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Technical Paper

Diesel Engine Combustion Chamber Geometry Optimization Using Genetic Algorithms and Multi-Dimensional Spray and Combustion Modeling

2001-03-05
2001-01-0547
The recently developed KIVA-GA computer code was used in the current study to optimize the combustion chamber geometry of a heavy -duty diesel truck engine and a high-speed direct-injection (HSDI) small-bore diesel engine. KIVA-GA performs engine simulations within the framework of a genetic algorithm (GA) global optimization code. Design fitness was determined using a modified version of the KIVA-3V code, which calculates the spray, combustion, and emissions formation processes. The measure of design fitness includes NOx, unburned HC, and soot emissions, as well as fuel consumption. The simultaneous minimization of these factors was the ultimate goal. The KIVA-GA methodology was used to optimize the engine performance using nine input variables simultaneously. Three chamber geometry related variables were used along with six other variables, which were thought to have significant interaction with the chamber geometry.
Technical Paper

Modeling the Effects of EGR and Injection Pressure on Emissions in a High-Speed Direct-Injection Diesel Engine

2001-03-05
2001-01-1004
Experimental data is used in conjunction with multi-dimensional modeling in a modified version of the KIVA-3V code to characterize the emissions behavior of a high-speed, direct-injection diesel engine. Injection pressure and EGR are varied across a range of typical small-bore diesel operating conditions and the resulting soot-NOx tradeoff is analyzed. Good agreement is obtained between experimental and modeling trends; the HSDI engine shows increasing soot and decreasing NOx with higher EGR and lower injection pressure. The model also indicates that most of the NOx is formed in the region where the bulk of the initial heat release first takes place, both for zero and high EGR cases. The mechanism of NOx reduction with high EGR is shown to be primarily through a decrease in thermal NOx formation rate.
Technical Paper

Numerical Modeling of Diesel Engine Combustion and Emissions Under HCCI-Like Conditions With High EGR Levels

2003-03-03
2003-01-1087
This study considers combustion processes in a heavy-duty diesel engine at various low emissions operating conditions. The start-of-injection timings varied from -20 to 5 ATDC while the EGR levels varied from 6% to 44%. At certain conditions, HCCI-like combustion characteristics were observed under which low emissions could be achieved. The numerical model used is an improved version of KIVA-3V that can simulate spray breakup and mixture autoignition over a wide range of conditions. The ignition and combustion processes were simulated using both detailed and standard (simplified) chemistry models. Model results show that engine combustion and emissions can be predicted reasonably well under the current conditions. The trends of NOx and soot emissions with respect to the injection timings and EGR levels were well captured. However, it was found that the model over-predicted the NOx emissions in certain early injection cases.
Technical Paper

Modeling the Effect of Primary Atomization on Diesel Engine Emissions

2003-03-03
2003-01-1041
A new primary breakup model was developed and applied to simulate the diesel fuel spray and atomization process. The continuous liquid fuel jet was simulated by a discrete Lagrangian particle method, and the primary breakup of the jet was calculated using a new 1-D Eulerian method that provides the jet breakup time and drop size distribution. A set of correlations of the breakup characteristics, including the breakup time and drop size, were developed for a range of operating conditions. The correlations were then used in the KIVA code to predict the jet primary breakup. For drop secondary breakups, the Kelvin-Helmholtz/Rayleigh-Taylor hybrid model was employed. The new primary breakup model was first validated by comparison to experimental breakup length and jet liquid tip penetration lengths. Predictions of the new breakup model were also compared with experimental data and predictions of the standard breakup model.
Technical Paper

An Evaluation of Common Rail, Hydraulically Intensified Diesel Fuel Injection System Concepts and Rate Shapes

1998-08-11
981930
Hydraulically intensified medium pressure common rail (MPCR) electronic fuel injection systems are an attractive concept for heavy-duty diesel engine applications. They offer excellent packaging flexibility and thorough engine management system integration. Two different concepts were evaluated in this study. They are different in how the pressure generation and injection events are related. One used a direct principle, where the high-pressure generation and injection events occur simultaneously producing a near square injection rate profile. Another concept was based on an indirect principle, where potential energy (pressure) is first stored inside a hydraulic accumulator, and then released during injection, as a subsequent event. A falling rate shape is typically produced in this case. A unit pump, where the hydraulic intensifier is separated from the injector by a high-pressure line, and a unit injector design are considered for both concepts.
Technical Paper

