Refine Your Search

Topic

Author

Affiliation

Search Results

Video

Monitoring NO2 Production of a Diesel Oxidation Catalyst

2012-01-24
A combination of laboratory reactor measurements and vehicle FTP testing has been combined to demonstrate a method for diagnosing the formation of NO2 from a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC). Using small cores from a production DOC and simulated diesel exhaust, the laboratory reactor experiments are used to support a model for DOC chemical reaction kinetics. The model we propose shows that the ability to produce NO2 is chemically linked to the ability of the catalyst to oxidize hydrocarbon (HC). For thermally damaged DOCs, loss of the HC oxidation function is simultaneous with loss of the NO2 production function. Since HC oxidation is the source of heat generated in the DOC under regeneration conditions, we conclude that a diagnostic of the DOC exotherm is able to detect the failure of the DOC to produce NO2. Vehicle emissions data from a 6.6 L Duramax HD pick-up with DOC of various levels of thermal degradation is provided to support the diagnostic concept.
Video

High Load HCCI Operation Using Different Valving Strategies in a Naturally-Aspirated Gasoline HCCI Engine

2012-02-16
This session focuses on kinetically controlled combustion. Experimental and simulation studies pertaining to various means of controlling combustion are welcome. Examples are research studies dealing with temperature and composition distribution inside the cylinder and their impact on heat release process. Studies clarifying the role of fuel physical and chemical properties in autoignition are also welcome. Presenter Hanho Yun, General Motors Company
Video

Technical Keynote: Leading in Crazy Times

2012-02-09
Leading during normal times is plenty challenging. Leading in crazy times requires extra understanding and skill. This presentation explores how you and your team can be your best, regardless of what craziness may be going on around your organization, your team members, and you. Presenter Theresa Rich, General Motors Company
Video

OBD Challenges for Plug In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

2012-01-30
Plug-In Hybrid and Extended Range Electric Vehicle's have quickly become the focus of many OEM's and suppliers. Existing regulations and test procedures did not anticipate this rapid adoption of this new technology, resulting in many product development challenges. The lack of clear requirements is further complicated by CARBs consideration of CO2 inclusion in their next light duty OBD regulation. This presentation provides an overview of the regulatory requirements for OBD systems on hybrid vehicles that intend to certify in California. Near term challenges for EREV?s and PHEV?s are discussed, including concerns with the existing denominator and warm-up cycle calculations. Some proposals are made to address these concerns. Presenter Andrew Zettel, General Motors Company
Video

Worldwide OBD

2012-01-30
OBD system requirements were first developed by the California Air Resources Board, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the European Commission. New OBD requirements should be as consistent as possible with existing requirements to maximize reliability and to minimize system complexity, proliferation of configurations, and consumer cost. New OBD requirements from around the world are briefly reviewed and most are consistent with the original U.S. and European requirements. Worldwide OBD requirements are being further harmonized under the United Nations, Economic Commission for Europe, World Forum for Harmonization of Vehicle Regulations (WP29). Presenter David H. Ferris, General Motors Company
Technical Paper

Determining Hearing Threshold of Interior Noise Using Adaptive Procedure

2001-04-30
2001-01-1574
A jury evaluation study has been conducted to determine the hearing threshold of IP gauge stepping motor noise using a transformed up-down procedure. The stepping motor noise was recorded in an anechoic chamber and was used as a signal in the study. To determine the masked threshold, this signal was adjusted to various gain levels and mixed with interior engine noise at selected rpm as masking noise. In this study, the Adaptive Procedure was used, and a software application was developed for this purpose. Twenty subjects, selected based on hearing test results, participated in this jury evaluation. The findings of this study indicated that Adaptive Procedure is an effective approach in determining hearing threshold for automotive applications. A design criterion for acoustical characteristics of the IP gauge DC motor noise has been developed based on the results of this study.
Technical Paper

Dynamic EGR Estimation for Production Engine Control

2001-03-05
2001-01-0553
A dynamic EGR State Estimator (ESE) intended for production engine management systems (EMS) implementation is presented. It better describes the development of external exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) concentration at the engine intake ports during EGR transients than traditional models. The dynamics of EGR concentration time and spatial development in the intake manifold are described as a perfect mixing model in the intake manifold plenum volume and non-mixing plug flow in the intake manifold runners. The time scale of EGR transients precludes the use of traditional EGR measurement techniques for model verification. Instead a wide range air fuel (WRAF) sensor is used. Results are shown for a large variation in operating conditions and compared to the performance of a traditional model.
Technical Paper

