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Technical Paper

Closed Loop Pressure Control System Development for an Automatic Transmission

2009-04-20
2009-01-0951
This paper presents the development of a transmission closed loop pressure control system. The objective of this system is to improve transmission pressure control accuracy by employing closed-loop technology. The control system design includes both feed forward and feedback control. The feed forward control algorithm continuously learns solenoid P-I characteristics. The closed loop feedback control has a conventional PID control with multi-level gain selections for each control channel, as well as different operating points. To further improve the system performance, Robust Optimization is carried out to determine the optimal set of control parameters and controller hardware design factors. The optimized design is verified via an L18 experiment on spin dynamometer. The design is also tested on vehicle.
Technical Paper

Closed Loop Pressure Control System Requirements and Implementation

2011-04-12
2011-01-0391
Electro-hydraulic actuation has been used widely in automatic transmission designs. With greater demand for premium shift quality of automatic transmissions, higher pressure control accuracy of the transmission electro-hydraulic control system has become one of the main factors for meeting this growing demand. This demand has been the driving force for the development of closed loop pressure controls technology. This paper presents the further research done based upon a previously developed closed loop system. The focus for this research is on the system requirements, such as solenoid driver selection and system latency handling. Both spin-stand and test vehicle setups are discussed in detail. Test results for various configurations are given.
Technical Paper

A Mean-Value Model for Estimating Exhaust Manifold Pressure in Production Engine Applications

2008-04-14
2008-01-1004
A key quantity for use in engine control is the exhaust manifold pressure. For production applications it is an important component in the calculation of the engine volumetric efficiency, as well as EGR flow and residual fraction. For cost reasons, however, it is preferable to not have to measure the exhaust manifold pressure for production applications. For that reason, it is advantageous to develop a model for estimating the exhaust manifold pressure in production application software that is small, accurate, and simple to calibrate. In this paper, a mean-value model for calculating the exhaust manifold pressure is derived from the compressible flow equation, treating the exhaust system as a fixed-geometry restriction between the exhaust manifold and the outlet of the tailpipe. Validation data from production applications is presented.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Study on Engine Dynamics Model Based In-Cylinder Pressure Estimation

2012-04-16
2012-01-0896
The information provided by the in-cylinder pressure signal is of great importance for modern engine management systems. The obtained information is implemented to improve the control and diagnostics of the combustion process in order to meet the stringent emission regulations and to improve vehicle reliability and drivability. The work presented in this paper covers the experimental study and proposes a comprehensive and practical solution for the estimation of the in-cylinder pressure from the crankshaft speed fluctuation. Also, the paper emphasizes the feasibility and practicality aspects of the estimation techniques, for the real-time online application. In this study an engine dynamics model based estimation method is proposed. A discrete-time transformed form of a rigid-body crankshaft dynamics model is constructed based on the kinetic energy theorem, as the basis expression for total torque estimation.
Technical Paper

Design of an Automotive Grade Controller for In-Cylinder Pressure Based Engine Control Development

2007-04-16
2007-01-0774
This paper describes a new tool to capture cylinder pressure information, calculate combustion parameters, and implement control algorithms. There are numerous instrumentation and prototyping systems which can provide some or all of this capability. The Cylinder Pressure Development Controller (CPDC) is unique in that it uses advanced high volume automotive grade circuitry, packaging, and software methodologies. This approach provides insight regarding the implementation of cylinder pressure based controls in a production engine management system. A high performance data acquisition system is described along with a data reduction technique to minimize data processing requirements. The CPDC software architecture is discussed along with model-based algorithm development and autocoding. Finally, CPDC calculated combustion parameters are compared with those from a well established combustion analysis system and thermodynamic simulations.
Technical Paper

Safety Belt Fit, Comfort, and Contact Pressure based on Upper Anchorage Location and Seat Back Angle

2003-03-03
2003-01-0954
A seat belt usability study was conducted to investigate factors associated with seat belt comfort and convenience related to shoulder belt contact pressure, shoulder belt fit, and seat belt upper anchorage location. Two major objectives were addressed in this study: (1) Determine the shift in the contact pressure while changing the seat back angle and seat belt attachment points / B-pillar location by utilizing a body pressure measurement system; (2) Identify how seat belt contact pressure and fit affect users' subjective feeling of comfort. Results from the statistical analysis shows that the seat belt contact pressure increases when the D-ring moves away from the driver in the fore-aft direction (X-axis) whereas height adjustment of the D-ring (Z-axis) is not statistically significant in terms of pressure distribution.
Technical Paper

