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Technical Paper

Lab Study of Urea Deposit Formation and Chemical Transformation Process of Diesel Aftertreatment System

Diesel exhaust fluid, DEF, (32.5 wt.% urea aqueous solution) is widely used as the NH3 source for selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOx in diesel aftertreatment systems. The transformation of sprayed liquid phase DEF droplets to gas phase NH3 is a complex physical and chemical process. Briefly, it experiences water vaporization, urea thermolysis/decomposition and hydrolysis. Depending on the DEF doser, decomposition reaction tube (DRT) design and operating conditions, incomplete decomposition of injected urea could lead to solid urea deposit formation in the diesel aftertreatment system. The formed deposits could lead to engine back pressure increase and DeNOx performance deterioration etc. The formed urea deposits could be further transformed to chemically more stable substances upon exposure to hot exhaust gas, therefore it is critical to understand this transformation process.
Technical Paper

Development and Field Performance Validation of a Retrofit SCR System for On-Road Heavy-Duty Application

Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology is being considered as the potential strategy for significant reduction of NOx emissions from diesel engines. Many challenges exist in the development of an On-Road SCR retrofit system in terms of system integration and optimization of control strategy in order to achieve highest NOx reduction given the diversity of duty cycles. The main considered challenges are: - The development of a generic control strategy that would work for a broad range of engines, - Development of a reliable and durable injection system that would be able to withstand the harsh environments on a heavy-duty vehicle, - Packaging of the system to be able to fit on a number of vehicles with different configurations, - Controlling ammonia slip and assurance of reducing agent (Urea) availability and quality. In this study a prototype SCR system was evaluated over engine and chassis dynamometer test cycles.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Sulfated Ash, Phosphorus and Sulfur on Diesel Aftertreatment Systems - A Review

This paper reviews the relevant literature on the effects of sulfated ash, phosphorus, and sulfur on DPF, LNT, and SCR catalysts. Exhaust backpressure increase due to DPF ash accumulation, as well as the rate at which ash is consumed from the sump, were the most studied lubricant-derived DPF effects. Based on several studies, a doubling of backpressure can be estimated to occur within 270,000 to 490,000 km when using a 1.0% sulfated ash oil. Postmortem DPF analysis and exhaust gas measurements revealed that approximately 35% to 65% less ash was lost from the sump than was expected based on bulk oil consumption estimates. Despite significant effects from lubricant sulfur and phosphorus, loss of LNT NOX reduction efficiency is dominated by fuel sulfur effects. Phosphorus has been determined to have a mild poisoning effect on SCR catalysts. The extent of the effect that lubricant phosphorus and sulfur have on DOCs remains unclear, however, it appears to be minor.
Technical Paper

Developing Design Guidelines for an SCR Assembly Equipped for RF Sensing of NH3 Loading

The Cu-zeolite (CuZ) SCR catalyst enables higher NOx conversion efficiency in part because it can store a significant amount of NH3. “NH3 storage control”, where diesel exhaust fluid (DEF) is dosed in accord with a target NH3 loading, is widely used with CuZ catalysts to achieve very high efficiency. The NH3 loading actually achieved on the catalyst is currently estimated through a stoichiometric calculation. With future high-capacity CuZ catalyst designs, it is likely that the accuracy of this NH3 loading estimate will become limiting for NOx conversion efficiency. Therefore, a direct measurement of NH3 loading is needed; RF sensing enables this. Relative to RF sensing of soot in a DPF (which is in commercial production), RF sensing of NH3 adsorbed on CuZ is more challenging. Therefore, more attention must be paid to the “microwave resonance cavity” created within the SCR assembly. The objective of this study was to develop design guidelines to enable and enhance RF sensing.
Journal Article

NOx Reduction Using a Dual-Stage Catalyst System with Intercooling in Vehicle Gasoline Engines under Real Driving Conditions

Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of nitrogen oxides (NOx) is used in diesel-fueled mobile applications where urea is an added reducing agent. We show that the Ultera® dual-stage catalyst, with intercooling aftertreatment system, intrinsically performs the function of the SCR method in nominally stoichiometric gasoline vehicle engines without the need for an added reductant. We present that NOx is reduced during the low-temperature operation of the dual-stage system, benefiting from the typically periodic transient operation (acceleration and decelerations) with the associated swing in the air/fuel ratio (AFR) inherent in mobile applications, as commonly expected and observed in real driving. The primary objective of the dual-stage aftertreatment system is to remove non-methane organic gases (NMOG) and carbon monoxide (CO) slip from the vehicle’s three-way catalyst (TWC) by oxidizing these constituents in the second stage catalyst.
Journal Article

Study of On-Board Ammonia (NH3) Generation for SCR Operation

Mechanisms of NH₃ generation using LNT-like catalysts have been studied in a bench reactor over a wide range of temperatures, flow rates, reformer catalyst types and synthetic exhaust-gas compositions. The experiments showed that the on board production of sufficient quantities of ammonia on board for SCR operation appeared feasible, and the results identified the range of conditions for the efficient generation of ammonia. In addition, the effects of reformer catalysts using the water-gas-shift reaction as an in-situ source of the required hydrogen for the reactions are also illustrated. Computations of the NH₃ and NOx kinetics have also been carried out and are presented. Design and impregnation of the SCR catalyst in proximity to the ammonia source is the next logical step. A heated synthetic-exhaust gas flow bench was used for the experiments under carefully controlled simulated exhaust compositions.