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Technical Paper

Performance and Durability Evaluation of Continuously Regenerating Particulate Filters on Diesel Powered Urban Buses at NY City Transit

Particulate emission from diesel engines is one of the most important pollutants in urban areas. As a result, particulate emission control from urban bus diesel engines using particle filter technology is being evaluated at several locations in the US. A project entitled “Clean Diesel Demonstration Program” has been initiated by NY City Transit under the supervision of NY State DEC and with active participation from several industrial partners. Under this program, several NY City transit buses with DDC Series 50 engines have been equipped with continuously regenerating diesel particulate filter system and are operating with ultra low sulfur diesel (< 30 ppm S) in transit service in Manhattan since February 2000. These buses are being evaluated over a 8-9 month period for operations, maintainability and durability of the particulate filter.
Technical Paper

Evaluations of Current Natural Gas Vehicle Technology Exhaust Emissions at Various Operating Temperatures

As more stringent vehicle emission standards are introduced worldwide, there is an increased need to provide a thorough assessment of the environmental impact of alternative fuels. With the advent of CNG as a viable transportation fuel, the development of advanced computer controlled fuel delivery systems is imperative in order to ensure acceptable emission performance. At present, the majority of light and medium duty engines operating on natural gas are primarily gasoline automotive engines which have been retrofitted to allow for the use of CNG. The Mobile Sources Emissions Division of Environment Canada and the Canadian Gas Association have conducted a joint test program in order to develop a database of exhaust emissions from vehicles typically converted for operation on either gasoline or natural gas at various operating temperatures.
Technical Paper

Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Light Duty Vehicles

Recent evidence has linked vehicle catalysts to nitrous oxide emissions. As the population of catalyst-equipped vehicles increases, so does the need for a better understanding of this powerful greenhouse gas. Nitrous oxide measurements were made on fourteen vehicles over the FTP urban and highway cycles utilizing an FTIR analyzer. To quantify emissions from aged catalysts, emphasis was placed on testing in-use vehicles with oedometer readings between 30,000 and 120,000 kilometres. Tailpipe N2O emissions averaged 126 mg/mile for the nine aged catalyst vehicles and 74 mg/mile for the five new catalyst cars. These results are about two times greater than previous N2O studies using the FTP cycle. Also, twice as much N2O was produced during the urban driving cycle, than during the highway cycle. Based on our measurements, N2O emissions from light duty vehicles in Canada were estimated to range from 8 to 20 kilotonnes for 1992.
Technical Paper

Emissions from Methanol, Ethanol, and Diesel Powered Urban Transit Buses

The recent tightening of emission standards for new heavy duty engines has lead to the development and implementation of alternative fuel engines, particularly for urban transit bus applications. Alternative fuels are intended to offer a potential emissions benefit with regards to the regulated emissions, and especially the particulate matter, which has received the greatest degree of regulatory action. However, the entire composition of the engine emissions should be considered when evaluating the environmental benefits of these new fuels, and also the continued performance of these engines in actual fleet service. In this study the exhaust emissions from methanol, ethanol, and diesel - powered buses were determined during transient operation of the vehicles on a heavy duty chassis dynamometer. The tests of the alcohol fuelled buses, and a control diesel bus were conducted as the buses accumulated mileage in revenue generating service.
Technical Paper

Urban Driving Cycle Results of Retrofitted Diesel Oxidation Catalysts on Heavy Duty Vehicles: One Year Later

This updated paper presents chassis dynamometer emissions testing of various heavy duty vehicles with and without retrofitted diesel oxidation catalyst technology. Analysis is provided into both the vehicle emissions baselines and emissions with retrofitted catalyst technology over the New York Composite and Central Business District cycles. The vehicles studied include four urban buses, two school buses and four heavy duty trucks. Some of these vehicles in this study have been followed for up to two years. The paper will discuss in-use heavy duty vehicle emissions issues and the use of diesel oxidation catalyst technologies.
Technical Paper

Study of Two and Four Stroke Outboard Marine Engine Exhaust Emissions Using a Total Dilution Sampling System

