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Technical Paper

A Graphical Workstation Based Part-Task Flight Simulator for Preliminary Rapid Evaluation of Advanced Displays

Advances in avionics and display technology are significantly changing the cockpit environment in current transport aircraft. The MIT Aeronautical Systems Lab (ASL) has developed a part-task flight simulator specifically to study the effects of these new technologies on flight crew situational awareness and performance. The simulator is based on a commercially-available graphics workstation, and can be rapidly reconfigured to meet the varying demands of experimental studies. The simulator has been successfully used to evaluate graphical microburst alerting displays, electronic instrument approach plates, terrain awareness and alerting displays, and ATC routing amendment delivery through digital datalinks.
Technical Paper

Small Scale Research in Automobile Aerodynamics

This paper describes a three component strain gage balance designed to measure aerodynamic forces exerted on small automobile models when subjected to turbulence in an experimental wind tunnel. The instrument is described and the details of obtaining values with it are fully explained. Although tests were conducted on these models at quarter-scale Reynolds number, results agree closely with similar tests on larger models. The balance makes practical some unusual preliminary investigations before developing full-scale prototypes.
Technical Paper

American Vs. European Vehicles on the ECE Fuel Consumption Cycles

The recent publication in Europe of vehicle fuel consumption values on standardized test procedures has made it possible to compare the over-the-road energy efficiency of vehicles designed for North America with those designed for Europe. Thirty-six of the former were tested on the three ECE fuel consumption cycles. The results indicate equal or better performance for the American technology and made it possible to calculate “one-way” factors to predict a vehicle's performance on the ECE cycles from the U.S. EPA fuel consumption data for the UDDS and HWFET cycles.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Driving Conditions and Ambient Temperature on Light Duty Gasoline-electric Hybrid Vehicles (3): Battery Energy

The dependence of gasoline-electric hybrid vehicle energies on driving conditions and ambient temperature is presented for different drive cycles (2xLA4, 2xLA92, 2xUS06, HWFET and 2xNYCC) and temperatures (20°C and -18°C). The tests were carried out at the Emissions Research and Measurement Division of Environment Canada. Hybrid battery pack current was measured at a frequency of 10 Hz. Regenerative braking energy, charging energy from the engine and battery discharge energy were estimated by using modal speed. The magnitudes of battery energies were found to be directly related to drive cycle properties. Battery discharge energy was very strongly correlated to emission factors of CO₂, while energy recovered by regenerative braking and charging energy from the engine had low to very strong correlations to CO₂ emission factors. CO, NOx and HC had low linear correlations to battery discharge energy.
Technical Paper

Simplified Methodology for Modeling Cold Temperature Effects on Engine Efficiency for Hybrid and Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles

For this work, a methodology of modeling and predicting fuel consumption in a hybrid vehicle as a function of the engine operating temperature has been developed for cold ambient operation (-7°C, 266°K). This methodology requires two steps: 1) development of a temperature dependent engine brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) map, and, 2) a data-fitting technique for predicting engine temperature to be used as an input to the temperature dependent BSFC maps. For the first step, response surface methodology (RSM) techniques were applied to generate brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) maps as a function of the engine thermal state. For the second step, data fitting techniques were also used to fit a simplified lumped capacitance heat transfer model using several experimental datasets. Utilizing these techniques, an analysis of fuel consumption as a function of thermal state across a broad range of engine operating conditions is presented.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Actual and Claimed Fuel Consumption and In-Use Emission Factors for Portable Gasoline Generators

This paper reports the results of a fuel economy and regulated emissions survey of 15 gasoline powered generators. Tests were conducted at Environment Canada's Emission Research and Measurement Division (ERMD) facilities in Ottawa. The generators ranged in output capacity from 0.9kW to 7.0kW maximum rated output (MRO). They were obtained from a variety of sources including commercial rental companies and from other Environment Canada Divisions. The generators were operated on summer grade commercial fuel over a 6 mode test cycle when possible. The testing was designed to mimic the certification test the engines would undergo in an engine dynamometer test configuration with the exception that the loading was simulated by a load bank connected to the generators electrical output(s).
Technical Paper

Durability Studies of a Base Metal Catalyzed Particulate Filter in a Severe Non-road Application

