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Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation into the Effects of Direct Fuel Injection During the Negative Valve Overlap Period in an Gasoline Fueled HCCI Engine

A single cylinder Yamaha research engine was operated with gasoline HCCI combustion using negative valve overlap (NVO). The injection strategy for this study involved using fuel injected directly into the cylinder during the NVO period (pre-DI) along with a secondary injection either in the intake port (PI) or directly into the cylinder (DI). The effects of timing of the pre-DI injection along with the percent of fuel injected during the pre-DI injection were studied in two sets of experiments using secondary PI and DI injections in separate experiments. Results have shown that by varying the pre-DI timing and pre-DI percent the main HCCI combustion timing can be influenced as a result of varied heat release during the negative valve overlap period along with hypothesized varied degrees of reformation of the pre-DI injected fuel. In addition to varying the main combustion timing the ISFC, emissions and combustion stability are all influenced by changes in pre-DI timing and percent.
Technical Paper

A Computational Analysis of Direct Fuel Injection During the Negative Valve Overlap Period in an Iso-Octane Fueled HCCI Engine

This computational study compares predictions and experimental results for the use of direct injected iso-octane fuel during the negative valve overlap (NVO) period to achieve HCCI combustion. The total fuel injection was altered in two ways. First the pre-DI percent, (the ratio of direct injected fuel during the NVO period “pre-DI” to the secondary fuel supplied at the intake manifold “PI”), was varied at a fixed pre-DI injection timing, Secondly the timing of the pre-DI injection was varied while all of the fuel was supplied during the NVO period. A multi-zone, two-dimensional CFD simulation with chemistry was performed using KIVA-3V release 2 implemented with the CHEMKIN solver. The simulations were performed during the NVO period only.
Technical Paper

MIXPC Turbocharging System for Diesel Engines

A newly developed turbocharging system, named MIXPC, is proposed and the performance of the proposed system applied to diesel engines is evaluated. The aim of this proposed system is to reduce the scavenging interference between cylinders, and to lower the pumping loss in cylinders and the brake specific fuel consumption. In addition, exhaust manifolds of simplified design can be constructed with small dimensions, low weight and a single turbine entry. A simulation code based on a second-order FVM+TVD (finite volume method + total variation diminishing) is developed and used to simulate engines with MIXPC. By simulating a 16V280ZJG diesel engine using the MPC turbocharging system and MIXPC, it is found that not only the average scavenging coefficient of MIXPC is larger than that of MPC, but also cylinders of MIXPC have more homogeneous scavenging coefficients than that of MPC, and the pumping loss and BSFC of MIXPC are lower than those of MPC.
Technical Paper

Effects of Piston Crevice Flows and Lubricant Oil Vaporization on Diesel Engine Deposits

The effect of piston ring pack crevice flow and lubricant oil vaporization on heavy-duty diesel engine deposits is investigated numerically using a multidimensional CFD code, KIVA3V, coupled with Chemkin II, and computational grids that resolve part of the crevice region appropriately. Improvements have been made to the code to be able to deal with the complex geometry of the ring pack, and sub-models for the crevice flow dynamics, lubricating oil vaporization and combustion, soot formation and deposition were also added to the code. Eight parametric cases were simulated under reacting conditions using detailed chemical kinetics to determine the effects of variations of lube-oil film thickness, distribution of the oil film thickness, number of injection pulses, and the main injection timing on engine soot deposition. The results show that crevice-borne hydrocarbon species play an important role in deposit formation on crevice surfaces.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Exhaust Gas Recirculation in Utility Engines

The effects of residual gas mixing were studied in a single-cylinder, air-cooled utility engine using both external exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and internal residual retention. EGR was introduced far upstream of the throttle to ensure proper mixing. Internal residual was changed by varying the length of the valve overlap period. EGR was measured in the intake system; the total in-cylinder diluent was directly measured using a skip-fire, cylinder dumping technique. A sweep of diluent fraction was performed at different engine speeds, engine loads, fuel mixture preparation systems, and ignition timings. An optimum level of diluent, where the combined hydrocarbon and NOx emissions were minimal, was found to exist for each operating condition. Higher levels of diluent, either through internal retention or external recirculation, caused the combined emissions to increase.
Technical Paper