The exhaust emissions from small engines in general and marine engines in particular have come under scrutiny over the past few years as new exhaust emission regulations have been proposed and put into force. The standard method for exhaust emission sampling of outboard marine engines is to analyze raw exhaust in the exhaust manifold of the engine. In this study a total dilution sampling system for the gaseous emissions, similar to what is used for light and heavy duty vehicles and engines, and a separate water sampling method were used to evaluate the exhaust emissions from stock two and four stroke outboard marine engines.
Technical Paper

Acid Rain Control: A Canadian Perspective

In Canada, the acid rain issue has taken on a prominent political dimension. Its successful resolution as a transboundary issue is viewed by many as a bell weather for Canada - U.S. relationships on other issues of mutual concern. This paper offers some perspective on why this is so and what Canadian expectations are for parallel U.S. regulatory control actions.
Technical Paper

American Vs. European Vehicles on the ECE Fuel Consumption Cycles

The recent publication in Europe of vehicle fuel consumption values on standardized test procedures has made it possible to compare the over-the-road energy efficiency of vehicles designed for North America with those designed for Europe. Thirty-six of the former were tested on the three ECE fuel consumption cycles. The results indicate equal or better performance for the American technology and made it possible to calculate “one-way” factors to predict a vehicle's performance on the ECE cycles from the U.S. EPA fuel consumption data for the UDDS and HWFET cycles.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Driving Conditions and Ambient Temperature on Light Duty Gasoline-electric Hybrid Vehicles (3): Battery Energy

The dependence of gasoline-electric hybrid vehicle energies on driving conditions and ambient temperature is presented for different drive cycles (2xLA4, 2xLA92, 2xUS06, HWFET and 2xNYCC) and temperatures (20°C and -18°C). The tests were carried out at the Emissions Research and Measurement Division of Environment Canada. Hybrid battery pack current was measured at a frequency of 10 Hz. Regenerative braking energy, charging energy from the engine and battery discharge energy were estimated by using modal speed. The magnitudes of battery energies were found to be directly related to drive cycle properties. Battery discharge energy was very strongly correlated to emission factors of CO₂, while energy recovered by regenerative braking and charging energy from the engine had low to very strong correlations to CO₂ emission factors. CO, NOx and HC had low linear correlations to battery discharge energy.
Technical Paper

Simplified Methodology for Modeling Cold Temperature Effects on Engine Efficiency for Hybrid and Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles

For this work, a methodology of modeling and predicting fuel consumption in a hybrid vehicle as a function of the engine operating temperature has been developed for cold ambient operation (-7°C, 266°K). This methodology requires two steps: 1) development of a temperature dependent engine brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) map, and, 2) a data-fitting technique for predicting engine temperature to be used as an input to the temperature dependent BSFC maps. For the first step, response surface methodology (RSM) techniques were applied to generate brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) maps as a function of the engine thermal state. For the second step, data fitting techniques were also used to fit a simplified lumped capacitance heat transfer model using several experimental datasets. Utilizing these techniques, an analysis of fuel consumption as a function of thermal state across a broad range of engine operating conditions is presented.
Technical Paper

Development and Field Performance Validation of a Retrofit SCR System for On-Road Heavy-Duty Application

Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology is being considered as the potential strategy for significant reduction of NOx emissions from diesel engines. Many challenges exist in the development of an On-Road SCR retrofit system in terms of system integration and optimization of control strategy in order to achieve highest NOx reduction given the diversity of duty cycles. The main considered challenges are: - The development of a generic control strategy that would work for a broad range of engines, - Development of a reliable and durable injection system that would be able to withstand the harsh environments on a heavy-duty vehicle, - Packaging of the system to be able to fit on a number of vehicles with different configurations, - Controlling ammonia slip and assurance of reducing agent (Urea) availability and quality. In this study a prototype SCR system was evaluated over engine and chassis dynamometer test cycles.
Technical Paper

Impact of Varying Biodiesel Blends on Direct-Injection Light-Duty Diesel Engine Emissions