Discussion of the Role of Fuel-Oil Diffusion in the Hydrocarbon Emissions from a Small Engine

2008-09-09
2008-32-0014
The contribution of fuel adsorption in engine oil and its subsequent desorption following combustion to the engine-out hydrocarbon (HC) emissions of a spark-ignited, air-cooled, V-twin utility engine was studied by comparing steady state and cycle-resolved HC emission measurements from operation with a standard full-blend gasoline, and with propane, which has a low solubility in oil. Experiments were performed at two speeds and three loads, and for different mean crankcase pressures. The crankcase pressure was found to impact the HC emissions, presumably through the ringpack mechanism, which was largely unaltered by the different fuels. The average and cycle-resolved HC emissions were found to be in good agreement, both qualitatively and quantitatively, for the two fuels. Further, the two fuels showed the same response to changes in the crankcase pressure. The solubility of propane in the oil is approximately an order of magnitude lower than for gasoline.
Technical Paper

Validation of Advanced Combustion Models Applied to Two-Stage Combustion in a Heavy Duty Diesel Engine

2009-04-20
2009-01-0714
Two advanced combustion models have been validated with the KIVA-3V Release 2 code in the context of two-stage combustion in a heavy duty diesel engine. The first model uses CHEMKIN to directly integrate chemistry in each computational cell. The second model accounts for flame propagation with the G-equation, and CHEMKIN predicts autoignition and handles chemistry ahead of and behind the flame front. A Damköhler number criterion was used in flame containing cells to characterize the local mixing status and determine whether heat release and species change should be a result of flame propagation or volumetric heat release. The purpose of this criterion is to make use of physical and chemical time scales to determine the most appropriate chemistry model, depending on the mixture composition and thermodynamic properties of the gas in each computational cell.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Transient Emissions and Mixed Mode Combustion for a Light Duty Diesel Engine

2009-04-20
2009-01-1347
The use of low temperature combustion (LTC) modes has demonstrated abilities to lower diesel engine emissions while maintaining good fuel consumption. LTC is assumed to be a viable solution to assist in meeting stringent upcoming diesel engine emissions targets, particularly nitric oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM). However, LTC is currently limited to low engine loads and is not a feasible solution at higher loads on production engines. A mixed mode combustion strategy must be implemented to take advantage of the benefits offered from LTC at the low loads and speeds while switching to a conventional diesel combustion strategy at higher loads and speeds and thus allowing full range use of the engine under realistic driving conditions. Experiments were performed to characterize engine out emissions during transient engine operating conditions involving LTC combustion strategies.
Technical Paper

Study of Diesel Engine Size-Scaling Relationships Based on Turbulence and Chemistry Scales

2008-04-14
2008-01-0955
Engine design is a time consuming process in which many costly experimental tests are usually conducted. With increasing prediction ability of engine simulation tools, engine design aided by CFD software is being given more attention by both industry and academia. It is also of much interest to be able to use design information gained from an existing engine design of one size in the design of engines of other sizes to reduce design time and costs. Therefore it is important to study size-scaling relationships for engines over wide range of operating conditions. This paper presents CFD studies conducted for two production diesel engines - a light-duty GM-Fiat engine (0.5L displacement) and a heavy-duty Caterpillar engine (2.5L displacement). Previously developed scaling arguments, including an equal spray penetration scaling model and an extended, equal flame lift-off length scaling model were employed to explore the parametric scaling connections between the two engines.
Technical Paper

Modeling Diesel Engine NOx and Soot Reduction with Optimized Two-Stage Combustion

2006-04-03
2006-01-0027
A multi-dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code with detailed chemistry, the KIVA-CHEMKIN-GA code, was employed in this study, where Genetic Algorithms (GA) were used to optimize heavy-duty diesel engine operating parameters. A two-stage combustion (TSC) concept was explored to optimize the combustion process at high speed (1737 rev/min) and medium load (57% load). Two combustion modes were combined in this concept. The first stage is ideally Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion and the second stage is diffusion combustion under high temperature and low oxygen concentration conditions. This can be achieved for example by optimization of two-stage combustion using multiple injection or sprays from two different injectors.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Exhaust Gas Recirculation in Utility Engines

