Improved Simulation of Local Necks in Quick Plastic Forming
Two alternative finite element formulations are described which consider the influence of normal stress components on sheet deformations in Quick Plastic Forming . The new formulations, single field bricks and multi-field shells, were implemented in the forming simulation program PAM-STAMP  using a non-linear viscoelastic constitutive relation [3,4]. Simulations of two industrial components indicate that both new elements simulate local necking more accurately than the standard shells which ignore normal stresses. The multi-field shells require slightly more calculation time than the standard shells and significantly less than equivalent brick models.