A 1.9L turbocharged direct-injection engine representing a model year 1998-2003 Volkswagen vehicle, equipped with the OEM diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), was tested on an eddy-current engine dynamometer with a critical flow venturi-constant volume sampling system (CFV-CVS). The engine was operated over three steady-state modes: 1600 rev/min at 54 Nm; 1800 rev/min at 81 Nm; and 2000 rev/min at 98 Nm. Commercially available ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel (≺15 ppm S) was splash-blended with fatty acid methyl ester biodiesels derived from three different feedstocks: canola, soy, and tallow/waste fry oil. Test blend levels included: 0%, 2%, 5%, 20%, 50%, and 100% biodiesel for each feedstock.
Technical Paper

A Freezing Fog/Drizzle Event during the FRAM-S Project

The objective of this work is to better understand freezing fog/drizzle conditions using observations collected during the Fog Remote Sensing and Modeling project (FRAM-S) that took place at St. John's International Airport, St. John's, NL, Canada. This location was ~1 km away from the Atlantic Ocean coast. During the project, the following measurements at one minute resolution were collected: precipitation rate (PR) and amount, fog/drizzle microphysics, 3D wind speed (Uh) and turbulence (Uh'), visibility (Vis), IR and SW radiative fluxes, temperature (T) and relative humidity (RH), and aerosol observations. The reflectivity and microphysical parameters obtained from the Metek Inc. MRR (Microwave Rain Radar) were also used in the analysis. The measurements were then used to obtain freezing fog/drizzle microphysical characteristics and their relation to visibility.
Technical Paper

Impact of Ethanol and Isobutanol Gasoline Blends on Emissions from a Closed-Loop Small Spark-Ignited Engine

The focus of this study was the characterization and comparison of power-specific exhaust emission rates from a closed-loop small spark-ignited engine fuelled with ethanol and isobutanol gasoline blends. A 4-cycle Kohler ECH-630 engine certified to the Phase 3 emissions standards was operated over the G2 test cycle, a six-mode steady-state test cycle, in its original configuration. This engine was equipped with electronic ignition, electronic fuel injection and an oxygen sensor. Certification gasoline fuel was splash-blended by percent volume with ethanol and isobutanol to result in the test blend levels of E10, E15, iB16 and iB8-E10. Reductions in emission rates of carbon monoxide (up to 12.0% with the ethanol blends and up to 11.4% with the isobutanol blends) were achieved along with a reduction in total hydrocarbons (up to 10.9% with the ethanol blends and up to 8.2% with the isobutanol blends). Nitrogen oxide emissions were decreased by up to 9.8% with the ethanol blends.
Technical Paper

Freezing Fog and Drizzle Observations

Fog and drizzle observations collected during the arctic weather and SAR (Search and Rescue) operations (SAAWSO) project at sub-freezing temperatures (T) are analyzed in this study to identify icing conditions, improve ground-based in-situ and remote sensing observations, and develop icing parameterizations for numerical weather prediction (NWP) models. The SAAWSO project took place during the 2012-2013 winter conditions that occurred over St. John's, NFL, Canada. Observations were obtained by a Droplet Measuring Technologies Fog Measuring Device (FMD), a ground cloud imaging probe (GCIP), a Radiometrics Profiling Microwave Radiometer (PMWR), a Rosemount icing detector, a laser disdrometer, and surface meteorological sensors. Precipitation, wind, and radiation data were also collected. Results suggest that observations obtained from integrated in-situ and remote sensors can be used to characterize icing conditions.
Technical Paper

Aircraft In Situ Validation of Hydrometeors and Icing Conditions Inferred by Ground-based NEXRAD Polarimetric Radar

MIT Lincoln Laboratory is tasked by the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration to investigate the use of the NEXRAD polarimetric radars* for the remote sensing of icing conditions hazardous to aircraft. A critical aspect of the investigation concerns validation that has relied upon commercial airline icing pilot reports and a dedicated campaign of in situ flights in winter storms. During the month of February in 2012 and 2013, the Convair-580 aircraft operated by the National Research Council of Canada was used for in situ validation of snowstorm characteristics under simultaneous observation by NEXRAD radars in Cleveland, Ohio and Buffalo, New York. The most anisotropic and easily distinguished winter targets to dual pol radar are ice crystals.
Technical Paper