2006-11-13
2006-32-0116
The effects of residual gas mixing were studied in a single-cylinder, air-cooled utility engine using both external exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and internal residual retention. EGR was introduced far upstream of the throttle to ensure proper mixing. Internal residual was changed by varying the length of the valve overlap period. EGR was measured in the intake system; the total in-cylinder diluent was directly measured using a skip-fire, cylinder dumping technique. A sweep of diluent fraction was performed at different engine speeds, engine loads, fuel mixture preparation systems, and ignition timings. An optimum level of diluent, where the combined hydrocarbon and NOx emissions were minimal, was found to exist for each operating condition. Higher levels of diluent, either through internal retention or external recirculation, caused the combined emissions to increase.
Technical Paper

Study on Characteristics of Gasoline Fueled HCCI Using Negative Valve Overlap

2006-11-13
2006-32-0047
Gasoline fueled Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion with internal exhaust gas re-circulation using Negative Valve Overlap (NOL) was investigated by means of calculation and experiment in order to apply this technology to practical use with sufficient operating range and with acceptable emission and fuel consumption. In this paper we discuss the basic characteristics of NOL-HCCI with emphasis on the influence of intake valve timing on load range, residual gas fraction and induction air flow rate. Emission and fuel consumption under various operation conditions are also discussed. A water-cooled 250cc single cylinder engine with a direct injection system was used for this study. Three sets of valve timing were selected to investigate the effect of intake valve opening duration. Experimental results demonstrated that an engine speed of approximately 2000rpm yields an NMEP (Net Mean Effective Pressure) range from 200kPa to 400kPa.
Technical Paper

Simultaneous Reduction of Engine Emissions and Fuel Consumption Using Genetic Algorithms and Multi-Dimensional Spray and Combustion Modeling

2000-06-19
2000-01-1890
A computational optimization study is performed for a heavy-duty direct-injection diesel engine using the recently developed KIVA-GA computer code. KIVA-GA performs full cycle engine simulations within the framework of a Genetic Algorithm (GA) global optimization code. Design fitness is determined using a one-dimensional gas -dynamics code for calculation of the gas exchange process, and a three-dimensional CFD code based on KIVA-3V for spray, combustion and emissions formation. The performance of the present Genetic Algorithm is demonstrated using a test problem with a multi-modal analytic function in which the optimum is known a priori. The KIVA-GA methodology is next used to simultaneously investigate the effects of six engine input parameters on emissions and performance for a high speed, medium load operating point for which baseline experimental validation data is available.
Technical Paper

Parameters That Affect the Impact of Auxiliary Gas Injection in a DI Diesel Engine

2000-03-06
2000-01-0233
The authors used auxiliary gas injection (AGI) to increase in-cylinder mixing during the latter portion of combustion in a direct injection (DI) diesel engine in order to reduce soot emissions without affecting NOx. Experiments were conducted using various gas injection directions and compositions to explore the effect of these parameters. Simulations were employed to provide additional insight. AGI direction was found to have a profound impact on soot emissions. Researchers suggested that this was due to changes in the fuel spray-gas jet interaction with injection direction. Simulations supported this theory and suggested that the number of soot clouds affected by the gas jet may also be a factor. The oxygen content of the gas jet was also found to have an influence on emissions. Researchers found that, when the oxygen content of the gas jet was increased, soot emissions decreased. However, this was found to have a detrimental affect on NO.
Technical Paper

The Influence of Physical Input Parameter Uncertainties on Multidimensional Model Predictions of Diesel Engine Performance and Emissions

2000-03-06
2000-01-1178
Multidimensional models require physical inputs about the engine operating conditions. This paper explores the effects of unavoidable experimental uncertainties in the specification of important parameters such as the start of injection, duration of injection, amount of fuel injected per cycle, gas temperature at IVC, and the spray nozzle hole diameter. The study was conducted for a Caterpillar 3401 heavy-duty diesel engine for which extensive experimental data is available. The engine operating conditions include operation at high and low loads, with single and double injections. The computations were performed using a modified version of the KIVA3V code. Initially the model was calibrated to give very good agreement with experimental data in terms of trends and also to a lesser degree in absolute values, over a range of operating conditions and injection timings.
Technical Paper

