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Technical Paper

American Vs. European Vehicles on the ECE Fuel Consumption Cycles

The recent publication in Europe of vehicle fuel consumption values on standardized test procedures has made it possible to compare the over-the-road energy efficiency of vehicles designed for North America with those designed for Europe. Thirty-six of the former were tested on the three ECE fuel consumption cycles. The results indicate equal or better performance for the American technology and made it possible to calculate “one-way” factors to predict a vehicle's performance on the ECE cycles from the U.S. EPA fuel consumption data for the UDDS and HWFET cycles.
Technical Paper

Simplified Methodology for Modeling Cold Temperature Effects on Engine Efficiency for Hybrid and Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles

For this work, a methodology of modeling and predicting fuel consumption in a hybrid vehicle as a function of the engine operating temperature has been developed for cold ambient operation (-7°C, 266°K). This methodology requires two steps: 1) development of a temperature dependent engine brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) map, and, 2) a data-fitting technique for predicting engine temperature to be used as an input to the temperature dependent BSFC maps. For the first step, response surface methodology (RSM) techniques were applied to generate brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) maps as a function of the engine thermal state. For the second step, data fitting techniques were also used to fit a simplified lumped capacitance heat transfer model using several experimental datasets. Utilizing these techniques, an analysis of fuel consumption as a function of thermal state across a broad range of engine operating conditions is presented.
Technical Paper

Impact of Varying Biodiesel Blends on Direct-Injection Light-Duty Diesel Engine Emissions

A 1.9L turbocharged direct-injection engine representing a model year 1998-2003 Volkswagen vehicle, equipped with the OEM diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), was tested on an eddy-current engine dynamometer with a critical flow venturi-constant volume sampling system (CFV-CVS). The engine was operated over three steady-state modes: 1600 rev/min at 54 Nm; 1800 rev/min at 81 Nm; and 2000 rev/min at 98 Nm. Commercially available ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel (≺15 ppm S) was splash-blended with fatty acid methyl ester biodiesels derived from three different feedstocks: canola, soy, and tallow/waste fry oil. Test blend levels included: 0%, 2%, 5%, 20%, 50%, and 100% biodiesel for each feedstock.
Technical Paper

Impact of Ethanol and Isobutanol Gasoline Blends on Emissions from a Closed-Loop Small Spark-Ignited Engine

The focus of this study was the characterization and comparison of power-specific exhaust emission rates from a closed-loop small spark-ignited engine fuelled with ethanol and isobutanol gasoline blends. A 4-cycle Kohler ECH-630 engine certified to the Phase 3 emissions standards was operated over the G2 test cycle, a six-mode steady-state test cycle, in its original configuration. This engine was equipped with electronic ignition, electronic fuel injection and an oxygen sensor. Certification gasoline fuel was splash-blended by percent volume with ethanol and isobutanol to result in the test blend levels of E10, E15, iB16 and iB8-E10. Reductions in emission rates of carbon monoxide (up to 12.0% with the ethanol blends and up to 11.4% with the isobutanol blends) were achieved along with a reduction in total hydrocarbons (up to 10.9% with the ethanol blends and up to 8.2% with the isobutanol blends). Nitrogen oxide emissions were decreased by up to 9.8% with the ethanol blends.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Actual and Claimed Fuel Consumption and In-Use Emission Factors for Portable Gasoline Generators

This paper reports the results of a fuel economy and regulated emissions survey of 15 gasoline powered generators. Tests were conducted at Environment Canada's Emission Research and Measurement Division (ERMD) facilities in Ottawa. The generators ranged in output capacity from 0.9kW to 7.0kW maximum rated output (MRO). They were obtained from a variety of sources including commercial rental companies and from other Environment Canada Divisions. The generators were operated on summer grade commercial fuel over a 6 mode test cycle when possible. The testing was designed to mimic the certification test the engines would undergo in an engine dynamometer test configuration with the exception that the loading was simulated by a load bank connected to the generators electrical output(s).
Technical Paper

The Effect of Driving Conditions and Ambient Temperature on Light Duty Gasoline-Electric Hybrid Vehicles (2): Fuel Consumption and Gaseous Pollutant Emission Rates

Fuel consumption and gaseous emission data (CO, NOx, THC, and CO2) are reported for four commercially available gasoline-electric hybrid vehicles and one conventional gasoline vehicle tested on a chassis dynamometer over five transient driving cycles (LA4, LA92, HWFET, NYCC, US06), and two steady state modes (40 and 80 km/h), at two ambient temperatures (20 °C, and -18 °C). All vehicles exhibited higher fuel consumption during transient cycles compared to steady-state modes. Cold ambient temperature had a more detrimental effect on fuel consumption rates of the hybrid vehicles compared to those of the conventional gasoline vehicle.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Driving Conditions and Ambient Temperature on Light Duty Gasoline-Electric Hybrid Vehicles (1): Particulate Matter Emission Rates and Size Distributions

Gasoline-electric hybrid vehicle technology has been gaining widespread acceptance and has the potential to reduce emissions through reduced fuel consumption. In this study, particulate matter number and mass emission rates, organic and elemental carbon compositions, and number-based size distributions were measured from four gasoline-electric hybrid vehicles (2005 Ford Escape Hybrid, 2004 Toyota Prius, 2003 Honda Civic Hybrid, and 2000 Honda Insight). In addition, one small conventional gasoline vehicle (2002 SmartCar) was tested. The vehicles were driven over five driving cycles and at steady-state speeds of 40 and 80 km/h. Each test was performed at 20°C and at -18°C. Testing took place at the Environmental Science & Technology Centre of Environment Canada using conventional chassis dynamometer procedures. Average distance based emission rates are given for each vehicle under each test condition.
Journal Article

Impact of Ambient Temperature on Gaseous and Particle Emissions from a Direct Injection Gasoline Vehicle and its Implications on Particle Filtration

Gaseous and particle emissions from a gasoline direct injection (GDI) and a port fuel injection (PFI) vehicle were measured at various ambient temperatures (22°C, -7°C, -18°C). These vehicles were driven over the U.S. Federal Test Procedure 75 (FTP-75) and US06 Supplemental Federal Test Procedure (US06) on Tier 2 certification gasoline (E0) and 10% by volume ethanol (E10). Emissions were analyzed to determine the impact of ambient temperature on exhaust emissions over different driving conditions. Measurements on the GDI vehicle with a gasoline particulate filter (GPF) installed were also made to evaluate the GPF particle filtration efficiency at cold ambient temperatures. The GDI vehicle was found to have better fuel economy than the PFI vehicle at all test conditions. Reduction in ambient temperature increased the fuel consumption for both vehicles, with a much larger impact on the cold-start FTP-75 drive cycle observed than for the hot-start US06 drive cycle.