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Technical Paper

Automotive Miniaturization Trend: Challenges for Wiring Harness Manufacturing

2010-10-06
2010-36-0160
One of the most evident trends in automotive sector is miniaturization. It is related to considerable benefits due to the potential of mass reduction, cost reduction and efficiency improvement. It involves many different automobile components and most of them are facing challenges to achieve the targets defined by car makers and final consumers. Specifically for wiring harness, it seems to be many manufacturing and process challenges to be surpassed in order to fully perceive the benefits expected with miniaturization, internally and externally. So this article aims to present an overview of literature as well as reporting of experts on this issue mentioning some of the challenges that global automotive wiring harness manufacturers are facing. Subjects as assembly automation, terminal connection and small gauge cables are discussed in the article and also a general overview of how those problems are being addressed in order to meet customer requirements.
Technical Paper

Transient Simulation of DGI Engine Injector with Needle Movement

2002-10-21
2002-01-2663
Utilization of direct injection systems is one of the most promising technologies for fuel economy improvement for SI engine powered passenger cars. Engine performance is essentially influenced by the characteristics of the injection equipment. This paper will present CFD analyses of a swirl type GDI injector carried out with the Multiphase Module of AVL's FIRE/SWIFT CFD code. The simulations considered three phases (liquid fuel, fuel vapor, air) and mesh movement. Thus the transient behavior of the injector can be observed. The flow phenomena known from measurement and shown by previous simulation work [2, 7, 10, 11] were reproduced. In particular the simulations shown in this paper could explain the cause for the outstanding atomization characteristics of the swirl type injector, which are caused by cavitation in the nozzle hole.
Technical Paper

High Frequency Effects on Localization and Sound Perception in a Small Acoustic Space

2002-03-04
2002-01-0117
As compared to home audio, the automobile has a different spatial and spectral distribution of sound. This can cause stereo images to blur or shift due to conflicting localization cues. The impact of interaural time and level differences is discussed, along with frequency-selective pinna and head cues. Review of the literature shows that our poorest localization is for mid frequencies (∼2kHz). Yet in an automobile, low frequencies are severely relocated with a minimum effect on fidelity. It is suggested this is because middle frequencies dominate the perception and localization of sound. Therefore, some high frequency information might also be relocated.
Technical Paper

Open-Interface Definitions for Automotive Systems1 Application to a Brake by Wire System

2002-03-04
2002-01-0267
Today automotive system suppliers develop more-or-less independent systems, such as brake, power steering and suspension systems. In the future, car manufacturers like Volvo will build up vehicle control systems combining their own algorithms with algorithms provided by automotive system suppliers. Standardization of interfaces to actuators, sensors and functions is an important enabler for this vision and will have major consequences for functionality, prices and lead times, and thus affects both vehicle manufacturers and automotive suppliers. The investigation of the level of appropriate interfaces, as part of the European BRAKE project, is described here. Potential problems and consequences are discussed from both a technical and a business perspective. This paper provides a background on BRAKE and on the functional decomposition upon which the interface definitions are based. Finally, the interface definitions for brake system functionality are given.
Technical Paper

Diagnostic Development for an Electric Power Steering System

2000-03-06
2000-01-0819
Electric power steering (EPS) is an advanced steering system that uses an electric motor to provide steering assist. Being a new technology it lacks the extensive operational history of conventional steering systems. Also conventional systems cannot be used to command an output independent of the driver input. In contrast EPS, by means of an electric motor, could be used to do so. As a result EPS systems may have additional failure modes, which need to be studied. In this paper we will consider the requirements for successful EPS operation. The steps required to develop diagnostics based on the requirements are also discussed. The results of this paper have been implemented in various EPS-based programs.
Technical Paper

A System-Safety Process For By-Wire Automotive Systems

2000-03-06
2000-01-1056
Steer-by-wire and other “by-wire” systems (as defined in the paper) offer many passive and active safety advantages. To help ensure these advantages are achieved, a comprehensive system-safety process should be followed. In this paper, we review standard elements of system safety processes that are widely applied in several industries and describe the main elements of our proposed analysis process for by-wire systems. The process steps include: (i) creating a program plan to act as a blueprint for the process, (ii) performing a variety of hazard analysis and risk assessment tasks as specified in the program plan, (iii) designing and verifying a set of hazard controls that help mitigate risk, and (iv) summarizing the findings. Vehicle manufacturers and suppliers need to work together to create and follow such a process. A distinguishing feature of the process is the explicit linking of hazard controls to the hazards they cover, permitting coverage-based risk assessment.
Technical Paper

