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Technical Paper

Characterization of Brake Torque Variation of Wave Type Brake Disc for Motorcycles

2009-10-11
2009-01-3023
The purpose of this study is to characterize the brake torque variation (BTV) of the developed brake system using wave type brake disc. The brake torque was fluctuated when the pad passed at the point of the wavy shape. The indentation of the pad into the space of wavy shape was observed. These results indicate that remarkable peak of the BTV of the wave type brake disc was related with the pad deformation. In the devised test, remarkable peak of the BTV of the wave type brake disc was decreased by insertion of spacers. This paper proposed an effective aspect to prevent the BTV of the wave type brake disc.
Technical Paper

Demonstrating the Potential of Mixture Distribution Control for Controlled Combustion and Emissions Reduction in Premixed Charge Compression Ignition Engines

2009-04-20
2009-01-0498
The objective of this study is to explore the relation among mixture distribution condition, chemical character of fuel, combustion processes, and emissions characteristics with premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) operation. The present experiment employs two fuel injectors which are capable of port injection and direct one. The former was used to supply a highly-homogeneous mixture and the latter with late injection timing was employed to control the mixture heterogeneity. Thus, these sets of injection equipments are capable of setting a wide variety of mixture heterogeneity. Furthermore, two primary reference fuels were used in order to know the influences of chemical character. The experiments were conducted in order to clarify the combustion and emissions characteristics through engine tests. Optical diagnostic was also performed to gain additional insight into the combustion processes for a wide variety of mixture distribution.
Technical Paper

Application of Multi-objective Optimization to Exhaust Silencer Design

2007-05-15
2007-01-2210
This paper describes how use of multi-objective optimization of pulsating noise and backpressure improved an exhaust silencer for diesel drive equipment. Low frequency pulsating noise and backpressure were simultaneously predicted using one-dimensional fluid dynamics and acoustic analysis by BEM. In addition, an experiment was done to investigate the relation between high frequency noise including flow-induced noise and the dimensions of perforations in silencer pipes. Finally, a prototype of the exhaust silencer was built and examined in order to confirm the effects of these design methods mentioned. As predicted, exhaust noise was reduced without increasing backpressure.
Technical Paper

Compressible Large-Eddy Simulation of Diesel Spray Structure using OpenFOAM

2015-09-01
2015-01-1858
The compressible Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) for the diesel spray with OpenFOAM is presented to reduce CPU time by massively parallel computing of the scalar type supercomputer (CRAY XE6) and simulate the development of the non-evaporative and the evaporative spray. The maximum computational speeds are 14 times (128 cores) and 43 times (128 cores) for of the non-evaporative spray and the spray flame with one-step reaction, respectively, compared to the one core simulation. In the spray flame simulation with the reduced reaction mechanism (29 species, 52 reactions), the maximum computational speed is 149 times (512 cores). Then LES of the non-evaporative and the evaporative spray (Spray A) are calculated. The results indicate that the spray tip penetration is well predicted, although the size of the computational domain must be set equal to that of the experiment.
Technical Paper

The Spray Feature of Direct Injection Gasoline Engine with Super High Spatial Resolution Photography

2015-09-01
2015-01-1892
In direct injection spark ignition (DISI), spray characteristics such as the penetration, spatial dispersion, droplet size distribution and the spray wall interaction process are extremely important to control the combustion process through the mixture formation process. Furthermore, the spray basic feature including the spatial and temporal changes is the key issue to reduce the Particulate Matter (PM) & HC emissions. In this study, we reveal both of the macroscopic and microscopic structures of the spray dynamics by Super High Spatial Resolution Photography (SHSRP). Furthermore, it is found that the simulated spray structure such as the penetration and droplet size distribution using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code is well consistent with the experimental results.
Technical Paper

Visualization of Cavitation Inside Nozzle Hole and Injected Liquid Jet

2015-09-01
2015-01-1908
The atomization structure of the fuel spray is known to be affected by flow conditions and cavitation inside the nozzle hole. In this paper, the cavitation phenomena inside the nozzle hole was visualized by using large-scale transparent nozzles, as well as the effect of length-to-width ratio (l/w ratio) of the nozzle hole on cavitation and on the behavior of injection liquid jet. In addition, various flow patterns inside the nozzle hole same as experimental conditions were simulated by the use of Cavitation model incorporated in Star-CCM+, which was compared with experimental results.
Technical Paper

Artificial Control of Diesel Spray and Flame Feature by using Dual-component Fuel

2015-09-01
2015-01-1916
Fuel design approach has been proposed as the control technique of spray and combustion processes in diesel engine to improve thermal efficiency and reduce exhaust emissions. In order to kwow if this approach is capable of controlling spray flame structure and interaction between the flame and a combustion chamber wall, the present study investigated ignition and flame characteristics of dual-component fuels, while varying mixing fraction, fuel temperature and ambient conditions. Those characteristics were evaluated through chemiluminescence photography and luminous flame photography. OH radical images and visible luminous flame images were analyzed to reveal flame shape aspect ratio and its fractal dimension.
Technical Paper

