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Technical Paper

Prediction of Spindle Force Using Measured Road Forces on Rolling Tire

Improvement of vehicle interior noise is desired in recent years in the modern world of the demand of low weight, good fuel economy and offering technical advantages strongly. The dynamic force transmission of rolling tires from the road surface to the spindles is a critical factor in vehicle interior noise. We focus on structure-borne noise transferred through the spindle. It is necessary for effort of the effective tire/road noise reduction to predict spindle force excited by tire/road contact. The major issues in predicting spindle forces are to clarify the distribution of road forces and how to input on the simulation model. Therefore, it is important that road forces are measured accurately on the rolling tire. First, the dynamic road forces on the rolling tire are measured by using the tri-axial force sensor directly. In efforts to reduce interior noise due to structure-borne noise, it is necessary to predict spindle forces excited by the tire/road contact.
Technical Paper

Cooperative Steer Control on Motorcycle between Rider and Active Support Torque

In this research, we aim at the construction of a steering cooperation-type front-wheel steering control system to reduce the rider's steering load by stabilizing the behavior of the motorcycle when turbulence in the direction of a roll occurs during low-speed driving. Finally, a front-wheel steering control system that considers cooperation with a rider's steering based on the experimental result is constructed, and the utility is verified by simulation.
Technical Paper

Effects of Ambient Temperature and Oxygen Concentration on Soot Behavior in Diesel Flame

This paper describes the soot behavior in a diesel flame. The experiments were carried out in a constant volume chamber with quiescent atmosphere. Parameters were the ambient temperature and the oxygen concentration. The integrated image of flame was taken, the natural emission of flame was detected and the KL factor was found by means of classical technique of laser light extinction. The results were discussed by use of the apparent rate of heat release. As a result, the ignition delay and the vortex with large scale generated in a diesel spray affect the soot behavior in a diesel flame.
Technical Paper

Damping loss factor prediction in statistical energy analysis for co-generation system enclosure

This paper describes damping loss factor prediction in statistical energy analysis (SEA) for co-generation system (CGS) enclosures. To accurately predict vibration and noise by SEA, it is important to estimate parameters called the damping and coupling loss factors. In this study, the damping loss factors were estimated by the decay ratio method and a technique for calculating the modal damping ratio that uses a multi-degree of freedom curve fit. The calculated loss factor was applied to the vibration prediction of the co-generation system, and the influence of the internal loss factor calculation method on prediction accuracy was verified.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Feeling of Pulse for Cruiser-type Motorcycle

This paper describes the relationship between the rider's evaluation of feeling of pulse and the seat vibration of the cruiser-type motorcycle. A simulated running condition was created to measure the seat vibration and engine speed. Next, the seat vibration was reproduced on the hydrodynamic shaker. Finally, we examined the influence of which order of rotational speed effects evaluation of feeling of pulse in a forced vibration test. As a result, it is known that 0.5th and 1st orders of seat vibration contribute to evaluation of feeling of pulse near 1,500 to 2,000 rpm of engine rotation.
Journal Article

Dynamic Analysis of an Excavator During Digging Operation

Researches for automation of hydraulic excavators have been conducted for laborsaving, improved efficiency of operations and increased worker's safety improvement. Authors' final goal is to develop automatic digging system which can realize the high efficiency. Therefore, it is thought that appropriate digging control algorithm is important for the automation. For this goal, this paper shows a dynamics model of the backhoe excavator and simulations using such models. Detailed dynamic models are needed from the point of view of the control engineering. Authors evaluate effectiveness of automatic digging algorithm by simulation models. In this research, the linkage mechanism which contains the closed loops is modeled based on the Newton-Euler formulation, where motion equation is derived. Moreover, we apply a soil model for simulation, based on the two dimensional distinct element method (DEM), in order to reproduce reaction force from grounds.
Technical Paper

Examination of Digging Efficiency Considering Force Feedback for Hydraulic Excavators

A high performance digging algorithm for a hydraulic excavator has not been established because the relationship between digging parameters and digging performance is complex. An examination process for a high-performance digging algorithm is proposed. In this paper, the digging efficiency is defined as the soil volume derived by the applied energy to drive the bucket in order to evaluate digging performance. The digging algorithm, which we study for high digging efficiency, decreases the reaction force to the bucket from the soil by moving the bucket upward when the reaction force exceeds a threshold during digging. Digging tests are performed with a miniature test device and a simulation model by two-dimensional distinct element methods (2D-DEM). The device and the simulation assess the effectiveness of the digging algorithm. It is quantitatively shown that the digging performance obtained by the feedback digging system is improved to prevent growing of reaction force.
Technical Paper

A Measures Planning Method by Analysis of Contribution of the Vibration Transfer Path