A Comprehensive Hazard Analysis Technique for Safety-Critical Automotive Systems

2001-03-05
2001-01-0674
Hazard analysis plays an important role in the development of safety-critical systems. Hazard analysis techniques have been used in the development of conventional automotive systems. However, as future automotive systems become more sophisticated in functionality, design, and applied technology, the need for a more comprehensive hazard analysis approach has arisen. In this paper, we describe a comprehensive hazard analysis approach for system safety programs. This comprehensive approach involves applying a number of hazard analysis techniques and then integrating their results. This comprehensive approach attempts to overcome the narrower scope of individual techniques while obtaining the benefits of all of them.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Oxygen Sensor

2000-03-06
2000-01-1364
Optimization of the mechanical aspects of a heated conical oxygen sensor for desired performances, such as low heater power, good poison resistance, fast light-off, and broad temperature range, etc. was achieved with computer modeling. CFD analysis was used to model the flow field in and around a sensor in an exhaust pipe to predict the convection coefficients, poisoning, and switching time. Heat transfer analysis coupled with electrical heating was applied to predict temperature and light-off time. Results of the optimization are illustrated, with good agreements between modeling and testing.
Technical Paper

Globalization of the Design for Manufacturability/Assembly Process within the Automotive Wiring Assembly Business

1999-03-01
1999-01-0052
Automotive wiring assembly design and manufacturing has evolved from a locally based business to a global business. It is common today to engineer the design of a wiring assembly in one region of the world, to manufacture it in a second region, and to assemble it into the vehicle in a third region. This creates a need for global collaboration, training and communications. Design for Manufacturability (DFM) is a tool that can aid in this, in developing common processes globally, and reducing the cost and design complexity of the product in the early design stages. To develop a global DFM process, an organization must develop and implement a strategy. This paper will review the approach that an automotive wiring assembly supplier adopted. It will enumerate the benefits of developing a global Design for Manufacturability process, selecting a champion, and using a twelve-step plan to integrate DFM into each region.
Technical Paper

Analytical Solution for Heat Flow in Cylinder and Its Application in Calculating Converter Skin Temperature

2000-03-06
2000-01-0301
In the catalytic converter, the thermal conductivity of the insulation material (intumescent mat) placed between the ceramic catalyst and the metal shell is strongly dependent on the temperature, resulting in the solving of non-linear heat conduction equations. In this paper, the analytic solution for the steady heat flow in a cylinder with temperature dependent conductivity is given. Using this analytic solution for the mat and including convection and radiation at the converter skin, an analytical expression for calculating converter skin temperature is obtained. This expression can be easily incorporated in a Fortran code to calculate the temperatures.
Technical Paper

Air Cleaner Shell Noise Reduction with Finite Element Shape Optimization

1997-05-20
971876
In this paper, finite element shape optimization is used to determine the optimum air cleaner shape and rib design for low shell noise. Shape variables are used to vary the height and location of rib elements, as well as vary the shape of the air cleaner surfaces. The optimization code evaluates each design variation and selects a search direction that will reduce surface velocity. Sound power radiation is calculated for each optimized design using an acoustic code. Large reductions in shell noise were achieved by optimizing the shape of the air cleaner surface and rib design. Optimization of the rib pattern alone yielded a local optimization, as opposed to a global optimization that represented the best possible design.
Technical Paper

Thermally-Induced Microstructural Changes in a Three-Way Automotive Catalyst

1997-10-01
972905
The use of advanced electron microscopy techniques to characterize both the bulk and near-atomic level microstructural evolution of catalyst materials during different dynamometer/vehicle aging cycles is an integral part of understanding catalyst deactivation. The study described here was undertaken to evaluate thermally-induced microstructural changes which caused the progressive loss of catalyst performance in a three-way automotive catalyst. Several different catalyst processing variables, for example changing the washcoat ceria content, were also evaluated as a function of aging cycle and thermal history. A number of thermally-induced microstructural changes were identified using high resolution electron microscopy techniques that contributed to the deactivation of the catalyst, including sintering of all washcoat constituents, γ-alumina transforming to α-, β-, and δ-alumina, precious metal redistribution, and constituent encapsulation.
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