Brake Squeal Analysis Incorporating Contact Conditions and Other Nonlinear Effects

2003-10-19
2003-01-3343
A squeal analysis on a front disc brake is presented here utilizing the new complex eigenvalue capability in ABAQUS/Standard. As opposed to the direct matrix input approach that requires users to tailor the friction coupling matrix, this method uses nonlinear static analyses to calculate the friction coupling prior to the complex eigenvalue extraction. As a result, the effect of non-uniform contact pressure and other nonlinear effects are incorporated. Friction damping is used to reduce over-predictions and the velocity dependent friction coefficient is defined to contribute negative damping. Complex eigenvalue predictions of the example cases show very good correlation with test data for a wide range of frequencies. Finally, the participation of rotor tangential modes is also discussed.
Technical Paper

Pressure Drop of Segmented Diesel Particulate Filters

2005-04-11
2005-01-0971
Segmented, Silicon-Carbide Diesel Particulate Filters appear to be automotive industry's popular choice for reducing particulate emissions of Diesel Engines, particularly for light duty platforms. Since flow resistance represents an important performance feature of a filter, it is important that reasonable prediction tools for such filters are developed for use in their development, design, applications and regeneration control. A model for predicting pressure drop of segmented filters is presented here: an existing, well-accepted pressure drop model for monolithic (non-segmented) filters is customized to one for a segmented filter using a ‘weighted number of inlet channels’ based on equivalent filtration wall area of a monolithic filter. Flow resistance data collected experimentally on segmented filters are used to demonstrate the accuracy of the new model.
Technical Paper

Experimental Evaluation of R134a Emission with Various Hose Constructions

2005-05-10
2005-01-2032
The focus of this paper is to understand, from experimental data, the R134a refrigerant emission rates of various hose materials due to permeation. This paper focuses on four main points for hose assembly emission of R134a: (1) characteristics of hose permeation in response to the effect of oil in R134a and the characteristics of hose permeation of vapor vs. liquid refrigerant; (2) conditioning of the hose material over time to reach steady state R134a emission; (3) the relative contribution of hose permeation and coupling emission to the overall hose assembly refrigerant emission; (4) transient emission rates due to transient temperature and pressure conditions. Studies include hoses with different materials and constructions resulting in various levels of R134a permeation.
Technical Paper

Economic Analysis of Powertrain Control Technologies

2002-10-21
2002-21-0035
Regulatory and market pressures continue to challenge the automotive industry to develop technologies focused on reducing exhaust emissions and improving fuel economy. This paper introduces a practical model, which evaluates the economic value of various technologies based on their ability to reduce fuel consumption, improve emissions or provide consumer benefits such as improved performance. By evaluating the individual elements of economic value as viewed by the OEM manufacturer, while keeping the end consumer in mind, technology selection decisions can be made. These elements include annual fuel usage, vehicle performance, mass reduction and emissions, among others. The following technologies are discussed and evaluated: gasoline direct injection, variable valvetrain technologies, common-rail diesel and hybrid vehicles.
Journal Article

Gasoline Direct Injection Compression Ignition (GDCI) - Diesel-like Efficiency with Low CO2 Emissions

2011-04-12
2011-01-1386
A single-cylinder engine was used to study the potential of a high-efficiency combustion concept called gasoline direct-injection compression-ignition (GDCI). Low temperature combustion was achieved using multiple injections, intake boost, and moderate EGR to reduce engine-out NOx and PM emissions engine for stringent emissions standards. This combustion strategy benefits from the relatively long ignition delay and high volatility of regular unleaded gasoline fuel. Tests were conducted at 6 bar IMEP - 1500 rpm using various injection strategies with low-to-moderate injection pressure. Results showed that triple injection GDCI achieved about 8 percent greater indicated thermal efficiency and about 14 percent lower specific CO2 emissions relative to diesel baseline tests on the same engine. Heat release rates and combustion noise could be controlled with a multiple-late injection strategy for controlled fuel-air stratification. Estimated heat losses were significantly reduced.
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