This paper describes a proposal of techniques on Transfer Path Analysis (TPA) to analyze transmission of vibration among the components in a complex structure. This proposal is evolved from the previous one [1] in the dimension which dominates the quality of the analysis in automotive body structure by TPA. The proper coordinate transformation was introduced to resolve the troublesome process on the application of the body structure in the previous proposal. The complications are caused by the treatment with a lot of transfer functions and transmitted forces at the conjunctions that are complexly assembled with many adjacent nodes. Dimension of the analytical region is expanded from two to three in this study. That is, from the cross section of interface of components to the structure itself where the vibration transmits between two components.
Journal Article

Simultaneous Reduction of Pressure Rise Rate and Emissions in a Compression Ignition Engine by Use of Dual-Component Fuel Spray

Ignition, combustion and emissions characteristics of dual-component fuel spray were examined for ranges of injection timing and intake-air oxygen concentration. Fuels used were binary mixtures of gasoline-like component i-octane (cetane number 12, boiling point 372 K) and diesel fuel-like component n-tridecane (cetane number 88, boiling point 510 K). Mass fraction of i-octane was also changed as the experimental variable. The experimental study was carried out in a single cylinder compression ignition engine equipped with a common-rail injection system and an exhaust gas recirculation system. The results demonstrated that the increase of the i-octane mass fraction with optimizations of injection timing and intake oxygen concentration reduced pressure rise rate and soot and NOx emissions without deterioration of indicated thermal efficiency.
Technical Paper

The Power Performance and the Fuel Economy Estimation of HV for Vehicle Concept Planning Using VHDL-AMS Full Vehicle Simulation

In order to reduce CO₂, Electric Vehicles (EV) and Hybrid Vehicles (HV) are effective. Those types of vehicles have powertrains from conventional vehicles. Those new powertrains drastically improve their efficiency from conventional vehicles keeping the same or superior power performance. On the other hand, those vehicles have an issue for thermal energy shortage during warming up process. The thermal energy is very large, and seriously affects the fuel economy for HV and the mileage for EV. In this paper, we propose VHDL-AMS multi-domain simulation technique for the estimation of the vehicle performance at the concept planning stage. The VHDL-AMS is IEEE and IEC standardized language, which supports not only multi-domain (physics) but also encryption. The common modeling language and encryption standard is indispensable for full-vehicle simulation.
Technical Paper

Power Transmitting Mechanisms of CVT Using a Metal V-Belt and Load Distribution in the Steel Ring

An advanced numerical model is proposed to analyze the power transmitting mechanisms of a CVT using a metal V-belt. By using the present model, forces acting on the belt are well estimated not only at steady states but also during transitional states where the speed ratio is changing. The numerical results show that blocks are in compression in both strands when the speed ratio is rapidly shifted. A complementary model is also developed to analyze the load distribution among bands which form the ring. The load distribution in the ring is governed by the difference in coefficients of friction among elements.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Fuel Vapor Concentration Inside a Flash Boiling Spray

For current passenger vehicles, multi-point injection (MPI) systems are extensively employed for gasoline engines due to ease of control and rapid response. In these systems, the pressure within the intake manifold to which the injectors are installed can fall below the saturated vapor pressure of some hydrocarbon components present in the fuel. Such a condition leads to an atomization process in which flash boiling occurs. In the present work, the atomization process under flash boiling conditions has been characterized both experimentally and theoretically. The experimental investigation has been carried out with a spray test facility consisting of a variable pressure chamber equipped with a pintle type fuel nozzle. Infrared Extinction/Scattering (IRES) is utilized to provide temporal and spatially resolved distribution of the fuel vapor concentration within the spray.
Technical Paper

Effect of ADOIL TAC Additive on Diesel Combustion

Abstract Some papers on the combustion in a diesel engine have been already presented to discuss the effect of the additive called ADOIL TAC. A bottom view DI diesel engine driven at 980rpm with no load was used in the experiment presented here, in order to make clear this effect. JIS second class light diesel fuel oil was injected through a hole nozzle at the normal test run. The additive was intermixed 0.01 vol. % in this fuel oil, in the experiments to compare with the normal combustion. The flame was taken by direct high-speed photography. Profiles of flame temperature and KL were detected on the film by image processing, applying the two-color method. Soot was visualized by high-speed laser shadowgraphy, and the heat release rate was calculated using the cylinder pressure diagram. Discussion on the effect of the additive on the combustion phenomena was made by using all the data.
Technical Paper