Discussion of the Role of Fuel-Oil Diffusion in the Hydrocarbon Emissions from a Small Engine

The contribution of fuel adsorption in engine oil and its subsequent desorption following combustion to the engine-out hydrocarbon (HC) emissions of a spark-ignited, air-cooled, V-twin utility engine was studied by comparing steady state and cycle-resolved HC emission measurements from operation with a standard full-blend gasoline, and with propane, which has a low solubility in oil. Experiments were performed at two speeds and three loads, and for different mean crankcase pressures. The crankcase pressure was found to impact the HC emissions, presumably through the ringpack mechanism, which was largely unaltered by the different fuels. The average and cycle-resolved HC emissions were found to be in good agreement, both qualitatively and quantitatively, for the two fuels. Further, the two fuels showed the same response to changes in the crankcase pressure. The solubility of propane in the oil is approximately an order of magnitude lower than for gasoline.
Journal Article

Assessment of Optimization Methodologies to Study the Effects of Bowl Geometry, Spray Targeting and Swirl Ratio for a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Operated at High-Load

In the present paper optimization tools are used to recommend low-emission engine combustion chamber designs, spray targeting and swirl ratio levels for a heavy-duty diesel engine operated at high-load. The study identifies aspects of the combustion and pollution formation that are affected by mixing processes, and offers guidance for better matching of the piston geometry with the spray plume geometry for enhanced mixing. By coupling a GA (genetic algorithm) with the KIVA-CFD code, and also by utilizing an automated grid generation technique, multi-objective optimizations with goals of low emissions and fuel economy were achieved. Three different multi-objective genetic algorithms including a Micro-Genetic Algorithm (μGA), a Nondominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm II (NSGA II) and an Adaptive Range Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithm (ARMOGA) were compared for conducting the optimization under the same conditions.
Technical Paper

Heavy-Duty Diesel Combustion Optimization Using Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithm and Multi-Dimensional Modeling

A multi-objective genetic algorithm methodology was applied to a heavy-duty diesel engine at three different operating conditions of interest. Separate optimizations were performed over various fuel injection nozzle parameters, piston bowl geometries and swirl ratios (SR). Different beginning of injection (BOI) timings were considered in all optimizations. The objective of the optimizations was to find the best possible fuel economy, NOx, and soot emissions tradeoffs. The input parameter ranges were determined using design of experiment methodology. A non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGA II) was used for the optimization. For the optimization of piston bowl geometry, an automated grid generator was used for efficient mesh generation with variable geometry parameters. The KIVA3V release 2 code with improved ERC sub-models was used. The characteristic time combustion (CTC) model was employed to improve computational efficiency.
Journal Article

Optimization of a HSDI Diesel Engine for Passenger Cars Using a Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithm and Multi-Dimensional Modeling

A multi-objective genetic algorithm coupled with the KIVA3V release 2 code was used to optimize the piston bowl geometry, spray targeting, and swirl ratio levels of a high speed direct injected (HSDI) diesel engine for passenger cars. Three modes, which represent full-, mid-, and low-loads, were optimized separately. A non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGA II) was used for the optimization. High throughput computing was conducted using the CONDOR software. An automated grid generator was used for efficient mesh generation with variable geometry parameters, including open and reentrant bowl designs. A series of new spray models featuring reduced mesh dependency were also integrated into the code. A characteristic-time combustion (CTC) model was used for the initial optimization for time savings. Model validation was performed by comparison with experiments for the baseline engine at full-, mid-, and low-load operating conditions.
Journal Article

An Experimental Investigation into Diesel Engine Size-Scaling Parameters

With recent increases in global fuel prices there has become a growing interest in expanding the use of diesel engines in the transportation industry. However, new engine development is costly and time intensive, requiring many hours of expensive engine tests. The ability to accurately predict an engine's performance based on existing models would reduce the expense involved in creating a new engine of different size. In the present study experimental results from two single-cylinder direct injection diesel engines were used to examine previously developed engine scaling models. The first scaling model was based on an equal spray penetration correlation. The second model considered both equal spray penetration and flame lift-off length. The engines used were a heavy-duty Caterpillar engine with a 2.44L displacement and a light-duty GM engine with a 0.48L displacement.
Technical Paper

