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Journal Article

Tackling the Complexity of Timing-Relevant Deployment Decisions in Multicore-Based Embedded Automotive Software Systems

Multicore-based ECUs are increasingly used in embedded automotive software systems to allow more demanding automotive applications at moderate cost and energy consumption. Using a high number of parallel processors together with a high number of executed software components results in a practically unmanageable number of deployment alternatives to choose from. However correct deployment is one important step for reaching timing goals and acceptable latency, both also a must to reach safety goals of safety-relevant automotive applications. In this paper we focus at reducing the complexity of deployment decisions during the phases of allocation and scheduling. We tackle this complexity of deployment decisions by a mixed constructive and analytic approach.
Technical Paper

Implementing Mixed Criticality Software Integration on Multicore - A Cost Model and the Lessons Learned

The German funded project ARAMiS included work on several demonstrators one of which was a multicore approach on large scale software integration (LSSI) for the automotive domain. Here BMW and Audi intentionally implemented two different integration platforms to gain both experience and real life data on a Hypervisor based concept on one side as well as using only native AUTOSAR-based methods on the other side for later comparison. The idea was to obtain figures on the added overhead both for multicore as well as safety, based on practical work and close-to-production implementations. During implementation and evaluation on one hand there were a lot of valuable lessons learned about multicore in conjunction with safety. On the other hand valuable information was gathered to make it finally possible to set up a cost model for estimation of potential overhead generated by different integration approaches for safety related software functions.
Technical Paper

Software Parallelization in Automotive Multi-Core Systems

In the context of the ARAMiS project, AUDI AG contributed the development of a multi-core demonstrator based on car functions already in production. For this demonstrator, these legacy car functions were ported from single-core platforms to a multi-core platform to gain real world close-to-production experience while utilizing the new technology. For complex functions with high demands for computational resources, it may be necessary to distribute computation over several cores. In this context, we investigated the parallelization of a legacy sequential AUTOSAR function. A main contribution of this work is an analysis of mechanisms provided by AUTOSAR, their limitations and, possible remedy. This paper will point out observations and experiences during the development of this demonstrator and show practical solutions for parallelization in an AUTOSAR environment.