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Technical Paper

Soot Kinetic Modeling and Empirical Validation on Smokeless Diesel Combustion with Oxygenated Fuels

This paper provides new insights on the mechanism of the smokeless diesel combustion with oxygenated fuels, based on a combination of soot kinetic modeling and optical diagnostics. The chemical effects of fuel compositions, including aromatics - paraffins blend, neat oxygenated fuels and oxygenate additives, on sooting equivalence ratio ‘ϕ’ - temperature ‘T’ dependence were numerically examined using a detailed soot kinetic model. To better understand the physical factors affecting soot formation in oxygenated fuel sprays, the effects of injection pressure and ambient gas temperature on the flame lift-off length and relative soot concentration in oxygenated fuel jets were experimentally investigated. The computational results show that the leaner mixture side of soot formation peninsula on the ϕ - T map, rather than the lower temperature one, should be utilized to suppress the formation of PAHs and ultra-fine particles together with the large reduction in particulate mass.
Technical Paper

Fuel Design Concept for Low Emission in Engine Systems 4th Report: Effect of Spray Characteristics of Mixed Fuel on Exhaust Concentrations in Diesel Engine

In this study, the novel fuel design concept has been proposed in order to realize the low emission and combustion control in engine systems. In this fuel design concept, the mixed fuels with a high volatility fuel (gasoline or gaseous fuel components) and a low volatility fuel (gas oil or fuel oil components) are used in order to improve the spray characteristics by flash boiling. In our previous papers on this study, the fundamental characteristics of spray and its combustion of mixed fuel were reported. In this paper, heat release and exhaust emission (smoke, NOx and THC) characteristics of single cylinder diesel engine operated with the mixed fuels were investigated under each load. The exhaust performance of diesel engine could be improved using mixed fuel, because fuel properties and spray characteristics were controlled by changing mixing fraction of the mixed fuel.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Fuel Vapor Concentration Inside a Flash Boiling Spray

For current passenger vehicles, multi-point injection (MPI) systems are extensively employed for gasoline engines due to ease of control and rapid response. In these systems, the pressure within the intake manifold to which the injectors are installed can fall below the saturated vapor pressure of some hydrocarbon components present in the fuel. Such a condition leads to an atomization process in which flash boiling occurs. In the present work, the atomization process under flash boiling conditions has been characterized both experimentally and theoretically. The experimental investigation has been carried out with a spray test facility consisting of a variable pressure chamber equipped with a pintle type fuel nozzle. Infrared Extinction/Scattering (IRES) is utilized to provide temporal and spatially resolved distribution of the fuel vapor concentration within the spray.
Technical Paper

New Concept on Lower Exhaust Emission of Diesel Engine

One of countermeasures for exhaust emissions from a diesel engine, especially, DI diesel engine, is the use of a super high pressure injection system with a small hole diameter. However, the system needs greater driving force than that with normal injection pressure, and its demerit is increase in NOx, although soot is decreasing. Then, authors propose the new concept on the simultaneous reduction of NOx and soot. The concept is that the utilization of flash boiling phenomenon in a diesel engine. The phenomenon can be realized by use of the injection of fuel oil with CO2 gas dissolved. Flash boiling facilitates the distinguished atomization of fuel oil and CO2 gas contributes to realizes the internal EGR during combustion. Fundamental information on the characteristics of a flash boiling spray of n-tridecane with CO2 gas dissolved is described in this paper, as a first step.
Technical Paper

Effect of ADOIL TAC Additive on Diesel Combustion

Some papers on the combustion in a diesel engine have been already presented to discuss the effect of the additive called ADOIL TAC. A bottom view DI diesel engine driven at 980rpm with no load was used in the experiment presented here, in order to make clear this effect. JIS second class light diesel fuel oil was injected through a hole nozzle at the normal test run. The additive was intermixed 0.01 vol. % in this fuel oil, in the experiments to compare with the normal combustion. The flame was taken by direct high-speed photography. Profiles of flame temperature and KL were detected on the film by image processing, applying the two-color method. Soot was visualized by high-speed laser shadowgraphy, and the heat release rate was calculated using the cylinder pressure diagram. Discussion on the effect of the additive on the combustion phenomena was made by using all the data.
Technical Paper