The Use of Variable Geometry Sprays With Low Pressure Injection for Optimization of Diesel HCCI Engine Combustion

A numerical study of the effects of injection parameters and operating conditions for diesel-fuel HCCI operation is presented with consideration of Variable Geometry Sprays (VGS). Methods of mixture preparation are explored that overcome one of the major problems in HCCI engine operation with diesel fuel and conventional direct injection systems, i.e., fuel loss due to wall impingement and the resulting unburned fuel. Low pressure injection of hollow cone sprays into the cylinder of a production engine with the spray cone angle changing during the injection period were simulated using the multi-dimensional KIVA-3V CFD code with detailed chemistry. Variation of the starting and ending spray angles, injection timing, initial cylinder pressure and temperature, swirl intensity, and compression ratio were explored. As a simplified case of VGS, two-pulse, hollow-cone sprays were also simulated.
Technical Paper

Cycle Simulation Diesel HCCI Modeling Studies and Control

An integrated system based modeling approach has been developed to understand early Direct Injection (DI) Diesel Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) process. GT-Power, a commercial one-dimensional (1-D) engine cycle code has been coupled with an external cylinder model which incorporates sub-models for fuel injection, vaporization, detailed chemistry calculations (Chemkin), heat transfer, energy conservation and species conservation. In order to improve the modeling accuracy, a multi-zone model has been implemented to account for temperature and fuel stratifications in the cylinder charge. The predictions from the coupled simulation have been compared with experimental data from a single cylinder Caterpillar truck engine modified for Diesel HCCI operation. A parametric study is conducted to examine the effect of combustion timing on four major control parameters. Overall the results show good agreement of the trends between the experiments and model predictions.
Technical Paper

Residual Gas Measurements in a Utility Engine

The residual gas fraction was measured in an air-cooled single-cylinder utility engine by directly sampling the trapped cylinder charge during a programmed misfire. Tests were performed for a range of fuel mixture preparation systems, cam timings, ignition timings, engine speeds and engine loads. The residual fraction was found to be relatively insensitive to the fuel mixture preparation system, but was, to a moderate degree, sensitive to the ignition timing. The residual fraction was found to be strongly affected by the amount of valve overlap and engine speed. The effects of engine speed and ignition timing were, in part, due to the in-cylinder conditions at EVO, with lower temperatures favoring higher residual fractions. The data were compared to existing literature models, all of which were found to be lacking.
Technical Paper

Neural Cylinder Model and Its Transient Results

A cylinder model was developed using artificial neural networks (ANN). The cylinder model utilized the trained ANN models to predict engine parameters including cylinder pressures, cylinder temperatures, cylinder wall heat transfer, NOx and soot emissions. The ANN models were trained to approximate CFD simulation results of an engine. The ANN cylinder model was then applied to predict engine performance and emissions over the standard heavy-duty FTP transient cycle. The engine responses varying over the engine speed and torque range were simulated in the course of the transient test cycle. It was demonstrated that the ANN cylinder model is capable of simulating the characteristics of the engine operating under transient conditions reasonably well.
Technical Paper

Expanding the HCCI Operation With the Charge Stratification

A single cylinder CFR research engine has been run in HCCI combustion mode at the rich and the lean limits of the homogeneous charge operating range. To achieve a variation of the degree of charge stratification, two GDI injectors were installed: one was used for generating a homogeneous mixture in the intake system, and the other was mounted directly into the side of the combustion chamber. At the lean limit of the operating range, stratification showed a tremendous improvement in IMEP and emissions. At the rich limit, however, the stratification was limited by the high-pressure rise rate and high CO and NOx emissions. In this experiment the location of the DI injector was in such a position that the operating range that could be investigated was limited due to liquid fuel impingement onto the piston and liner.
Technical Paper

