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Technical Paper

Laminar Flow Whistle on a Vehicle Side Mirror

2007-04-16
2007-01-1549
In the development of several outside mirror designs for vehicles, a high frequency noise (whistling) phenomenon was experienced. First impression was that this might be due to another source on the vehicle (such as water management channels) or a cavity noise; however, upon further investigation the source was found to be the mirror housing. This “laminar whistle” is related to the separation of a laminar boundary layer near the trailing edges of the mirror housing. When there is a free stream impingement on the mirror housing, the boundary layer starts out as laminar, but as the boundary layer travels from the impingement point, distance, speed, and roughness combine to trigger the transition turbulent. However, when the transition is not complete, pressure fluctuations can cause rapidly changing flow patterns that sound like a whistle to the observer. Because the laminar boundary layer has very little energy, it does not allow the flow to stay attached on curved surfaces.
Technical Paper

Vibro-Acoustic Behavior of Bead-Stiffened Flat Panels: FEA, SEA, and Experimental Analysis

1999-05-17
1999-01-1698
Vibration and sound radiation characteristics of bead-stiffened panels are investigated. Rectangular panels with different bead configurations are considered. The attention is focused on various design parameters, such as orientation, depth, and periodicity, and their effects on equivalent bending stiffness, modal density, radiation efficiency and sound transmission. A combined FEA-SEA approach is used to determine the response characteristics of panels across a broad frequency range. The details of the beads are represented in fine-meshed FEA models. Based on predicted surface velocities, Rayleigh integral is evaluated numerically to calculate the sound pressure, sound power and then the radiation efficiency of beaded panels. Analytical results are confirmed by comparing them with experimental measurements. In the experiments, the modal densities of the panels are inferred from averaged mechanical conductance.
Technical Paper

A Model for On-Line Monitoring of In-Cylinder Residual Gas Fraction (RGF) and Mass Flowrate in Gasoline Engines

2006-04-03
2006-01-0656
In a gasoline engine, the unswept in-cylinder residual gas and introduction of external EGR is one of the important means of controlling engine raw NOx emissions and improving part load fuel economy via reduction of pumping losses. Since the trapped in-cylinder Residual Gas Fraction (RGF, comprised of both internal, and external) significantly affects the combustion process, on-line diagnosis and monitoring of in-cylinder RGF is very important to the understanding of the in-cylinder dilution condition. This is critical during the combustion system development testing and calibration processes. However, on-line measurement of in-cylinder RGF is difficult and requires an expensive exhaust gas analyzer, making it impractical for every application. Other existing methods, based on measured intake and exhaust pressures (steady state or dynamic traces) to calculate gas mass flowrate across the cylinder ports, provide a fast and economical solution to this problem.
Technical Paper

Parametric Analysis for the Design of Compact Heat Exchangers

2006-04-03
2006-01-1578
In this paper, the effects of heat exchanger design parameters are investigated. The ease study being investigated here is the parametric analysis of automotive radiator where the hot fluid is the engine coolant and the cold fluid is the ambient air. Key parameters that are considered are the air density, fin thickness, fins height and air temperature. Effect of air density may be a concern since heat exchangers are usually designed, for automotive applications, under atmospheric pressure conditions. Changes in altitude will cause a change in air density. Therefore, the performance of cooling system may be affected by elevation. In this analysis, however, it is shown that the change in air density has very limited or no effect on the cooling system. The fin dimensions play a key role in the overall effectiveness of a heat exchanger. Some cost saving ideas may include reducing fin dimensions such as fin thickness or fin height.
Technical Paper

Effect of Cross Flow on Performance of a PEM Fuel Cell

2007-04-16
2007-01-0697
A serpentine flow channel is one of the most common and practical channel layouts for a PEM fuel cell since it ensures the removal of water produced in a cell. While the reactant flows along the flow channel, it can also leak or cross to neighboring channels via the porous gas diffusion layer due to a high pressure gradient. Such a cross flow leads to effective water removal in a gas diffusion layer thus enlarging the active area for reaction although this cross flow has largely been ignored in previous studies. In this study, neutron radiography is applied to investigate the liquid water accumulation and its effect on the performance of a PEM fuel cell. Liquid water tends to accumulate in the gas diffusion layer adjacent to the flow channel area while the liquid water formed in the gas diffusion layer next to the channel land area seems to be effectively removed by the cross leakage flow between the adjacent flow channels.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Study on the Effect of Intake Primary Runner Blockages on Combustion and Emissions in SI Engines under Part-Load Conditions

2004-10-25
2004-01-2973
Charge motion is known to accelerate and stabilize combustion through its influence on turbulence intensity and flame propagation. The present work investigates the effect of charge motion generated by intake runner blockages on combustion characteristics and emissions under part-load conditions in SI engines. Firing experiments have been conducted on a DaimlerChrysler (DC) 2.4L 4-valve I4 engine, with spark range extending around the Maximum Brake Torque (MBT) timing. Three blockages with 20% open area are compared to the fully open baseline case under two operating conditions: 2.41 bar brake mean effective pressure (bmep) at 1600 rpm, and 0.78 bar bmep at 1200 rpm. The blocked areas are shaped to create different levels of swirl, tumble, and cross-tumble. Crank-angle resolved pressures have been acquired, including cylinders 1 and 4, intake runners 1 and 4 upstream and downstream of the blockage, and exhaust runners 1 and 4.
Technical Paper

Parameters Affecting Direct Vehicle Exhaust Flow Measurement

2003-03-03
2003-01-0781
As SULEV emission regulations approach, the bag mini-diluter (BMD) technology is gaining acceptance as a replacement for the existing constant volume sampler (CVS) for SULEV exhaust emission measurement and certification. The heart of the BMD system is the direct vehicle exhaust (DVE) flow measurement system. Due to the transient nature of vehicle exhaust during a standard FTP emission test cycle, the DVE must be capable of rapid and accurate response in order to track these varying exhaust flow rates. The DVE must also be robust enough to accurately measure flow rate despite variations in exhaust gas composition, pulsation effects, and rapid changes in both exhaust temperature and pressure. One of the primary DVE systems used on BMDs is the E-Flow, an ultrasonic flow meter manufactured by Flow Technologies, Inc.
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