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Technical Paper

LDA Measurements of Steady and Unsteady Flow Through the Induction System of a Heavy Duty Diesel Engine

1990-09-01
901576
LDA technique was used to investigate valve exit flow and in-cylinder flow generated by a directed intake port of a heavy duty Diesel engine under steady and unsteady conditions. The results obtained under both steady and unsteady show the flow patterns is very sensitive to the valve lift with this type of intake port. At small valve lift, flow profile around the valve periphery is relatively uniform, the corresponding in-cylinder flow is characteristic of double vortex. With valve lift increasing, the separating region appears near the valve seat in part of the valve periphery, therefore the flow pattern begins to depend on the position around the valve periphery. As a result, the valve exit flow is almost along the elongation of intake port at the maximum lift, the corresponding in-cylinder flow behaves as a solid body of rotation. The motion of valve seems to have little effects on the valve exit flow pattern.
Technical Paper

Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Spray Combustion Processes: Experiments and Numerical Simulations

2018-09-10
2018-01-1689
A contemporary approach for improving and developing the understanding of heavy-duty Diesel engine combustion processes is to use a concerted effort between experiments at well-characterized boundary conditions and detailed, high-fidelity models. In this paper, combustion processes of n-dodecane fuel sprays under heavy-duty Diesel engine conditions are investigated using this approach. Reacting fuel sprays are studied in a constant-volume pre-burn vessel at an ambient temperature of 900 K with three reference cases having specific combinations of injection pressure, ambient density and ambient oxygen concentration (80, 150 & 160 MPa - 22.8 & 40 kg/m3-15 & 20.5% O2). In addition to a free jet, two different walls were placed inside the combustion vessel to study flame-wall interaction.
Technical Paper

Design and Operation of a High Pressure, High Temperature Cell for HD Diesel Spray Diagnostics: Guidelines and Results

2009-04-20
2009-01-0649
This paper first compares strengths and weaknesses of different options for performing optical diagnostics on HD diesel sprays. Then, practical experiences are described with the design and operation of a constant volume test cell over a period of more than five years. In this test rig, pre-combustion of a lean gas mixture is used to generate realistic gas mixture conditions prior to fuel injection. Spray growth, vaporization are studied using Schlieren and Mie scattering experiments. The Schlieren set-up is also used for registration of light emitted by the combustion process; this can also provide information on ignition delay and on soot lift-off length. The paper further describes difficulties encountered with image processing and suggests methods on how to deal with them.
Technical Paper

Uncooled EGR as a Means of Limiting Wall-Wetting under Early Direct Injection Conditions

2009-04-20
2009-01-0665
Collision of injected fuel spray against the cylinder liner (wall-wetting) is one of the main hurdles that must be overcome in order for early direct injection Premixed Charge Compression Ignition (EDI PCCI) combustion to become a viable alternative for conventional DI diesel combustion. Preferably, the prevention of wall-wetting should be realized in a way of selecting appropriate (most favorable) operating conditions (EGR level, intake temperature, injection timing-strategy etc.) rather than mechanical modification of an engine (combustion chamber shape, injector replacement etc.). This paper presents the effect of external uncooled EGR (different fraction) on wall-wetting issues specified by two parameters, i.e. measured smoke number (experiment) and liquid spray penetration (model).
Technical Paper

Optimization of Operating Conditions in the Early Direct Injection Premixed Charge Compression Ignition Regime

2009-09-13
2009-24-0048
Early Direct Injection Premixed Charge Compression Ignition (EDI PCCI) is a widely researched combustion concept, which promises soot and CO2 emission levels of a spark-ignition (SI) and compression-ignition (CI) engine, respectively. Application of this concept to a conventional CI engine using a conventional CI fuel faces a number of challenges. First, EDI has the intrinsic risk of wall-wetting, i.e. collision of fuel against the combustion chamber periphery. Second, engine operation in the EDI regime is difficult to control as auto-ignition timing is largely decoupled from fuel injection timing. In dual-mode PCCI engines (i.e. conventional Dl at high loads) wall-wetting should be prevented by selecting appropriate (most favorable) operating conditions (EGR level, intake temperature, injection timing-strategy etc.) rather than by redesign of the engine (combustion chamber shape, injector replacement etc.).
Technical Paper

Modeling of Conventional and Early Diesel Injection Combustion Characteristics using FGM Approach

