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Technical Paper

Subjective Evaluation of NVH CAE Model Predictions Using an Operator-in-the-Loop Driving Simulator

In the past several years there has been a significant effort to increase the reliance on CAE technology to guide the vehicle design process, with the accompanying effort to reduce or eliminate vehicle prototype testing during the early design phase. Since little or no representative hardware is available early in the design, a tool is needed which allows NVH Development Engineers to subjectively experience the results of NVH CAE model predictions in a realistic driving environment. This paper documents the development of a high fidelity NVH simulator, including both audio and vibration, and the integration of this simulator into an “operator-in-the-loop” Driving Simulator. The key development of this system is its ability to incorporate NVH CAE predictions into the simulated driving environment.
Technical Paper

Springback of Sheet Metal Subjected to Multiple Bending-Unbending Cycles

A Draw Bead Simulator (DBS), with modified draw beads, was employed in this study to understand the springback behavior of sheet metal subjected to multiple bending-unbending cycles. The investigations were carried out in both the rolling and the transverse rolling directions on four types of materials: Electro-Galvanized DQ steel, light and heavy gauge Hot-Dip Galvanealed High Strength Steels, and Aluminum alloy AL6111. The sheet geometries, thickness strains, pulling forces and clamping forces were measured and analyzed for the purpose of establishing a benchmark database for numerical predictions of springback. The results indicate that the springback curvature changes dramatically with the die holding force. The conditions at which the springback is minimized was observed and found to depend on the material properties and the sheet thickness. Analysis with an implicit FEM showed that the predicted and the experimental results are in very good agreement.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Road Simulation Testing, Correlation and Variability

In this paper, responses from a vehicle's suspension, chassis and body, are used to demonstrate a methodology to optimize physical test results. It is well known that there is a variability effect due to an increase of wheel unsprung mass (due to loads measurement fixturing), tire pressure, speed, etc. This paper quantifies loading variability due to Wheel Force Transducer (WFT) unsprung mass by using a rainflow cycle counting domain. Also, presents a proving ground-to-test correlation study and the data reduction techniques that are used in road simulation test development to identify the most nominal road load measurement. Fundamental technical information and analytical methodology useful in overall vehicle durability testing are discussed. Durability testing in a laboratory is designed to correlate fatigue damage rig to road. A Proving Ground (PG) loading history is often acquired by running an instrumented vehicle over one or more PG events with various drivers.
Technical Paper

Criteria to Determine the Necessity of Data Acquisition for RTS Drive File Development due to Vehicle Parameter Changes

Durability of automotive structures is a primary engineering consideration that is required to be assessed at every design and development stage. Due to limitations of the analytical and experimental tools, the current practice in the automotive industry is to conduct a new data acquisition over a proving ground schedule whenever there are changes in the suspension parameters. This is a time-consuming and expensive operation. This paper provides guidelines for product teams to determine if a new vehicle data acquisition is needed when there are changes in vehicle parameters, and the corresponding effect on Road Test Simulator (RTS) drive file development. The application of this methodology to a truck with and without tuned suspension parameters is described in detail.
Technical Paper

Prediction of Draw Bead Coefficient of Friction Using Surface Temperature

Sheet metal stamping involves a system of complex tribological (friction, lubrication, and wear), heat transfer, and material strain interactions. Accurate coefficient of friction, strain, and lubrication regime data is required to allow proper modeling of the various sheet stamping processes. In addition, non-intrusive means of monitoring the coefficient of friction in production stamping operations would be of assistance for efficiently maintaining proper stamping quality and to indicate when adjustments to the various stamping parameters, including maintenance, would be advantageous. One of the key sub-systems of the sheet metal stamping process is the draw bead. This paper presents an investigation of the tribology of the draw bead using a Draw Bead Simulator (DBS) Machine and automotive zinc-coated sheet steels. The investigation and findings include: 1) A new, non-intrusive method of measuring the surface temperature of the sheet steel as it passes through the draw bead.