Heat Flux between Impinged Diesel Spray and Flat Wall

In a high-speed DI diesel engine, fuel sprays impinge surely on a wall of a piston cavity. Then the phenomenon of the heat transfer between the impinged spray and the wall appears and it has the strong effect on the combustion processes of the engine. The purpose of this study are to clarify basically the heat transfer characteristics. In the experiments, the fuel was injected into the quiescent inert atmosphere with a high temperature under high pressure field, and an evaporative single diesel spray was impinging upon a flat wall. And, the temperature distribution on the wall surface in a radial direction was detected by the Loex-Constantan thin film thermo-couples. Thus, the heat flux between the impinged spray and the wall surface was calculated from the temperature profile within the wall by Fourier's equation using the finite difference method, under the assumption of the one-dimensional heat conduction.
Technical Paper

New Concept on Lower Exhaust Emission of Diesel Engine

One of countermeasures for exhaust emissions from a diesel engine, especially, DI diesel engine, is the use of a super high pressure injection system with a small hole diameter. However, the system needs greater driving force than that with normal injection pressure, and its demerit is increase in NOx, although soot is decreasing. Then, authors propose the new concept on the simultaneous reduction of NOx and soot. The concept is that the utilization of flash boiling phenomenon in a diesel engine. The phenomenon can be realized by use of the injection of fuel oil with CO2 gas dissolved. Flash boiling facilitates the distinguished atomization of fuel oil and CO2 gas contributes to realizes the internal EGR during combustion. Fundamental information on the characteristics of a flash boiling spray of n-tridecane with CO2 gas dissolved is described in this paper, as a first step.
Technical Paper

Engine Mounting Layout by Air Suspension

In this study, the air suspension is newly applied to the engine mounting layout for getting the significant vibration isolation effect. In this case, the genetic algorithm so called GA is also applied for the optimization of many parameters, calculations of stiffness matrix and inverse stiffness matrix to prevent the coupled vibration of lateral and rolling modes and to obtain the displacement of each mounting point. As a result, inexperienced engineers can easily obtain the optimum engine mounting layout in a minute. By the confirmation test of FEM, the engine lateral vibration level at 25Hz dropped below 1/10 and its effect was significant.
Technical Paper

Rolling Tire Vibration Caused by Road Roughness

To reduce tire/road noise, it is important to examine the noise generation mechanism. Noise generated by a rolling tire is mainly emitted from the tread block. However, it has recently been reported that smooth tires also generate noise recently. This paper remarks on a smooth tire vibration by rolling on the road. The vibration of a rolling smooth tire is mainly vibration excited from the road surface. It is difficult to measure the input from the road surface, so we measured the tire's vibration at the leading and trailing edges. Scan Laser Doppler Vibrometers were employed to measure the vibration of the tire tread.
Technical Paper

Prediction of Crack Initiation for One-Piece Type Brake Disc for Motorcycles under Overload Condition

A prediction method was proposed for crack initiation in one-piece type brake discs under extreme braking conditions. Braking tests under extreme loading conditions were conducted by using sample discs. The variations of internal temperatures and surface strains at several locations were measured by using thermocouples and strain gages. In order to obtain the S-N curve of the disc material, specimens with a hole in their center were used for the fatigue test in which an alternative strain was cyclically applied. The numbers of strain cycles, when a 0.3mm crack initiated from the hole, were analyzed by the Weibull plot. The maximum and minimum strains at the hole edge were estimated by calculation considering the temperature variation with respect to time as well as the strain induced by friction due to braking pads. The number of cycles corresponding to the strain amplitude range was estimated by the rain-flow method.
Technical Paper

Large Eddy Simulation of Diesel Spray Combustion with Eddy-Dissipation Model and CIP Method by Use of KIVALES

Three-dimensional large eddy simulation (LES) has been conducted for a diesel spray flame using KIVALES which is LES version of KIVA code. Modified TAB model, velocity interpolation model and rigid sphere model are used to improve the prediction of the fuel-mixture process in the diesel spray. Combustion is simulated using the Eddy-Dissipation model. CIP method was incorporated into the KIVALES in order to suppress the numerical instability on the combustible flow. The formation of soot and NO was simulated using Hiroyasu model and KIVA original model. Three different grid resolutions were used to examine the grid dependency. The result shows that the LES approach with 0.5 mm grid size is able to resolve the instantaneous spray with the intermittency in the spray periphery, the axi-symmetric shape and meandering flow after the end of injection as shown in the experimental results.
Technical Paper

Application of the Contribution Analysis of the Vibration Source using Partial Coherence

Operator comfort is an important design criteria for hydraulic excavators during working and idling conditions. An engine, a cooling fan motor and a pump are installed on a hydraulic excavator. It is hard to identify the vibration contribution to a response because three sources are synchronizingly working. This paper describes the use of partial coherence measurement techniques for source identification. And it is examined to reduce the vibration of the source component identified by the partial coherence results. Finally, it is verified that the response acceleration is effectively decreased by reducing the vibration of the identified component.