Identification of Sound Source Model Using Inverse-Numerical Acoustic Analysis and Noise Prediction for Engine Enclosure

2015-06-15
2015-01-2250
Abstract This paper describes the identification of a sound source model for diesel engines installed on agricultural machines by using Inverse-Numerical Acoustic (INA) analysis, and noise predictions using the sound source model identified by INA. INA is a method of identifying surface vibrations from surrounding sound pressures. This method can be applied to sound sources with complicated shapes like those in engines. Although many studies on INA have been conducted, these past studies have focused on improvements to the identified accuracy and prediction of noise in free sound field or hemi-free sound field. The authors accurately predicted the sound pressure levels of engine enclosures using a sound source model identified by INA and a boundary element method (BEM). However, we had not yet verified the effectiveness of this sound source model against enclosures that had sound absorbing materials and openings.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of Superheated Fuel Spray Characteristics for D.I.S.I Engines

2017-03-28
2017-01-0820
Abstract The flash boiling by fuel heating is a useful method to control the time spatial spray characteristics such as atomization of droplets, vaporization and air-fuel mixture concentration. It is one of the important phenomena for a direct injection gasoline engine (D.I.S.I) as a next generation powertrain. This report focuses on flash boiling spray using fuel heating. The purpose of this study is to understand its physical phenomena with scattered light method, schlieren photography, and Super High Spatial Resolution Photography (SHSRP). Fuel is iso-octane and injectors are a single hole nozzle and a multi hole nozzle. These are used for the basic phenomenon analysis. The influence on spray shape can be shown by schlieren photography. Spray droplet diameter and spray dispersion at the nozzle exit are observed by super high spatial resolution photography that is our original development technique.
Technical Paper

Reduction of Reaction Mechanism for n-Tridecane Based on Knowledge of Detailed Reaction Paths

2016-10-17
2016-01-2238
Abstract n-Tridecane is a low boiling point component of gas oil, and has been used as a single-component fuel for diesel spray and combustion experiments. However, no reduced chemical kinetic mechanisms for n-tridecane have been presented for three-dimensional modeling. A detailed mechanism developed by KUCRS (Knowledge-basing Utilities for Complex Reaction Systems), contains 1493 chemical species and 3641 reactions. Reaction paths during ignition process for n-tridecane in air computed using the detailed mechanism, were analyzed with the equivalence ratio of 0.75 and the initial temperatures of 650 K, 850 K, and 1100 K, which are located in the cool-flame dominant, negative-temperature coefficient, and blue-flame dominant regions, respectively.
Technical Paper

Application of Transfer Path Analysis (TPA) to a Mechanical Structure with a Variety of Transfer Paths

2016-09-27
2016-01-8101
Abstract In a typical mechanical product such as an automobile or construction machinery, it is important to identify deformation modes, for which experiments and analyses can result in significant improvements. It is also important to consider how to improve the structure with high rigidity by using a technique such as the strain energy method in conventional design and development. However, the abovementioned method often generates conflicting results with regard to weight saving and cost reduction of development requirements. Transfer path analysis (TPA) using the finite element method (FEM) is an effective way to reduce noise and vibration in the automobile with respect to these issues. TPA can reveal the transfer path from the input to the response of the output point and the contribution of the path, and to efficiently consider improved responses.
Technical Paper

Simultaneous Measurement of Fuel Droplet Deposition Amount and Oil Film Thickness on Spray Impingement Using Double Laser Induced Fluorescence Method

2017-10-08
2017-01-2371
Abstract Diesel Particulate filter (DPF) is installed as after treatment device of exhaust gas in diesel engine, and collects the Particulate Matter (PM). However, as the operation time of engine increases, PM is accumulated in the DPF, resulting in deterioration of PM collection efficiency and increasing in pressure loss. Therefore, Post injection has been attracted attention as DPF regeneration method for burning and removing PM in DPF. However, Post injection causes oil dilution when fuel is injected at the middle to late stage of expansion stroke. Oil dilution are concerned to deteriorate the sliding property of piston and the thermal efficiency. For this reason, it is necessary to elucidate the mechanism and the behavior that spray impinges lubricating oil film. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to construct model of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) that predicts amount of oil dilution which is concern for post injection in diesel engine, with high accuracy.
Technical Paper

Vibration Analysis of Rotating Tires Focused on Effect of Rotation Using a Three - Dimensional Flexible Ring Model

2017-06-05
2017-01-1903
Abstract The tire is one of the most important parts, which influence the noise, vibration, and harshness of the passenger cars. It is well known that effect of rotation influences tire vibration characteristics, and earlier studies presented formulas of tire vibration behavior. However, there are no studies of tire vibration including lateral vibration on effect of rotation. In this paper, we present new formulas of tire vibration on effect of rotation using a three-dimensional flexible ring model. The model consists of the cylindrical ring represents the tread and the springs represent the sidewall stiffness. The equation of motion of lateral, longitudinal, and radial vibration on the tread are derived based on the assumption of inextensional deformation. Many of the associated numerical parameters are identified from experimental tests.
Journal Article

