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Technical Paper

A Nozzle-Integrated Flow Sensor for Common-Rail Injection Systems

We are the first to report about a micromachined flow sensor directly integrated in the Common Rail injection nozzle body between the double guidance and the tip of the nozzle. The thermal measurement principle is chosen, because it enables a very precise and fast detection of gaseous and liquid mass flows. Additionally, the velocity field in the nozzle is only slightly influenced by the integration of the sensor in the nozzle body due to the negligible height of the sensitive layer. For a hot film anemometer, a high pressure stable ceramic substrate can be used, fabricated in a low cost batch process. The technology, to fabricate the sensor, as well as the first flow measurements, carried out at a high pressure test set up, are presented.
Technical Paper

Potential of Common Rail Injection System for Passenger Car DI Diesel Engines

The improvement of DI diesel engines for passenger cars to fulfil pollutant emission limits and lower fuel consumption and noise is closely linked to continued development of the injection system. Today's injection systems demonstrate varying potential in terms of the flexibility of injection parameters for improving mixture formation and combustion. DaimlerChrysler evaluated the potential of different injection systems, looking particularly at the distributor pump, unit injection system and Common Rail system. Based on the results of these investigations, the Common Rail system was selected. The tests presented in this paper were performed on a single-cylinder engine with Common Rail system. They focused on increased rail pressure in combination with different nozzle geometries. The results show significant benefits in NOx/smoke trade off at part load conditions with high EGR rate.
Technical Paper

Current Status and Prospects for Gasoline Engine Emission Control Technology - Paving the Way for Minimal Emissions

The background for the development activities of the motor vehicle industry is strongly influenced by lawmakers, with engine development, in particular, coming under increasing pressure from the requirements of emissions legislation. Demands for CO2 reduction and thus corresponding savings in consumption contrast with regulations which call for compliance with extremely low emission levels, featuring the extreme of zero tailpipe emissions, and alternative low emission levels which make accurate measurement a problem even with current analysis technology. An example of such requirements are the SULEV limits of California law. These standards have given rise to a wide variety of emission control concepts, each of which, however, has certain limitations in its application. In the context of this general setting, the paper shows that the phase directly subsequent to cold start should be focused upon if these ambitious targets are to be reached.
Technical Paper

Flow around an Isolated Wheel - Experimental and Numerical Comparison of Two CFD Codes

This paper presents velocity and pressure measurements obtained around an isolated wheel in a rotating and stationary configuration. The flow field was investigated using LDA and a total pressure probe in the model scale wind tunnel at IVK/FKFS. Drag and lift were determined for both configurations as well as for the wheel support only. These results were used as a reference for comparing numerical results obtained from two different CFD codes used in the automotive industry, namely STAR-CD™ and PowerFLOW™. The comparison gives a good overall agreement between the experimental and the simulated data. Both CFD codes show good correlation of the integral forces. The influence of the wheel rotation on drag and lift coefficients is predicted well. All mean flow structures which can be found in the planes measured with LDA can be recognized in the numerical results of both codes. Only small local differences remain, which can be attributed to the different CFD codes.
Technical Paper

Quantitative Laser Diagnostic Studies of the NO Distribution in a DI Diesel Engine with PLN and CR Injection Systems

The NO distribution in a directly-injected Diesel engine with realistic combustion chamber geometry was investigated with laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) imaging with KrF excimer laser excitation. The highest possible level of selectivity has been ensured using spectrally resolved LIF investigations inside the Diesel engine. To minimize interference from both, oxygen and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) LIF the NO signal was detected around 237 nm, blue-shifted compared to the excitation wavelength resulting in a background contribution below 10% at the earliest detection timing possible in the engine under study (20°ca after top dead center, TDC). The in-cylinder NO LIF intensities were compared for different injection systems and operating conditions and correlated to variations in pressure traces and soot temperature measurements.
Technical Paper

Vibro-acoustic FEA Modeling of Two Layer Trim Systems

This paper investigates the potential of using FEA poro-elastic Biot elements for the modeling carpet-like trim systems in a simplified setup. A comparison between FEA computations and experiments is presented for two layer (mass-spring) trim systems placed on a test-rig consisting in a 510×354×1.6 mm flat steel plate clamped in a stiff frame excited at its base. Results are presented for a given heavy layer with two different poro-elastic materials: one foam and one fibrous material. The investigations included accelerometer measurements on the steel plate, laser-doppler vibrometer scans of the heavy layer surface, sound pressure measurements in free field at a distance of 1 meter above the plate, as well as sound pressure in a closed rectangular concrete-walled cavity (0.5×0.6×0.7 m) put on top of the test-rig. Computations were carried out using a commercial FEA software implementing the Biot theory for poro-elastic media.
Technical Paper

Utilization of Advanced Three-Way Catalyst Formulations on Ceramic Ultra Thin Wall Substrates for Future Legislation

The LEV II and SULEV/PZEV emission standards legislated by the US EPA and the Californian ARB will require continuous reduction in the vehicles' emission over the next several years. Similar requirements are under discussion in the European Union (EU) in the EU Stage V program. These future emission standards will require a more efficient after treatment device that exhibits high activity and excellent durabilty over an extended lifetime. The present study summarizes the findings of a joint development program targeting such demanding future emission challenges, which can only be met by a close and intensive co-operation of the individual expert teams. The use of active systems, e.g. HC-adsorber or electrically heated light-off catalysts, was not considered in this study. The following parameters were investigated in detail: The development of a high-tech three-way catalyst technology is described being tailored for applications on ultra thin wall ceramic substrates (UTWS).
Technical Paper

Strategies to Reduce HC-Emissions During the Cold Starting of a Port Fuel Injected Gasoline Engine

In view of tight emission standards, injection strategies to reduce raw HC-emissions during the cold starting of port fuel injected engines are evaluated in this study. The relevance of spray targeting and atomization is outlined in the first part of this paper. The foundation and performance of different injector concepts with respect to spray characteristics are discussed. Laboratory experiments demonstrate that concepts relying on auxiliary energy, such as air-assistance, fuel heating and injection at elevated system pressures, are capable of producing spray droplet sizes in the SMD-range of 25μm. For future injection strategies aimed at the compliance of SULEV emission levels, this target value is considered to be essential. In the second part of this paper, emission tests of selected injector concepts are carried out using a V6-3.2I ULEV engine operated both in a vehicle and on a test bench.