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Technical Paper

Impact of Varying Biodiesel Blends on Direct-Injection Light-Duty Diesel Engine Emissions

A 1.9L turbocharged direct-injection engine representing a model year 1998-2003 Volkswagen vehicle, equipped with the OEM diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), was tested on an eddy-current engine dynamometer with a critical flow venturi-constant volume sampling system (CFV-CVS). The engine was operated over three steady-state modes: 1600 rev/min at 54 Nm; 1800 rev/min at 81 Nm; and 2000 rev/min at 98 Nm. Commercially available ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel (≺15 ppm S) was splash-blended with fatty acid methyl ester biodiesels derived from three different feedstocks: canola, soy, and tallow/waste fry oil. Test blend levels included: 0%, 2%, 5%, 20%, 50%, and 100% biodiesel for each feedstock.
Technical Paper

The Impact of Isobutanol and Ethanol on Gasoline Fuel Properties and Black Carbon Emissions from Two Light-Duty Gasoline Vehicles

This study reported black carbon (BC) mass and solid particle number emissions from a gasoline direct injection (GDI) vehicle and a port fuel injection (PFI) vehicle on splash blended E10 and iB16 fuels over the FTP-75 and US06 drive cycles at standard and cold ambient temperatures. For the FTP-75 drive cycle, the GDI vehicle had lower solid particle number and BC mass emissions from E10 (5.1×1012 particles/mile; 4.2 mg/mile) and iB16 (5.2×1012 particles/mile; 3.9 mg/mile) compared to E0 (7.2×1012 particles/mile; 7.0 mg/mi). Most of the reductions were attributed to the statistically significant reductions during the phases 1 and 2 of the FTP-75 drive cycle. iB16 was also observed to have statistically significant reduction on BC emissions when compared to E0 at cold ambient temperature but E10 did not show such BC reduction. For the PFI vehicle, most of the solid particle number and BC mass emissions were emitted primarily during phase 1 of the FTP-75 drive cycle.
Technical Paper

Immediate Impacts on Particulate and Gaseous Emissions from a T56 Turbo-Prop Engine Using a Biofuel Blend

Adoption of hydro-processed esters and fatty acid biojet fuels is a critical component for the sustainability of the aviation industry. Aviation biofuels reduce pollution and provide alternatives to conventional fossil fuels. A study of the impacts of biofuels on emissions from a T56 turbo-prop engine was undertaken as a joint effort among several departments of the Government of Canada. In this study, particulate (including particle number and black carbon (BC) mass) and regulated gaseous emissions (CO2, CO, NO, NO2, THC) were characterized with the engine operating on conventional F-34 jet fuel and jet fuel blended with camelina-based hydro-processed biojet fuel (C-HEFA) by 50% in volume. Emissions characterization, conducted after 20-hour ground engine durability tests, showed immediate significant reductions in particle number and BC mass when the engine was operated on the C-HEFA blend.
Journal Article

Impact of Ambient Temperature on Gaseous and Particle Emissions from a Direct Injection Gasoline Vehicle and its Implications on Particle Filtration

Gaseous and particle emissions from a gasoline direct injection (GDI) and a port fuel injection (PFI) vehicle were measured at various ambient temperatures (22°C, -7°C, -18°C). These vehicles were driven over the U.S. Federal Test Procedure 75 (FTP-75) and US06 Supplemental Federal Test Procedure (US06) on Tier 2 certification gasoline (E0) and 10% by volume ethanol (E10). Emissions were analyzed to determine the impact of ambient temperature on exhaust emissions over different driving conditions. Measurements on the GDI vehicle with a gasoline particulate filter (GPF) installed were also made to evaluate the GPF particle filtration efficiency at cold ambient temperatures. The GDI vehicle was found to have better fuel economy than the PFI vehicle at all test conditions. Reduction in ambient temperature increased the fuel consumption for both vehicles, with a much larger impact on the cold-start FTP-75 drive cycle observed than for the hot-start US06 drive cycle.
Journal Article

Characterization of the Ultrafine and Black Carbon Emissions from Different Aviation Alternative Fuels

This study reports gaseous and particle (ultrafine and black carbon (BC)) emissions from a turbofan engine core on standard Jet A-1 and three alternative fuels, including 100% hydrothermolysis synthetic kerosene with aromatics (CH-SKA), 50% Hydro-processed Esters and Fatty Acid paraffinic kerosene (HEFA-SPK), and 100% Fischer Tropsch (FT-SPK). Gaseous emissions from this engine for various fuels were similar but significant differences in particle emissions were observed. During the idle condition, it was observed that the non-refractory mass fraction in the emitted particles were higher than during higher engine load condition. This observation is consistent for all test fuels. The 100% CH-SKA fuel was found to have noticeable reductions in BC emissions when compared to Jet A-1 by 28-38% by different BC instruments (and 7% in refractory particle number (PN) emissions) at take-off condition.