction mechanism for the NO/NO2 - NH3 reacting system is proposed and modeled. After the parameterization of the reaction mechanism the reaction kinetics have been coupled with models for heat and mass transport. Model validation has been performed with engine test bench experiments. Finally the model has been applied to study the influence of NO2 on SCR efficiency within ETC and ESC testcycles, Additional simulations have been conducted to identify the potential for catalyst volume reduction if NO2 is present in the inlet feed.
Technical Paper

Real-Time Estimation of the Exhaust Gas Recirculation Ratio Based on Cylinder Pressure Signals

2007-04-16
2007-01-0493
External Exhaust Gas Recirculation, EGR, is a central issue in controlling emissions in up-to-date diesel engines. An empirical model has been developed that calculates the EGR ratio as a function of the engine speed, the engine load and special characteristics of the heat release rate. It was found that three combustion characteristics correlate well with the EGR ratio. These characteristics are the ignition delay, the premixed combustion ratio and the mixing-controlled combustion ratio. The calculation of these characteristics is based on parameter subsets, which were determined using an optimization routine. The model presented was developed based on these optimized characteristics.
Technical Paper

Numerical Simulation of Zeolite- and V-Based SCR Catalytic Converters

2007-04-16
2007-01-1136
A numerical model describing the ammonia based SCR process of NOX on zeolite catalysts is presented. The model is able to simulate coated and extruded monoliths. The development of the reaction kinetics is based on a study which compares the activity of zeolite and vanadium based catalysts. This study was conducted in a microreactor loaded with washcoat powder and with crushed coated monoliths. A model for the SCR reaction kinetics on zeolite catalysts is presented. After the parameterization of the reaction mechanism the reaction kinetics were coupled with models for heat and mass transport. The model is validated with laboratory data and engine test bench measurement data over washcoated monolith catalysts. A numerical simulation study is presented, aiming to reveal the differences between zeolite and vanadium based SCR catalysts.
Technical Paper

Simulation Of NOx Storage and Reduction Catalyst: Model Development And Application

2007-04-16
2007-01-1117
To fulfill future emission standards for diesel engines, combined after-treatment systems consisting of different catalyst technologies and diesel particulate filters (DPF) are necessary. For designing and optimizing the resulting systems of considerable complexity, effective simulation models of different catalyst and DPF technologies have been developed and integrated into a common simulation environment called ExACT (Exhaust After-treatment Components Toolbox). This publication focuses on a model for the NOx storage and reduction catalyst as a part of that simulation environment. A heterogeneous, spatially one-dimensional (1D), physically and chemically based mathematical model of the catalytic monolith has been developed. A global reaction kinetic approach has been chosen to describe reaction conversions on the washcoat. Reaction kinetic parameters have been evaluated from a series of laboratory experiments.
Technical Paper

On Road Testing of Advanced Common Rail Diesel Vehicles with Biodiesel from the Jatropha Curcas plant

2005-10-23
2005-26-356
This paper addresses the use of neat, indigenous biodiesel in advanced Mercedes-Benz passenger cars. Modern, unmodified EU3 Common-Rail diesel engines with second generation common rail technology were used to determine the effects of neat biodiesel on performance and emission characteristics. The biodiesel was made from the seeds of the Jatropha Curcas plant and sourced from the Central Salt and Marine Chemicals Research Institute in Bhavnagar, India. The production of biodiesel and the vehicle tests are part of a PPP project, funded jointly by the DaimlerChrysler AG and the German DEG. The project aims at providing additional jobs and income in rural Indian areas along with reclaiming unused wasteland. The test vehicles were operated for a cumulative 8000 kilometers with an intention to expose the vehicle and fuel to diverse climatic conditions.
Technical Paper

“MBE 4000-A New Engine for the US Class 8 Truck Market”

2000-12-04
2000-01-3457
Due to ever soaring fuel costs and even more stringent emission regulations which require more elaborate technical efforts and unfortunately lead to a negative trend on fuel economy as well, todays and future trucking business is extremely challenged. These facts create an urgent requirement for the engine manufacturer to offer an engine with an optimized cost-benefit-ratio for the trucking business. Mercedes-Benz, as the leader in the European commercial vehicle market - of which e. g. high fuel costs, long maintenance intervals and high engine power-to-weight ratios have always been key characteristics - has developed a new class 8 engine for the US market. The MBE 4000 is a 6 cylinder inline engine in the compact size and low weight category, but due to its displacement of 12,8 liters it offers high performance characteristics like heavier big block engines.
Technical Paper

Life Cycle Engineering as a Tool for Design for Environment

2000-04-26
2000-01-1491
Mercedes-Benz at DaimlerChrysler has been developing and applying Life-Cycle-Engineering (LCE) and Life-Cycle-Assessment (LCA) since almost 10 years. Extensive experience and know-how has been gained by two complete car LCAs and more than 100 LCAs for parts. According to our experience LCA/LCE is most effectively and efficiently used to support the development of new products. One of DaimlerChrysler's Environmental Guidelines includes a statement, that our approach to environmentally acceptable design covers the entire product spectrum of the DaimlerChrysler Group, taking into account the product life cycle from design through disposal or recycling. The organisation of environmental management at DaimlerChrysler has a distinct structure of tasks: the central Environmental Protection Division coordinates all organisation/ plant related aspects, while all product related aspects are the responsibility of the divisonal business units.
Technical Paper

Aftertreatment Catalyst Design for the New DaimlerChrysler Supercharged 4-Cylinder Engine with Direct Gasoline Injection

2003-03-03
2003-01-1161
The launching of direct injection gasoline engines is currently one of the major challenges for the automotive industry in the European Union. Besides its potential for a notable reduction of fuel consumption, the engine with direct gasoline injection also offers increased power during stoichiometric and stratified operation. These advantages will most probably lead to a significant market potential of the direct injection concept in the near future. In order to meet the increasingly more stringent European emission levels (EURO IV), new strategies for the exhaust gas aftertreatment are required. The most promising technique developed in recent years, especially for NOx conversion in lean exhaust gases, is the so-called NOx storage catalyst.
Technical Paper

Lube Formulation Effects on Transfer of Elements to Exhaust After-Treatment System Components

2003-10-27
2003-01-3109
After-treatment systems (ATS) consisting of new catalyst technologies and particulate filters will be necessary to meet increasingly stringent global regulations limiting particulate matter (PM) and NOx emissions from heavy duty and light duty diesel vehicles. Fuels and lubes contain elements such as sulfur, phosphorus and ash-forming metals that can adversely impact the efficiency and durability of these systems. Investigations of the impact of lubricant formulation on the transfer of ash-forming elements to diesel particulate filters (DPF) and transfer of sulfur to NOx storage catalysts were conducted using passenger car diesel engine technology. It was observed that for ATS configurations with catalyst(s) upstream of the DPF, transfer of ash-forming elements to the DPF was significantly lower than expected on the basis of oil consumption and lube composition. Sulfur transfer strongly correlated with oil consumption and lubricant sulfur content.
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