Similarity Law of Entrainment into Diesel Spray and Steady Spray

The surroundings around the diesel spray are entrained during the growth of the spray. The mixing process between the evaporated fuel oil and the entrained surroundings, that is, the entrainment, has a significant meaning for the combustion diesel engine. It is difficult to detect the movement of the entrainment because the diesel spray is the gas-liquid two-phase flow and the unsteady phenomenon within a few milliseconds. Then, in order to clarify and to generalize the movement of entrainment, following three experiments were done. 1)Two-dimensional steady water spray -flat spray- injected into the ambient atmosphere, using tuft and hot wire method. 2) Unsteady water jet injected into water, using tracer. 3)single diesel spray injected into the atmosphere with high pressure at room temperature, using smoke wire.
Technical Paper

Transient Characteristics of Fuel Atomization and Droplet Size Distribution in Diesel Fuel Spray

The purposes of this study are to clarify the atomization mechanism, the change over time in droplet size distribution, and the change in spray characteristics dependent on back pressure on diesel fuel spray. Diesel spray injected into a quiescent gaseous environment under high pressure is observed by taking direct microscopic photographs varying the moment of exposure, the back pressure, and the ambient density. The results show that the mechanism of spray atomization is divided into 4 processes, and spatial distribution of breakup droplets and a droplet volume rate are assessed for the whole spray region. Total and local distributions of droplet size are expressed by empirical equations as a function of time elapsed from the moment of injection. It is confirmed that the uniformity of the distribution, Sauter mean diameter of droplets, and droplet production rate change with time. Mean droplet diameter is further described in relation to the pressure drop and the ambient density.
Technical Paper

Examination of Digging Efficiency Considering Force Feedback for Hydraulic Excavators

A high performance digging algorithm for a hydraulic excavator has not been established because the relationship between digging parameters and digging performance is complex. An examination process for a high-performance digging algorithm is proposed. In this paper, the digging efficiency is defined as the soil volume derived by the applied energy to drive the bucket in order to evaluate digging performance. The digging algorithm, which we study for high digging efficiency, decreases the reaction force to the bucket from the soil by moving the bucket upward when the reaction force exceeds a threshold during digging. Digging tests are performed with a miniature test device and a simulation model by two-dimensional distinct element methods (2D-DEM). The device and the simulation assess the effectiveness of the digging algorithm. It is quantitatively shown that the digging performance obtained by the feedback digging system is improved to prevent growing of reaction force.
Technical Paper

The Spray Feature of Direct Injection Gasoline Engine with Super High Spatial Resolution Photography

In direct injection spark ignition (DISI), spray characteristics such as the penetration, spatial dispersion, droplet size distribution and the spray wall interaction process are extremely important to control the combustion process through the mixture formation process. Furthermore, the spray basic feature including the spatial and temporal changes is the key issue to reduce the Particulate Matter (PM) & HC emissions. In this study, we reveal both of the macroscopic and microscopic structures of the spray dynamics by Super High Spatial Resolution Photography (SHSRP). Furthermore, it is found that the simulated spray structure such as the penetration and droplet size distribution using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code is well consistent with the experimental results.
Technical Paper

Artificial Control of Diesel Spray and Flame Feature by using Dual-component Fuel

Fuel design approach has been proposed as the control technique of spray and combustion processes in diesel engine to improve thermal efficiency and reduce exhaust emissions. In order to kwow if this approach is capable of controlling spray flame structure and interaction between the flame and a combustion chamber wall, the present study investigated ignition and flame characteristics of dual-component fuels, while varying mixing fraction, fuel temperature and ambient conditions. Those characteristics were evaluated through chemiluminescence photography and luminous flame photography. OH radical images and visible luminous flame images were analyzed to reveal flame shape aspect ratio and its fractal dimension.
Technical Paper

