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Technical Paper

Simplified Methodology for Modeling Cold Temperature Effects on Engine Efficiency for Hybrid and Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles

For this work, a methodology of modeling and predicting fuel consumption in a hybrid vehicle as a function of the engine operating temperature has been developed for cold ambient operation (-7°C, 266°K). This methodology requires two steps: 1) development of a temperature dependent engine brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) map, and, 2) a data-fitting technique for predicting engine temperature to be used as an input to the temperature dependent BSFC maps. For the first step, response surface methodology (RSM) techniques were applied to generate brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) maps as a function of the engine thermal state. For the second step, data fitting techniques were also used to fit a simplified lumped capacitance heat transfer model using several experimental datasets. Utilizing these techniques, an analysis of fuel consumption as a function of thermal state across a broad range of engine operating conditions is presented.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Driving Conditions and Ambient Temperature on Light Duty Gasoline-Electric Hybrid Vehicles (2): Fuel Consumption and Gaseous Pollutant Emission Rates

Fuel consumption and gaseous emission data (CO, NOx, THC, and CO2) are reported for four commercially available gasoline-electric hybrid vehicles and one conventional gasoline vehicle tested on a chassis dynamometer over five transient driving cycles (LA4, LA92, HWFET, NYCC, US06), and two steady state modes (40 and 80 km/h), at two ambient temperatures (20 °C, and -18 °C). All vehicles exhibited higher fuel consumption during transient cycles compared to steady-state modes. Cold ambient temperature had a more detrimental effect on fuel consumption rates of the hybrid vehicles compared to those of the conventional gasoline vehicle.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Driving Conditions and Ambient Temperature on Light Duty Gasoline-Electric Hybrid Vehicles (1): Particulate Matter Emission Rates and Size Distributions

Gasoline-electric hybrid vehicle technology has been gaining widespread acceptance and has the potential to reduce emissions through reduced fuel consumption. In this study, particulate matter number and mass emission rates, organic and elemental carbon compositions, and number-based size distributions were measured from four gasoline-electric hybrid vehicles (2005 Ford Escape Hybrid, 2004 Toyota Prius, 2003 Honda Civic Hybrid, and 2000 Honda Insight). In addition, one small conventional gasoline vehicle (2002 SmartCar) was tested. The vehicles were driven over five driving cycles and at steady-state speeds of 40 and 80 km/h. Each test was performed at 20°C and at -18°C. Testing took place at the Environmental Science & Technology Centre of Environment Canada using conventional chassis dynamometer procedures. Average distance based emission rates are given for each vehicle under each test condition.