A Computational Investigation into the Cool Flame Region in HCCI Combustion

Multi-dimensional computational efforts using comprehensive and skeletal kinetics have been made to investigate the cool flame region in HCCI combustion. The work was done in parallel to an experimental study that showed the impact of the negative temperature coefficient and the cool flame on the start of combustion using different fuels, which is now the focus of the simulation work. Experiments in a single cylinder CFR research engine with n-butane and a primary reference fuel with an octane number of 70 (PRF 70) were modeled. A comparison of the pressure and heat release traces of the experimental and computational results shows the difficulties in predicting the heat release in the cool flame region. The behavior of the driving radicals for two-stage ignition is studied and is compared to the behavior for a single-ignition from the literature. Model results show that PRF 70 exhibits more pronounced cool flame heat release than n-butane.
Technical Paper

Modeling of a Turbocharged DI Diesel Engine Using Artificial Neural Networks

Artificial neural networks (ANN) have been recognized as universal approximators for nonlinear continuous functions and actively applied in engine research in recent years [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8]. This paper describes the methodology and results of using the ANN to model a turbocharged DI diesel engine. The engine was simulated using the CFD code (KIVA-ERC) over a wide range of operating conditions, and numerical simulation results were used to train the ANN. An efficient data collection methodology using the Design of Experiments (DOE) techniques was developed to select the most characteristic engine operating conditions and hence the most informative data to train the ANN. This approach minimizes the time and cost of collecting training data from either computational or experimental resources. The trained ANN was then used to predict engine parameters such as cylinder pressure, cylinder temperature, NOx and soot emissions, and cylinder heat transfer.
Technical Paper

Modeling the Effects of Geometry Generated Turbulence on HCCI Engine Combustion

The present study uses a numerical model to investigate the effects of flow turbulence on premixed iso-octane HCCI engine combustion. Different levels of in-cylinder turbulence are generated by using different piston geometries, namely a disc-shape versus a square-shape bowl. The numerical model is based on the KIVA code which is modified to use CHEMKIN as the chemistry solver. A detailed reaction mechanism is used to simulate the fuel chemistry. It is found that turbulence has significant effects on HCCI combustion. In the current engine setup, the main effect of turbulence is to affect the wall heat transfer, and hence to change the mixture temperature which, in turn, influences the ignition timing and combustion duration. The model also predicts that the combustion duration in the square bowl case is longer than that in the disc piston case which agrees with the measurements.
Technical Paper

An Experimental and Numerical Study of Injector Behavior for HSDI Diesel Engines

An experimental and numerical characterization has been conducted for high-pressure hydraulically actuated fuel injection systems. One single and one double-guided multi-hole Valve-Covered-Orifice (VCO) type injector was used with a Common Rail (CR) injection system, and two mini-sac injectors for Hydraulic electronic Unit Injection system (HEUI) were used with different orifice diameters. The purpose of the study was to explore the effects of the injection system and the operating conditions on the engine emissions for a direct injection small bore diesel engine. The diesel spray was injected into a pressurized chamber with optical access at ambient temperature. The gas density inside the chamber was representative of the density in a High Speed Direct Injection (HSDI) diesel engine at the time of injection. The experimental spray parameters included: injection pressure, injection duration, nozzle type, and nozzle diameter.
Technical Paper

Modeling Ignition and Combustion in Spark-ignition Engines Using a Level Set Method

An improved discrete particle ignition kernel (DPIK) model and the G-equation combustion model have been developed and implemented in KIVA-3V. In the ignition model, the spark ignition kernel growth is tracked by Lagrangian markers and the spark discharge energy and flow turbulence effects on the ignition kernel growth are considered. The predicted ignition kernel size was compared with the available measurements and good agreement was obtained. Once the ignition kernel grows to a size where the turbulent flame is fully developed, the level set method (G-equation) is used to track the mean turbulent flame propagation. It is shown that, by ignoring the detailed turbulent flame brush structure, fine numerical resolution is not needed, thus making the models suitable for use in multidimensional modeling of SI engine combustion.