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Technical Paper

Development of Premixed Low-Temperature Diesel Combustion in a HSDI Diesel Engine

The pursuit of new combustion concepts or modes is ongoing to meet future emissions regulations and to eliminate or at least to minimize the burden of aftertreatment systems. In this research, Premixed Low Temperature Diesel Combustion (PLTDC) was developed using a single-cylinder engine to achieve low NOx and soot emissions while maintaining fuel efficiency. Operating conditions considered were 1500 rpm, 3 bar and 6 bar IMEP. The effects of injection timing, injection pressure, swirl ratio, EGR rate, and multiple injection strategies on the combustion process have been investigated. The results show that low NOx and soot emissions can be obtained at both operating conditions without sacrificing the fuel efficiency. Low NOx and soot emissions are achieved through minimization of peak temperatures during the combustion process and homogenization of in-cylinder air-fuel mixture.
Technical Paper

The Impact of Injection Strategies on Emissions Reduction and Power Output of Future Diesel Engines

Future light, medium and heavy duty diesel engines will need to satisfy the more stringent emission levels (US 2014, Euro 6, etc.) without compromising their current performance and fuel economy, while still maintaining a competitive cost. In order to achieve this, the Fuel Injection Equipment (FIE) together with the pressure charging, cooling system, exhaust after treatment and other engine sub-systems will each play a key role. The FIE has to offer a range of flexible injection characteristics, e.g. a multiple injection train with or without separation, modulated injection pressures and rates for every injection, higher specific power output from the same injector envelope, and close control of very small fuel injection quantities. The aim of this paper is to present Delphi's developments in fuel injection strategies for light and medium duty diesel engines that will comply with future emission legislation, whilst providing higher power density and uncompromised fuel economy.
Technical Paper

Near Nozzle Field Conditions in Diesel Fuel Injector Testing

The measurement of the rate of fuel injection using a constant volume, fluid filled chamber and measuring the pressure change as a function of time due to the injected fluid (the so called “Zeuch” method) is an industry standard due to its simple theoretical underpinnings. Such a measurement device is useful to determine key timing and quantity parameters for injection system improvements to meet the evolving requirements of emissions, power and economy. This study aims to further the understanding of the nature of cavitation which could occur in the near nozzle region under these specific conditions of liquid into liquid injection using high pressure diesel injectors for heavy duty engines. The motivation for this work is to better understand the temporal signature of the pressure signals that arise in a typical injection cycle.
Technical Paper

Cepstrum Analysis of a Rate Tube Injection Measurement Device

With a push to continuously develop traditional engine technology efficiencies and meet stringent emissions requirements, there is a need to improve the precision of injection rate measurement used to characterise the performance of the fuel injectors. New challenges in precisely characterising injection rate present themselves to the Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs), with the additional requirements to measure multiple injection strategies, increased injection pressure and rate features. One commonly used method of measurement is the rate tube injection analyser; it measures the pressure wave caused by the injection within a column of stationary fluid. In a rate tube, one of the significant sources of signal distortion is a result of the injected fluid pressure waves reflected back from the tube termination.
Technical Paper

Advanced Two-Actuator EUI and Emission Reduction for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines

A very flexible choice of fuel injection characteristics can be obtained with an advanced electronic unit injector that has been developed with two electronically controlled valves. Single-cylinder engine tests have demonstrated the potential of this advanced EUI system for a heavy-duty diesel engine. Substantial increases in injection pressure can be programmed electronically at individual engine speed/load conditions, compared with a baseline EUI system, to provide much faster rates of air/fuel mixing. Simulated US and European emissions cycle results, with the optimised two-actuator EUI and EGR, show substantially improved soot particulate versus NOx results and lower BSFC compared with a baseline EUI result. A high-pressure post injection has the potential to give further soot reduction.
Journal Article

Investigations on Deposit Formation in the Holes of Diesel Injector Nozzles

Current developments in fuels and emissions regulations are resulting in an increasingly severe operating environment for diesel fuel injection systems. The formation of deposits within the holes or on the outside of the injector nozzle can affect the overall system performance. The rate of deposit formation is affected by a number of parameters, including operating conditions and fuel composition. For the work reported here an accelerated test procedure was developed to evaluate the relative importance of some of these parameters in a high pressure common rail fuel injection system. The resulting methodology produced measurable deposits in a custom-made injector nozzle on a single-cylinder engine. The results indicate that fuels containing 30%v/v and 100% Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) that does not meet EN 14214 produced more deposit than an EN590 petroleum diesel fuel.
Journal Article

Internal Fuel Injector Deposits

The need for improved emissions and fuel economy are placing increasingly severe performance requirements on compression ignition engines. These are satisfied in part by advanced fuel injection equipment that provide multiple injections and increased injection pressures along with higher operating temperature. Fuel composition is also changing, with increased use of non-traditional feedstocks combined with a range of additive chemistries to restore or enhance fuel quality. Within this environment, a number of worldwide automotive companies have noted a trend towards increased Internal Injector Deposits (IID). Little quantitative information to understand the root cause is available, largely due to difficulty in reproducing the issue under controlled conditions. The present study details the results of an accelerated test methodology, which is used to evaluate the interrelated effects of fuel composition and operating environment.
Journal Article

Fuel Quality and Diesel Injector Deposits

Internal deposits formed within the fuel injection system have been widely reported in the literature. Several root causes exist, with many deposits consisting of more than one material. The final chemistry depends on the availability of trace fuel contaminants and additives and to a lesser extent hydrocarbon/FAME stability and operating conditions. The present paper identifies the primary deposit morphologies, along with the typical root cause. Metal carboxylate salts, also known as metal soaps are most widely reported and are easily recreated under controlled conditions using compounds present at trace concentrations in some market fuels. The salting reaction may occur at low temperatures in the fuel supply system. It is proposed that the resulting fuel insoluble salt molecules are transported as reverse micelles, occasionally plugging filters but more commonly passing to the high pressure injection system.