Impact of Varying Biodiesel Blends on Direct-Injection Light-Duty Diesel Engine Emissions
A 1.9L turbocharged direct-injection engine representing a model year 1998-2003 Volkswagen vehicle, equipped with the OEM diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), was tested on an eddy-current engine dynamometer with a critical flow venturi-constant volume sampling system (CFV-CVS). The engine was operated over three steady-state modes: 1600 rev/min at 54 Nm; 1800 rev/min at 81 Nm; and 2000 rev/min at 98 Nm. Commercially available ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel (≺15 ppm S) was splash-blended with fatty acid methyl ester biodiesels derived from three different feedstocks: canola, soy, and tallow/waste fry oil. Test blend levels included: 0%, 2%, 5%, 20%, 50%, and 100% biodiesel for each feedstock.