Simultaneous Reduction of Pressure Rise Rate and Emissions in a Compression Ignition Engine by Use of Dual-Component Fuel Spray

2012-10-23
2012-32-0031
Ignition, combustion and emissions characteristics of dual-component fuel spray were examined for ranges of injection timing and intake-air oxygen concentration. Fuels used were binary mixtures of gasoline-like component i-octane (cetane number 12, boiling point 372 K) and diesel fuel-like component n-tridecane (cetane number 88, boiling point 510 K). Mass fraction of i-octane was also changed as the experimental variable. The experimental study was carried out in a single cylinder compression ignition engine equipped with a common-rail injection system and an exhaust gas recirculation system. The results demonstrated that the increase of the i-octane mass fraction with optimizations of injection timing and intake oxygen concentration reduced pressure rise rate and soot and NOx emissions without deterioration of indicated thermal efficiency.
Technical Paper

Prediction of Spindle Force Using Measured Road Forces on Rolling Tire

2009-05-19
2009-01-2107
Improvement of vehicle interior noise is desired in recent years in the modern world of the demand of low weight, good fuel economy and offering technical advantages strongly. The dynamic force transmission of rolling tires from the road surface to the spindles is a critical factor in vehicle interior noise. We focus on structure-borne noise transferred through the spindle. It is necessary for effort of the effective tire/road noise reduction to predict spindle force excited by tire/road contact. The major issues in predicting spindle forces are to clarify the distribution of road forces and how to input on the simulation model. Therefore, it is important that road forces are measured accurately on the rolling tire. First, the dynamic road forces on the rolling tire are measured by using the tri-axial force sensor directly. In efforts to reduce interior noise due to structure-borne noise, it is necessary to predict spindle forces excited by the tire/road contact.
Technical Paper

A Measures Planning Method by Analysis of Contribution of the Vibration Transfer Path

2009-05-19
2009-01-2197
This paper describes a proposal of techniques on Transfer Path Analysis (TPA) to analyze transmission of vibration among the components in a complex structure. This proposal is evolved from the previous one [1] in the dimension which dominates the quality of the analysis in automotive body structure by TPA. The proper coordinate transformation was introduced to resolve the troublesome process on the application of the body structure in the previous proposal. The complications are caused by the treatment with a lot of transfer functions and transmitted forces at the conjunctions that are complexly assembled with many adjacent nodes. Dimension of the analytical region is expanded from two to three in this study. That is, from the cross section of interface of components to the structure itself where the vibration transmits between two components.
Technical Paper

Examination of Digging Efficiency Considering Force Feedback for Hydraulic Excavators

2010-10-05
2010-01-1923
A high performance digging algorithm for a hydraulic excavator has not been established because the relationship between digging parameters and digging performance is complex. An examination process for a high-performance digging algorithm is proposed. In this paper, the digging efficiency is defined as the soil volume derived by the applied energy to drive the bucket in order to evaluate digging performance. The digging algorithm, which we study for high digging efficiency, decreases the reaction force to the bucket from the soil by moving the bucket upward when the reaction force exceeds a threshold during digging. Digging tests are performed with a miniature test device and a simulation model by two-dimensional distinct element methods (2D-DEM). The device and the simulation assess the effectiveness of the digging algorithm. It is quantitatively shown that the digging performance obtained by the feedback digging system is improved to prevent growing of reaction force.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Feeling of Pulse for Cruiser-type Motorcycle

2009-11-03
2009-32-0131
This paper describes the relationship between the rider's evaluation of feeling of pulse and the seat vibration of the cruiser-type motorcycle. A simulated running condition was created to measure the seat vibration and engine speed. Next, the seat vibration was reproduced on the hydrodynamic shaker. Finally, we examined the influence of which order of rotational speed effects evaluation of feeling of pulse in a forced vibration test. As a result, it is known that 0.5th and 1st orders of seat vibration contribute to evaluation of feeling of pulse near 1,500 to 2,000 rpm of engine rotation.
Technical Paper

Damping loss factor prediction in statistical energy analysis for co-generation system enclosure

2009-11-03
2009-32-0128
This paper describes damping loss factor prediction in statistical energy analysis (SEA) for co-generation system (CGS) enclosures. To accurately predict vibration and noise by SEA, it is important to estimate parameters called the damping and coupling loss factors. In this study, the damping loss factors were estimated by the decay ratio method and a technique for calculating the modal damping ratio that uses a multi-degree of freedom curve fit. The calculated loss factor was applied to the vibration prediction of the co-generation system, and the influence of the internal loss factor calculation method on prediction accuracy was verified.
Technical Paper

Cooperative Steer Control on Motorcycle between Rider and Active Support Torque

2009-11-03
2009-32-0060
In this research, we aim at the construction of a steering cooperation-type front-wheel steering control system to reduce the rider's steering load by stabilizing the behavior of the motorcycle when turbulence in the direction of a roll occurs during low-speed driving. Finally, a front-wheel steering control system that considers cooperation with a rider's steering based on the experimental result is constructed, and the utility is verified by simulation.
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