2013-04-08
2013-01-1108
The wide range of diesel engine operating conditions demand for a robust combustion model to account for inherent changes. In this work, the Flamelet Generate Manifold (FGM) approach is applied, in STAR-CD framework, to simulate the conventional injection- and early injection-timing (PCCI like) combustion regimes. Igniting Counter flow Diffusion Flamelets (ICDFs) and Homogeneous Reactors (HRs) are used to tabulate chemistry for conventional and PCCI combustion modes, respectively. The validation of the models with experimental data shows that the above consideration of chemistry tabulation results in accurate ignition delay predictions. The study reveals that a moderate amount of 5 different pressure levels is necessary to include in the FGM database to capture the ignition delay in both combustion regimes.
Technical Paper

Investigation on Differences in Engine Efficiency with Regard to Fuel Volatility and Engine Load

2008-10-06
2008-01-2385
An HSDI Diesel engine was fuelled with standard Swedish environmental class 1 Diesel fuel (MK1), Soy methyl ester (B100) and n-heptane (PRF0) to study the effects of both operating conditions and fuel properties on engine performance, resulting emissions and spray characteristics. All experiments were based on single injection diesel combustion. A load sweep was carried out between 2 and 10 bar IMEPg. For B100, a loss in combustion efficiency as well as ITE was observed at low load conditions. Observed differences in exhaust emissions were related to differences in mixing properties and spray characteristics. For B100, the emission results differed strongest at low load conditions but converged to MK1-like results with increasing load and increasing intake pressures. For these cases, spray geometry calculations indicated a longer spray tip penetration length. For low-density fuels (PRF0) the spray spreading angle was higher.
Technical Paper

On-Board Plasma Assisted Fuel Reforming

2011-09-11
2011-24-0088
It is well known that the addition of gaseous fuels to the intake manifold of diesel engines can have significant benefits in terms of both reducing emissions of hazardous gases and soot and improving fuel economy. Particularly, the addition of LPG has been investigated in numerous studies. Drawbacks, however, of such dual fuel strategies can be found in storage complexity and end-user inconvenience. It is for this reason that on-board refining of a single fuel (for example, diesel) could be an interesting alternative. A second-generation fuel reformer has been engineered and successfully tested. The reformer can work with both gaseous and liquid fuels and by means of partial oxidation of a rich fuel-air mix, converts these into syngas: a mixture of H₂ and CO. The process occurs as partial oxidation takes place in an adiabatic ceramic reaction chamber. High efficiency is ensured by the high temperature inside the chamber due to heat release.
Technical Paper

Non-Equilibrium Plasma Ignition for Internal Combustion Engines

2011-09-11
2011-24-0090
High-voltage nanosecond gas discharge has been shown to be an efficient way to ignite ultra-lean fuel air mixtures in a bulk volume, thanks to its ability to produce both high temperature and radical concentration in a large discharge zone. Recently, a feasibility study has been carried out to study plasma-assisted ignition under high-pressure high-temperature conditions similar to those inside an internal combustion engine. Ignition delay times were measured during the tests, and were shown to be decreasing under high-voltage plasma excitation. The discharge allowed instant control of ignition, and specific electrode geometry designs enabled volumetric ignition even at high-pressure conditions.
Technical Paper

Review on the Effects of Dual-Fuel Operation, Using Diesel and Gaseous Fuels, on Emissions and Performance

2012-04-16
2012-01-0869
In recent years the automotive industry has been forced to reduce the harmful and pollutant emissions emitted by direct-injected diesel engines. To accomplish this difficult task various solutions have been proposed. One of these proposed solutions is the usage of gaseous fuels in addition to the use of liquid diesel. These gaseous fuels have more gasoline-like properties, such as high octane numbers, and thereby are resistant against auto-ignition. Diesel on the other hand, has a high cetane number which makes it prone to auto-ignition. In this case the gaseous fuel is injected in the inlet manifold, and the diesel is direct injected in the cylinder at the end of the compression stroke. Thereby the diesel fuel spontaneously ignites and acts as an ignition source. The main goals for the use of a dual-fuel operation with diesel and gaseous fuels are the reduction of particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emission.
Technical Paper

Modeling Fuel Spray Auto-ignition using the FGM Approach: Effect of Tabulation Method