Improvement of Spray and Combustion Process by Applying CO2 Gas Dissolved Fuel

The CO2 gas dissolved fuel for the diesel combustion is effective to reduce the NOx emissions to achieve the internal EGR (Exhaust Gas Recirculation) effect by fuel. This method has supplied EGR gas to the fuel side instead of supply EGR gas to the intake gas side. The fuel has followed specific characteristics for the diesel combustion. When the fuel is injected into the chamber in low pressure, this CO2 gas is separated from the fuel spray. The distribution characteristics of the spray are improved and the improvement of the thermal efficiency by reduction heat loss in the combustion chamber wall, and reduce soot emissions by the lean combustion is expected. Furthermore, this CO2 gas decreases the flame temperature. Further, it is anticipated to reduce NOx emissions by the spray internal EGR effect.
Technical Paper

Construction of Sound Source Model for Diesel Engine Using New Method for Selecting Optimal Field Points in Inverse-Numerical Acoustic Analysis

This paper describes new method for selecting optimal field points in Inverse-Numerical Acoustic analysis (INA), and its application to construction of a sound source model for diesel engines. INA identifies the surface vibration of a sound source by using acoustic transfer functions and actual sound pressures measured at field points located near the sound source. When measuring sound pressures with INA, it is necessary to determine the field point arrangement. Increased field points leads to longer test and analysis time. Therefore, guidelines for selecting the field point arrangement are needed to conduct INA efficiently. The authors focused on the standard deviations of distance between sound source elements and field points and proposed a new guideline for optimal field point selection in our past study. In that study, we verified the effectiveness of this guideline using a simple plate model.
Technical Paper

Simultaneous Measurement of Fuel Droplet Deposition Amount and Oil Film Thickness on Spray Impingement Using Double Laser Induced Fluorescence Method

Diesel Particulate filter (DPF) is installed as after treatment device of exhaust gas in diesel engine, and collects the Particulate Matter (PM). However, as the operation time of engine increases, PM is accumulated in the DPF, resulting in deterioration of PM collection efficiency and increasing in pressure loss. Therefore, Post injection has been attracted attention as DPF regeneration method for burning and removing PM in DPF. However, Post injection causes oil dilution when fuel is injected at the middle to late stage of expansion stroke. Oil dilution are concerned to deteriorate the sliding property of piston and the thermal efficiency. For this reason, it is necessary to elucidate the mechanism and the behavior that spray impinges lubricating oil film. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to construct model of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) that predicts amount of oil dilution which is concern for post injection in diesel engine, with high accuracy.
Technical Paper

Effects of Ambient Temperature and Oxygen Concentration on Soot Behavior in Diesel Flame

This paper describes the soot behavior in a diesel flame. The experiments were carried out in a constant volume chamber with quiescent atmosphere. Parameters were the ambient temperature and the oxygen concentration. The integrated image of flame was taken, the natural emission of flame was detected and the KL factor was found by means of classical technique of laser light extinction. The results were discussed by use of the apparent rate of heat release. As a result, the ignition delay and the vortex with large scale generated in a diesel spray affect the soot behavior in a diesel flame.
Technical Paper

Study on Low Speed Judder of Wave Type Brake Discs for Motorcycles

This study discussed the mechanism of the low speed judder for wave type brake disc developed newly for recent motorcycles. Wavy disc was examined to investigate the effect of wave configurations on the BTV (Brake Torque Variation) behavior. Torque amplitude in braking was compared with respect to the revolution order which represented the multiple number of the number of revolutions. To explain the mechanism at the mode showing largest BTV, the elastic deformation of the pad was analyzed by finite element method concerning geometrical nonlinearity with commercial code. This study found that most crucial BTV appeared on low speed judder was observed at the 3 rd peaks on the revolution order. Test data showed that this crucial BTV was related with the number of waves at the disc periphery, and caused by the indentation of the pad into notched part at disc periphery.
Technical Paper

Large Eddy Simulation of Diesel Spray Combustion with Eddy-Dissipation Model and CIP Method by Use of KIVALES

