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Technical Paper

Computational Study of the Effects of the Re-entrant Lip Shape and Toroidal Radii of Piston Bowl on a HSDI Diesel Engine's Performance and Emissions

The piston bowl design is one of the most important factors that affect the air/fuel mixing and the subsequent combustion and pollutant formation processes in a direct injection diesel engine. The bowl geometry and dimensions, such as pip region, bowl lip area, and torus radius are all known to have an effect on the in-cylinder mixing and combustion process. In order to understand better the effect of torus radius, three piston bowls with different torus radius and lip shapes designs but with the same lip area and pip inclination were investigated using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) engine modelling. KIVA3V with improved sub-models was used to model the in-cylinder flows and combustion process, and it was validated on a High-Speed Direct Injection (HSDI) engine with a 2nd generation common rail fuel injection system.
Technical Paper

Evaluating the EGR-AFR Operating Range of a HCCI Engine

We present a computational tool to develop an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) - air-fuel ratio (AFR) operating range for homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engines. A single cylinder Ricardo E-6 engine running in HCCI mode, with external EGR is simulated using an improved probability density function (PDF) based engine cycle model. For a base case, the in-cylinder temperature and unburned hydrocarbon emissions predicted by the model show a satisfactory agreement with measurements [Oakley et al., SAE Paper 2001-01-3606]. Furthermore, the model is applied to develop the operating range for various combustion parameters, emissions and engine parameters with respect to the air-fuel ratio and the amount of EGR used. The model predictions agree reasonably well with the experimental results for various parameters over the entire EGR-AFR operating range thus proving the robustness of the PDF based model.
Technical Paper

Investigation of the HCCI/CAI Combustion Process by 2-D PLIF Imaging of Formaldehyde

The paper reports an investigation into the HCCI/CAI combustion process in a single cylinder optical engine. The auto-ignition and combustion processes of primary reference fuels were studied using the two-dimensional PLIF technique as well as heat release analyses. The formaldehyde formed during the low-temperature reactions of HCCI/CAI combustion was visualized by a PLIF system. The formaldehyde was excited by a Nd:YAG laser pumped tunable dye laser at 355nm wavelength and detected by a gated ICCD camera. Both temporal and spatial distributions of formaldehyde were measured during the auto-ignition processes of different primary reference fuels. The results have shown that the formation of formaldehyde and its subsequent disappearance were closely related to the start of the low temperature and high temperature heat release processes, respectively. The formation of formaldehyde was more affected by the charge temperature than by the fuel concentration.
Technical Paper

Computational Study of the Effects of Injection Timing, EGR and Swirl Ratio on a HSDI Multi-Injection Diesel Engine Emission and Performance

Reductions in fuel consumption, noise level, and pollutant emissions such as, Nitrogen Oxide (NOX) and Particulate Matter (PM), from direct-injection (DI) diesel engines are important issues in engine research. To achieve these reductions, many technologies such as high injection pressure, multiple injection, retarded injection timing, EGR, and high swirl ratio have been used in high-efficiency DI diesel engines in order to achieve combustion and emission control. However, each technology has its own advantages and disadvantages, and there is a very strong interaction between these methods when they are simultaneously used in the engine. This study presents a computational study of both the individual effect and their interactions of injection timing, EGR and swirl ratio separately and their interaction in a HSDI common rail diesel engine using the KIVA-3V code.
Technical Paper

Effects of Air/Fuel Ratios and EGR Rates on HCCI Combustion of n-heptane, a Diesel Type Fuel

The effects of Air/Fuel (A/F) ratios and Exhaust Gas Re-Circulation (EGR) rates on Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion of n-heptane have been experimentally investigated. The experiments were carried out in a single-cylinder, 4-stroke and variable compression-ratio engine equipped with a port fuel injector. Investigations concentrate on the HCCI combustion of n-heptane at different A/F ratios, EGR rates and their effects on knock limit, engine load, combustion variability, and engine-out emissions such as NOx, CO, and unburned HC. Variations of auto-ignition timings and combustion durations in the two-stage combustion process are analyzed in detail. Results show that HCCI combustion with a diesel type fuel can be implemented at room temperature with a conventional diesel engine compression-ratio. However, its knock limit occurs at very high A/F ratios, although high EGR rates can be tolerated.