Investigation of the Effect of DPF Loading and Passive Regeneration on Engine Performance and Emissions Using an Integrated System Simulation

2006-04-03
2006-01-0263
An integrated system model containing sub-models for a diesel engine, NOx and soot emissions, and a diesel particulate filter (DPF) has been used to simulate stead-state engine operating conditions. The simulation results have been used to investigate the effect of DPF loading and passive regeneration on engine performance and emissions. This work is the continuation of previous work done to create an overall diesel engine/exhaust system integrated model. As in the previous work, a diesel engine, exhaust system, engine soot emissions, and diesel particulate filter (DPF) sub-models have been integrated into an overall model using Matlab Simulink. For the current work new sub-models have been added for engine-out NOx emissions and an engine feedback controller. The integrated model is intended for use in simulating the interaction of the engine and exhaust aftertreatment components.
Technical Paper

Use of a Pressure Reactive Piston to Control Diesel PCCI Operation - A Modeling Study

2006-04-03
2006-01-0921
The heavy-duty diesel engine industry is required to meet stringent emission standards. There is also the demand for more fuel efficient engines by the customer. In a previous study on an engine with variable intake valve closure timing, the authors found that an early single injection and accompanying premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) combustion provides advantages in emissions and fuel economy; however, unacceptably high peak pressures and rates of pressure-rise impose a severe operating constraint. The use of a Pressure Reactive Piston assembly (PRP) as a means to limit peak pressures is explored in the present work. The concept is applied to a heavy-duty diesel engine and genetic algorithms (GA) are used in conjunction with the multi-dimensional engine simulation code KIVA-3V to provide an optimized set of operating variables.
Technical Paper

Effects of Piston Crevice Flows and Lubricant Oil Vaporization on Diesel Engine Deposits

2006-04-03
2006-01-1149
The effect of piston ring pack crevice flow and lubricant oil vaporization on heavy-duty diesel engine deposits is investigated numerically using a multidimensional CFD code, KIVA3V, coupled with Chemkin II, and computational grids that resolve part of the crevice region appropriately. Improvements have been made to the code to be able to deal with the complex geometry of the ring pack, and sub-models for the crevice flow dynamics, lubricating oil vaporization and combustion, soot formation and deposition were also added to the code. Eight parametric cases were simulated under reacting conditions using detailed chemical kinetics to determine the effects of variations of lube-oil film thickness, distribution of the oil film thickness, number of injection pulses, and the main injection timing on engine soot deposition. The results show that crevice-borne hydrocarbon species play an important role in deposit formation on crevice surfaces.
Technical Paper

Modeling Combustion and Emissions of HSDI Diesel Engines Using Injectors with Different Included Spray Angles

2006-04-03
2006-01-1150
Combustion in an HSDI diesel engine using different injectors to realize low emissions is modeled using detailed chemical kinetics in this study. Emission characteristics of the engine are investigated using injectors that have different included spray angles, ranging from 50 to 130 degrees. The engine was operated under PCCI conditions featuring early injection times, high EGR levels and high intake temperatures. The Representative Interactive Flamelet (RIF) model was used with the KIVA code for combustion and emission modeling. Modeling results show that spray targeting plays an important role in determining the in-cylinder mixture distributions, which in turn affect the resulting pollutant emissions. High soot emissions are observed for injection conditions that result in locally fuel rich regions due to spray impingement normal to the piston surface.
Technical Paper

A Modeling Investigation of Combustion Control Variables During DI-Diesel HCCI Engine Transients

2006-04-03
2006-01-1084
A comprehensive system level modeling approach is used to understand the effects of the various physical actuators during diesel HCCI transients. Control concepts during transient operations are simulated using a set of actuators suitable for combustion control in diesel HCCI engines (intake valve actuation, injection timing, cooled EGR, intake boost pressure and droplet size). The impact of these actuating techniques on the overall engine performance is quantified by investigating the amount of actuation required, timing of actuation and the use of a combination of actuators. Combined actuation improved actuation space that can be used to phase combustion timing better and in extending the operating range. The results from transient simulations indicate that diesel HCCI operation would benefit from the combined actuation of intake valve closure, injection timing, boost and cooled EGR.
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