The Impact of Isobutanol and Ethanol on Gasoline Fuel Properties and Black Carbon Emissions from Two Light-Duty Gasoline Vehicles

This study reported black carbon (BC) mass and solid particle number emissions from a gasoline direct injection (GDI) vehicle and a port fuel injection (PFI) vehicle on splash blended E10 and iB16 fuels over the FTP-75 and US06 drive cycles at standard and cold ambient temperatures. For the FTP-75 drive cycle, the GDI vehicle had lower solid particle number and BC mass emissions from E10 (5.1×1012 particles/mile; 4.2 mg/mile) and iB16 (5.2×1012 particles/mile; 3.9 mg/mile) compared to E0 (7.2×1012 particles/mile; 7.0 mg/mi). Most of the reductions were attributed to the statistically significant reductions during the phases 1 and 2 of the FTP-75 drive cycle. iB16 was also observed to have statistically significant reduction on BC emissions when compared to E0 at cold ambient temperature but E10 did not show such BC reduction. For the PFI vehicle, most of the solid particle number and BC mass emissions were emitted primarily during phase 1 of the FTP-75 drive cycle.
Technical Paper

Immediate Impacts on Particulate and Gaseous Emissions from a T56 Turbo-Prop Engine Using a Biofuel Blend

Adoption of hydro-processed esters and fatty acid biojet fuels is a critical component for the sustainability of the aviation industry. Aviation biofuels reduce pollution and provide alternatives to conventional fossil fuels. A study of the impacts of biofuels on emissions from a T56 turbo-prop engine was undertaken as a joint effort among several departments of the Government of Canada. In this study, particulate (including particle number and black carbon (BC) mass) and regulated gaseous emissions (CO2, CO, NO, NO2, THC) were characterized with the engine operating on conventional F-34 jet fuel and jet fuel blended with camelina-based hydro-processed biojet fuel (C-HEFA) by 50% in volume. Emissions characterization, conducted after 20-hour ground engine durability tests, showed immediate significant reductions in particle number and BC mass when the engine was operated on the C-HEFA blend.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Actual and Claimed Fuel Consumption and In-Use Emission Factors for Portable Gasoline Generators

This paper reports the results of a fuel economy and regulated emissions survey of 15 gasoline powered generators. Tests were conducted at Environment Canada's Emission Research and Measurement Division (ERMD) facilities in Ottawa. The generators ranged in output capacity from 0.9kW to 7.0kW maximum rated output (MRO). They were obtained from a variety of sources including commercial rental companies and from other Environment Canada Divisions. The generators were operated on summer grade commercial fuel over a 6 mode test cycle when possible. The testing was designed to mimic the certification test the engines would undergo in an engine dynamometer test configuration with the exception that the loading was simulated by a load bank connected to the generators electrical output(s).
Technical Paper

An Experimental Investigation on the Emission Characteristics of HCCI Engine Operation Using N-Heptane

This paper presents the emission characteristics of a HCCI engine operation using n-heptane. The experiments were conducted in a single cylinder Co-operative Fuel Research (CFR) engine equipped with an air-assist port fuel injector. The effects of intake temperature, air/fuel ratio, compression ratio, turbo-charging, and EGR rate on exhaust emissions were explored. The analysis of the exhaust gases included oxides of nitrogen (NOx), nitrous oxide (N2O), carbon monoxide (CO), total hydrocarbon (THC), and soot. The hydrocarbon species present in exhaust gases and their concentrations at several operating conditions were also characterized. The strategies to obtain low HC, CO and NOx emissions are presented and discussed. The approaches to effectively retard HCCI combustion phase without deteriorating combustion efficiency are examined. It was found that HCCI combustion produces extremely low soot and NOx emissions.