2012-04-16
2012-01-0157
The Flamelet Generated Manifold (FGM) method is a promising technique in engine combustion modeling to include tabulated chemistry. Different methodologies can be used for the generation of the manifold. Two approaches, based on igniting counterflow diffusion flamelets (ICDF) and homogeneous reactors (HR) are implemented and compared with Engine Combustion Network (ECN) experimental database for the baseline n-heptane case. Before analyzing the combustion results, the spray model is optimized after performing a sensitivity study with respect to turbulence models, cell sizes and time steps. The standard High Reynolds (Re) k-ε model leads to the best match of all turbulence models with the experimental data. For the convergence of the mixture fraction field an appropriate cell size is found to be smaller than that for an adequate spray penetration length which appears to be less influenced by the cell size.
Technical Paper

Emission Performance of Lignin-Derived Cyclic Oxygenates in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

2012-04-16
2012-01-1056
In earlier research, a new class of bio-fuels, so-called cyclic oxygenates, was reported to have a favorable impact on the soot-NOx trade-off experience in diesel engines. In this paper, the soot-NOx trade-off is compared for two types of cyclic oxygenates. 2-phenyl ethanol has an aromatic and cyclohexane ethanol a saturated or aliphatic ring structure. Accordingly, the research is focused on the effect of aromaticity on the aforementioned emissions trade-off. This research is relevant because, starting from lignin, a biomass component with a complex poly-aromatic structure, the production of 2-phenyl ethanol requires less hydrogen and can therefore be produced at lower cost than is the case for cyclohexane ethanol.
Technical Paper

Gasoline-Diesel Dual Fuel: Effect of Injection Timing and Fuel Balance

2011-12-15
2011-01-2437
Recently, some studies have shown high efficiencies using controlled auto-ignition by blending gasoline and diesel to a desired reactivity. This concept has been shown to give high efficiency and, because of the largely premixed charge, low emission levels. The origin of this high efficiency, however, has only partly been explained. Part of it was attributed to a lower temperature combustion, originating in lower heat losses. Another part of the gain was attributed to a faster, more Otto-like (i.e. constant volume) combustion. Since the concept was mainly demonstrated on one single test setup so far, an experimental study has been performed to reproduce these results and gain more insight into their origin. Therefore one cylinder of a heavy duty test engine has been equipped with an intake port gasoline injection system, primarily to investigate the effects of the balance between the two fuels, and the timing of the diesel injection.
Technical Paper

Correlating Flame Location and Ignition Delay in Partially Premixed Combustion

2012-09-10
2012-01-1579
Controlling ignition delay is the key to successfully enable partially premixed combustion in diesel engines. This paper presents experimental results of partially premixed combustion in an optically accessible engine, using primary reference fuels in combination with artificial exhaust gas recirculation. By changing the fuel composition and oxygen concentration, the ignition delay is changed. To determine the position of the flame front, high-speed visualization of OH-chemiluminescence is used, enabling a cycle-resolved analysis of OH formation. A clear correlation is observed between ignition delay and flame location. The mixing of fuel and air during the ignition delay period defines the local equivalence ratio, which is estimated based on a spherical combustion volume for each spray. The corresponding emission measurements using fast-response analyzers of CO, HC and NOX confirm the decrease in local equivalence ratio as a function of ignition delay.
Technical Paper

Combustion Phasing Controllability with Dual Fuel Injection Timings

2012-09-10
2012-01-1575
Reactivity controlled compression ignition through in-cylinder blending gasoline and diesel to a desired reactivity has previously been shown to give low emission levels and a clear simultaneous efficiency advantage. To determine the possible viability of the concept for on-road application, the control space of injection parameters with respect to combustion phasing is presented. Four injection strategies have been investigated, and for each the respective combustion phasing response is presented. Combustion efficiency is shown to be greatly affected by both the injection-timing and injection-strategy. All injection strategies are shown to break with the common soot-NOx trade-off, with both smoke and NOx emissions being near or even below upcoming legislated levels. Lastly, pressure rise rates are comparable with conventional combustion regimes with the same phasing. The pressure rise rates are effectively suppressed by the high dilution rates used.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Low Load PPC Operation using RON70 Fuels