A Model-based Environment for Production Engine Management System (EMS) Development

2001-03-05
2001-01-0554
This paper describes an environment for the development of production Engine Management Systems (EMS). This includes a formal framework and modeling methodology. The environment is based on using Simulink/Stateflow for developing a control system executable specification and a plant model. This allows for simulations of the system to be performed at the engineer's desk, which is identical performance with production software. We provide the details for incorporating production legacy code into the Simulink/Stateflow control system. The system includes a multi-rate, and event driven operating system. This system is developed to facilitate new algorithm development and automated software testing. Based on Simulink/Stateflow this specification will be suitable for use with commercial automatic code generation tools.
Technical Paper

A Model-Based Brake Pressure Estimation Strategy for Traction Control System

2001-03-05
2001-01-0595
This paper presents a brake pressure estimation algorithm for Delphi Traction Control Systems (TCS). A control oriented lumped parameter model of a brake control system is developed using Matlab/Simulink. The model is derived based on a typical brake system and is generic to other types of brake control hardware systems. For application purposes, the model is simplified to capture the dominant dynamic brake pressure response. Vehicle experimental data collected under various scenarios are used to validate the algorithm. Simulation results show that the algorithm gives accurate pressure estimation. In addition, the calibration procedure is greatly simplified
Technical Paper

Reliability of Resonant Micromachined Sensors and Actuators

2001-03-05
2001-01-0618
There are an increasing number of applications for resonant micromachines. Accelerometers, angular rate sensors, voltage controlled oscillators, pressure and chemical sensors have been demonstrated using this technology. Several of these devices are employed in vehicles. Vibrating devices have been made from silicon, quartz, GaAs, nickel and aluminum. Resonant microsystems are in constant motion and so present new challenges in the area of reliability for vehicular applications. The impact of temperature extremes, cyclic fatigue, stiction, thermal and mechanical shock on resonant device performance is covered.
Technical Paper

A Verification Study for Cam Phaser Position Control using Robust Engineering Techniques

2001-03-05
2001-01-0777
This paper describes the verification and comparison of position control algorithms for a continuously-variable cam phaser. Robust Engineering techniques are used. Two non-linear PID control algorithms are designed to control cam phaser position. The first algorithm is a more complex control strategy while the second is a thrifted approach that seeks to reduce throughput requirements. An L18 orthogonal array is established with noise factors that affect the quality of cam phaser control. Using the orthogonal array, the number of experiment test points required to characterize the control algorithm response is reduced from 8,748 to thirty-six. The test points of the orthogonal array are investigated experimentally on a motored engine outfitted with cam phaser hardware. The desired and actual cam position data are compared and analyzed for all points in the orthogonal array.
Technical Paper

Near and Far-Side Adult Front Passenger Kinematics in a Vehicle Rollover

2001-03-05
2001-01-0176
In this study, U.S. accident data was analyzed to determine interior contacts and injuries for front-seated occupants in rollovers. The injury distribution for belted and unbelted, non-ejected drivers and right front passengers (RFP) was assessed for single-event accidents where the leading side of the vehicle rollover was either on the driver or passenger door. Drivers in a roll-left and RFP in roll-right rollovers were defined as near-side occupants, while drivers in roll-right and RFP in roll-left rollovers were defined as far-side occupants. Serious injuries (AIS 3+) were most common to the head and thorax for both the near and far-side occupants. However, serious spinal injuries were more frequent for the far-side occupants, where the source was most often coded as roof, windshield and interior.
Technical Paper

US and UK Field Rollover Characteristics

2001-03-05
2001-01-0167
In this study, US and UK accident data were analyzed to identify parameters that may influence rollover propensity to analyze driver injury rate. The US data was obtained from the weighted National Automotive Sampling System (NASS-CDS), calendar years 1992 to 1996. The UK pre-roll data was obtained from the national STATS 19 database for 1996, while the injury information was collected from the Co-operative Crash Injury Study (CCIS) database. In the US and UK databases, rollovers accounted for about 10% of all crashes with known crash directions. In the US and UK databases, most rollovers occurred when the vehicle was either going straight ahead or turning. The propensity for a rollover was more than 3 times higher when going around a bend than a non-rollover. In the UK, 74% of rollovers occurred on clear days with no high winds and 14% on rainy days with no high winds. In the US, 83% of rollovers took place in non-adverse weather conditions and 10% with rain.
Technical Paper