Three-dimensional large eddy simulation (LES) has been conducted for a diesel spray flame using KIVALES which is LES version of KIVA code. Modified TAB model, velocity interpolation model and rigid sphere model are used to improve the prediction of the fuel-mixture process in the diesel spray. Combustion is simulated using the Eddy-Dissipation model. CIP method was incorporated into the KIVALES in order to suppress the numerical instability on the combustible flow. The formation of soot and NO was simulated using Hiroyasu model and KIVA original model. Three different grid resolutions were used to examine the grid dependency. The result shows that the LES approach with 0.5 mm grid size is able to resolve the instantaneous spray with the intermittency in the spray periphery, the axi-symmetric shape and meandering flow after the end of injection as shown in the experimental results.
Technical Paper

Measurement and Modeling on Wall Wetted Fuel Film Profile and Mixture Preparation in Intake Port of SI Engine

In SI engines with port injection system, the injected fuel spray adheres surely on the port wall and the inlet valve, consequently, the spray-wall interaction process leads to the generation of unburned hydrocarbons and uncontrollable mixture formation. This paper deals with the fuel mixture preparation process including basic research on characteristics of the wall-wetted fuel film on a flat wall inside a constant volume vessel. In the experiments, iso-octane mixed with biacetyl as a tracer dopant was injected through a pintle type injector against a flat glass wall under the ambient conditions of atmospheric pressure and room temperature. The thickness of the adhered fuel film on the wall was quantitatively measured by using laser induced fluorescence (LIF) technique, which provides 2-D distribution information with high special resolution as a function of the injection duration, the impingement distance from the injector to the wall, and the impingement angle against the wall.
Technical Paper

Low Emission Diesel Combustion System by Use of Reformulated Fuel with Liquefied CO2 and n-Tridecane

We propose a new concept on simultaneous reduction of NO and soot emissions in Diesel engine exhaust by use of the diesel fuel oil (n-Tridecane) with liquefied CO2 dissolved. The CO2 dissolved component is expected to undergo flash boiling or gas separation when being injected into the combustion chamber, and improve spray atomization and mixing process both of which are primary factors to govern soot formation. Further, the internal EGR effect caused by CO2 component injected with the fuel is expected for NO formation. In order to assess this concept, spray dynamics measurement was conducted in the constant volume vessel with a variation of ambient pressure and temperature. Further, combustion experiments were carried out by using a rapid compression and expansion machine. Here, characteristics of the evaporative mixed fuel spray were examined by shadowgraph photography.
Technical Paper

Dynamic Characteristics of a Mount Combining Viscous Fluid With Air-Spring

A hydraulic excavator cab is mounted on a viscous mount. When the weight of the cab is heavy, the neutral position is depressed. Besides, at a large load, the cab receives compressive repulsion power of oil thereby restricting its damping ability. In addition, it is difficult to obtain an arbitrary damping performance separately. To overcome these problems, which combines the shear force due to viscous fluid with elastic force due to air-spring a mount, was invented. The neutral position of composite mount is adjustable by air-spring according to the weight. And viscous oil is not sealed up. So, viscous oil can flow at a large load. Therefore, it may not experience the repulsion force of oil in spite of a large load. Moreover, the generated elastic force is adjustable according to change of pressure in the air spring, and the generated damping force is adjustable according to change of viscous fluid's viscosity or volume.
Technical Paper

Fuel Design Concept for Low Emission in Engine Systems

In previous our work, we revealed that the flash boiling process could improve remarkably the spray atomization for the pure substance-single component fuel in relation to the port-injected S.I. engines. Then, we applied this flash boiling spray to the Diesel spray process by the use of the two phase region formed between liquefied CO2 and n-Tridecane as the first step of fuel design concept. And the promoted atomization properties could be obtained in this mixed fuel concept. Further, we could obtain the simultaneous reduction of NO and soot emissions in Diesel engine exhaust due to the spray internal EGR effect and reburning of soot. As the second step, we proposed a novel fuel design concept for low exhaust emission and combustion control, relating to mixed and reformulated fuels with a lower boiling point fuel such as gasoline components or gas fuel and a higher boiling point fuel such as gas oil or heavy oil components to obtain the both advantages of their fuels for combustion.