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Technical Paper

Evaluations of Current Natural Gas Vehicle Technology Exhaust Emissions at Various Operating Temperatures

As more stringent vehicle emission standards are introduced worldwide, there is an increased need to provide a thorough assessment of the environmental impact of alternative fuels. With the advent of CNG as a viable transportation fuel, the development of advanced computer controlled fuel delivery systems is imperative in order to ensure acceptable emission performance. At present, the majority of light and medium duty engines operating on natural gas are primarily gasoline automotive engines which have been retrofitted to allow for the use of CNG. The Mobile Sources Emissions Division of Environment Canada and the Canadian Gas Association have conducted a joint test program in order to develop a database of exhaust emissions from vehicles typically converted for operation on either gasoline or natural gas at various operating temperatures.
Technical Paper

Emissions from Methanol, Ethanol, and Diesel Powered Urban Transit Buses

The recent tightening of emission standards for new heavy duty engines has lead to the development and implementation of alternative fuel engines, particularly for urban transit bus applications. Alternative fuels are intended to offer a potential emissions benefit with regards to the regulated emissions, and especially the particulate matter, which has received the greatest degree of regulatory action. However, the entire composition of the engine emissions should be considered when evaluating the environmental benefits of these new fuels, and also the continued performance of these engines in actual fleet service. In this study the exhaust emissions from methanol, ethanol, and diesel - powered buses were determined during transient operation of the vehicles on a heavy duty chassis dynamometer. The tests of the alcohol fuelled buses, and a control diesel bus were conducted as the buses accumulated mileage in revenue generating service.
Technical Paper

Development and Field Performance Validation of a Retrofit SCR System for On-Road Heavy-Duty Application

Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology is being considered as the potential strategy for significant reduction of NOx emissions from diesel engines. Many challenges exist in the development of an On-Road SCR retrofit system in terms of system integration and optimization of control strategy in order to achieve highest NOx reduction given the diversity of duty cycles. The main considered challenges are: - The development of a generic control strategy that would work for a broad range of engines, - Development of a reliable and durable injection system that would be able to withstand the harsh environments on a heavy-duty vehicle, - Packaging of the system to be able to fit on a number of vehicles with different configurations, - Controlling ammonia slip and assurance of reducing agent (Urea) availability and quality. In this study a prototype SCR system was evaluated over engine and chassis dynamometer test cycles.
Technical Paper

Impact of Varying Biodiesel Blends on Direct-Injection Light-Duty Diesel Engine Emissions

A 1.9L turbocharged direct-injection engine representing a model year 1998-2003 Volkswagen vehicle, equipped with the OEM diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), was tested on an eddy-current engine dynamometer with a critical flow venturi-constant volume sampling system (CFV-CVS). The engine was operated over three steady-state modes: 1600 rev/min at 54 Nm; 1800 rev/min at 81 Nm; and 2000 rev/min at 98 Nm. Commercially available ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel (≺15 ppm S) was splash-blended with fatty acid methyl ester biodiesels derived from three different feedstocks: canola, soy, and tallow/waste fry oil. Test blend levels included: 0%, 2%, 5%, 20%, 50%, and 100% biodiesel for each feedstock.
Technical Paper

Durability Studies of a Base Metal Catalyzed Particulate Filter in a Severe Non-road Application

This paper will present emissions durability data from an underground mining vehicle equipped with diesel particulate filter technology, which was followed over 4000 hrs on a Detroit Diesel Series 60 engine. The twin particulate filter system is catalyzed using a base metal formulation on cordierite wall flow monoliths. After the durability accumulation, the recovered filters were individually emissions tested on a Detroit Diesel Series 50 engine over the ISO 8178 test cycle. Performance, maintenance and emissions issues pertaining to base metal catalysts will be discussed.
Journal Article

Impact of Ambient Temperature on Gaseous and Particle Emissions from a Direct Injection Gasoline Vehicle and its Implications on Particle Filtration

Gaseous and particle emissions from a gasoline direct injection (GDI) and a port fuel injection (PFI) vehicle were measured at various ambient temperatures (22°C, -7°C, -18°C). These vehicles were driven over the U.S. Federal Test Procedure 75 (FTP-75) and US06 Supplemental Federal Test Procedure (US06) on Tier 2 certification gasoline (E0) and 10% by volume ethanol (E10). Emissions were analyzed to determine the impact of ambient temperature on exhaust emissions over different driving conditions. Measurements on the GDI vehicle with a gasoline particulate filter (GPF) installed were also made to evaluate the GPF particle filtration efficiency at cold ambient temperatures. The GDI vehicle was found to have better fuel economy than the PFI vehicle at all test conditions. Reduction in ambient temperature increased the fuel consumption for both vehicles, with a much larger impact on the cold-start FTP-75 drive cycle observed than for the hot-start US06 drive cycle.