Comfort and Usability of the Seat Belts

2001-03-05
2001-01-0051
Seat belts are the primary occupant-protection devices for vehicle crashes. Field statistics show that proper usage of seat belts substantially contributes to decreases in the fatality rate and injury level. To collect first-hand information regarding seat belt comfort and usability, a questionnaire survey was conducted. The most significant problems were found as belt trapping in the door, awkward negotiating with clothes, belt twisting, belt locking up, and difficulty to locate the buckle. The survey results indicated that drivers who are over 40 years old have more complaints than younger drivers. When the driver's age increases to 55 and above, belt pulling force and inappropriate and loose fitting of the belt on the body become major issues. Female drivers have more complaints than male drivers. Short statured drivers need both hands to pull and guide the retracting of the belt.
Technical Paper

LIN Bus and its Potential for Use in Distributed Multiplex Applications

2001-03-05
2001-01-0072
The increasing features and complexity of today's automotive architectures are becoming increasingly difficult to manage. Each new innovation typically requires additional mechanical actuators and associated electrical controllers. The sheer number of black boxes and wiring are being limited not by features or cost but by the inability to physically assemble them into a vehicle. A new architecture is required which will support the ability to add new features but also enable the Vehicle Assembly Plants to easily assemble and test each subsystem. One such architecture is a distributed multiplex arrangement that reduces the number of wires while enabling flexibility and expandability. Previous versions have had to deal with issues such as noise immunity at high switching currents. The LIN Bus with its low cost and rail-to-rail capability may be the key enabling technology to make the multiplexed architecture a reality.
Technical Paper

Consumers, Electronics, and the Link to Hybrid Vehicles and the Environment

2000-11-01
2000-01-C045
The interdependence of consumer features, new electronic and electrical architectures and hybrid propulsion systems are examined. There are two major forces driving future vehicle electronic and electrical systems, one is consumer demand for comfort and safety, and two is the demand for reduced fuel consumption and emissions. These forces are linked by the use of electronics to control vehicle energy generation and usage while providing managed solutions to these demands. Automobile consumer features are discussed and the case is made that these features will require more electric power to be installed on the vehicle. The presence of this increased electric power will then enable the hybrid vehicle functions that will benefit fuel economy and emissions performance.
Technical Paper

Suppression Technologies for Advanced Air Bags

2000-11-01
2000-01-C037
In May 2000 the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) issued the final rule for the Advanced Air Bag regulations effective MY 2004 for vehicles to be sold in the United States. These regulations are in response to the air bag-induced injuries seen in the field, especially to children and short women. Advanced air bags require a vehicle manufacturer to design air bags for a broad array of occupants: 12-month-old, 3-year-old and 6-year-old children, and 5th percentile adult females, as well as 50th percentile adult males with new and more stringent injury criteria. Requirements for minimizing air bag risks include automatically turning off the air bag in the presence of young children or deploying the air bag in a manner much less likely to cause serious or fatal injury to out-of-position occupants. Technologies that disable the air bag in the presence of young children or adults in out-of-position are termed as "suppression technologies.'
Technical Paper

Challenges in Simulation and Sensor Development for Occupant Protection in Rollover Accidents

2000-11-01
2000-01-C038
Automotive occupant safety continues to evolve. At present this area has gathered a strong consumer interest which the vehicle manufacturers are tapping into with the introduction of many new safety technologies. Initially, individual passive devices and features such as seatbelts, knee- bolsters, structural crush zones, airbags etc., were developed for to help save lives and minimize injuries in accidents. Over the years, preventive measures such as improving visibility, headlights, windshield wipers, tire traction etc., were deployed to help reduce the probability of getting into an accident. With tremendous new research and improvements in electronics, we are at the stage of helping to actively avoid accidents in certain situations as well as providing increased protection to vehicle occupants and pedestrians.
Technical Paper

Smart Sensors for Future Robust Systems

2000-11-01
2000-01-C055
"Smart'' sensor concepts must be considered as the demands of advanced automotive systems increase. These concepts are strongly influenced by the architectural and dependability aspects of future systems. Key features of smart sensors are: communication (two way) with a digital data bus, self- calibration, error source compensation, self-diagnostics, and programmability for "plug and play.'' This paper contains a discussion of the basic future sensor requirements, and it assesses four major sensor technologies with respect to their suitability to meet these requirements. For each technology, the merits and demerits will be reviewed and an example sensing application will be given in order to demonstrate how the technology can be adapted to meet the future requirements.
X