2014-04-01
2014-01-1304
The concept of Partially Premixed Combustion is known for reduced hazardous emissions and improved efficiency. Since a low-reactive fuel is required to extend the ignition delay at elevated loads, controllability and stability issues occur at the low-load end. In this investigation seven fuel blends are used, all having a Research Octane Number of around 70 and a distinct composition or boiling range. Four of them could be regarded as ‘viable refinery fuels’ since they are based on current refinery feedstocks. The latter three are based on primary reference fuels, being PRF70 and blends with ethanol and toluene respectively. Previous experiments revealed significant ignition differences, which asked for further understanding with an extended set of measurements. Experiments are conducted on a heavy duty diesel engine modified for single cylinder operation. In this investigation, emphasis is put on idling (600 rpm) and low load conditions.
Technical Paper

Validation of a Reduced Chemical Mechanism Coupled to CFD Model in a 2-Stroke HCCI Engine

2015-04-14
2015-01-0392
Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion technology has demonstrated a profound potential to decrease both emissions and fuel consumption. In this way, the significance of the 2-stroke HCCI engine has been underestimated as it can provide more power stroke in comparison to a 4-stroke engine. Moreover, the mass of trapped residual gases is much larger in a 2-stroke engine, causing higher initial charge temperatures, which leads to easier auto-ignition. For controlling 2-stroke HCCI engines, it is vital to find optimized simulation approaches of HCCI combustion with a focus on ignition timing. In this study, a Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) model for a 2-stroke gasoline engine was developed coupled to a semi-detailed chemical mechanism of iso-octane to investigate the simulation capability of the considered chemical mechanism and the effects of different simulation parameters such as the turbulence model, grid density and time step size.
Technical Paper

Towards Control-Oriented Modeling of Natural Gas-Diesel RCCI Combustion

2015-04-14
2015-01-1745
For natural gas (NG)-diesel RCCI, a multi-zonal, detailed chemistry modeling approach is presented. This dual fuel combustion process requires further understanding of the ignition and combustion processes to maximize thermal efficiency and minimize (partially) unburned fuel emissions. The introduction of two fuels with different physical and chemical properties makes the combustion process complicated and challenging to model. In this study, a multi-zone approach is applied to NG-diesel RCCI combustion in a heavy-duty engine. Auto-ignition chemistry is believed to be the key process in RCCI. Starting from a multi-zone model that can describe auto-ignition dominated processes, such as HCCI and PCCI, this model is adapted by including reaction mechanisms for natural gas and NOx and by improving the in-cylinder pressure prediction. The model is validated using NG-diesel RCCI measurements that are performed on a 6 cylinder heavy-duty engine.
Technical Paper

Implementation of High-Speed Laser-Induced Incandescence Imaging in CI Engines

2016-04-05
2016-01-0725
Laser-induced incandescence (LII) is a well-established technique for tracking soot, potentially enabling soot volume fraction determination. To obtain crank angle resolved data from a single cycle, a multi-kHz system should be applied. Such an approach, however, imposes certain challenges in terms of application and interpretation. The present work intends to apply such a high-speed system to an optically-accessible, compression ignition engine. Possible problems with sublimation, local gas heating or other multishot effects have been studied on an atmospheric co-flow burner prior to the engine experiments. It was found that, in this flame, fluences around 0.1 J/cm2 provide the best balance between signal-tobackground ratio, and soot sublimation. This fluence is well below the plateau regime of LII, which poses additional problems with interpretation of the signal. This is especially true when a wide span of temperatures and gradients is present, as encountered in diesel combustion.
Technical Paper

Ignition Sensitivity Study of Partially Premixed Combustion by Using Shadowgraphy and OH* Chemiluminescence Methods

2016-04-05
2016-01-0761
Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC) is a promising combustion concept for future IC engines. However, controllability of PPC is still a challenge and needs more investigation. The scope of the present study is to investigate the ignition sensitivity of PPC to the injection timing at different injection pressures. To better understand this, high-speed shadowgraphy is used to visualize fuel injection and evaporation at different Start of Injections (SOI). Spray penetration and injection targeting are derived from shadowgraphy movies. OH* chemiluminescence is used to comprehensively study the stratification level of combustion which is helpful for interpretation of ignition sensitivity behavior. Shadowgraphy results confirm that SOI strongly affects the spray penetration and evaporation of fuel. However, spray penetration and ignition sensitivity are barely affected by the injection pressure.
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