This paper will present emissions durability data from an underground mining vehicle equipped with diesel particulate filter technology, which was followed over 4000 hrs on a Detroit Diesel Series 60 engine. The twin particulate filter system is catalyzed using a base metal formulation on cordierite wall flow monoliths. After the durability accumulation, the recovered filters were individually emissions tested on a Detroit Diesel Series 50 engine over the ISO 8178 test cycle. Performance, maintenance and emissions issues pertaining to base metal catalysts will be discussed.
Technical Paper

Performance and Durability Evaluation of Continuously Regenerating Particulate Filters on Diesel Powered Urban Buses at NY City Transit - Part II

In urban areas, particulate emission from diesel engines is one of the pollutants of most concern. As a result, particulate emission control from urban bus diesel engines using particle filter technology is being evaluated at several locations in the US. A project entitled, “Clean Diesel Vehicle Air Quality Project” has been initiated by NY City Transit under the supervision of NYSDEC and with active participation from several industry partners. Under this program, 25 NY City transit buses with DDC Series 50 engines have been equipped with continuously regenerating diesel particulate filter systems and have been operating with ultra low sulfur diesel (< 30 ppm S) in transit service in Manhattan since February 2000. These buses were evaluated over a 9 month period for operations, maintainability and durability of the particulate filter.
Technical Paper

Vibration Measurement in Flight

EQUIPMENT for measuring vibration in airplane structures and powerplants during actual flight is described in this paper. This development is the result of a cooperative research program carried out by the Bureau of Aeronautics of the U. S. Navy and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology with contributions of improvements in design and new features by the Sperry Gyroscope Co., Inc. In its essentials, the M.I.T.-Sperry Apparatus consists of a number of electrical pickup units which operate a central amplifying and recording unit. The recorder is a double-element photographic oscillograph. Each pickup is adapted especially to the type of vibration that it is intended to measure and is made so small that it does not appreciably affect the vibration characteristics of the member to which it is attached rigidly. By using a number of systematically placed pickups, all the necessary vibration information on an airplane can be recorded during a few short flights.
Journal Article

Impact of Ambient Temperature on Gaseous and Particle Emissions from a Direct Injection Gasoline Vehicle and its Implications on Particle Filtration

Gaseous and particle emissions from a gasoline direct injection (GDI) and a port fuel injection (PFI) vehicle were measured at various ambient temperatures (22°C, -7°C, -18°C). These vehicles were driven over the U.S. Federal Test Procedure 75 (FTP-75) and US06 Supplemental Federal Test Procedure (US06) on Tier 2 certification gasoline (E0) and 10% by volume ethanol (E10). Emissions were analyzed to determine the impact of ambient temperature on exhaust emissions over different driving conditions. Measurements on the GDI vehicle with a gasoline particulate filter (GPF) installed were also made to evaluate the GPF particle filtration efficiency at cold ambient temperatures. The GDI vehicle was found to have better fuel economy than the PFI vehicle at all test conditions. Reduction in ambient temperature increased the fuel consumption for both vehicles, with a much larger impact on the cold-start FTP-75 drive cycle observed than for the hot-start US06 drive cycle.
Journal Article

CoQ Tradeoffs in Manufacturing Process Improvement and Inspection Strategy Selection: A Case Study of Welded Automotive Assemblies

In today's highly competitive automotive markets manufacturers must provide high quality products to survive. Manufacturers can achieve higher levels of quality by changing or improving their manufacturing process and/or by product inspection where many strategies with different cost implications are often available. Cost of Quality (CoQ) reconciles the competing objectives of quality maximization and cost minimization and serves as a useful framework for comparing available manufacturing process and inspection alternatives. In this paper, an analytic CoQ framework is discussed and some key findings are demonstrated using a set of basic inspection strategy scenarios. A case of a welded automotive assembly is chosen to explore the CoQ tradeoffs in inspection strategy selection and the value of welding process improvement. In the assembly process, many individual components are welded in series and each weld is inspected for quality.
Journal Article

Sensitivity Analysis of Ash Packing and Distribution in Diesel Particulate Filters to Transient Changes in Exhaust Conditions

Current CJ-4 lubricant specifications place chemical limits on diesel engine oil formulations to minimize the accumulation of lubricant-derived ash in diesel particulate filters (DPF). While lubricant additive chemistry plays a strong role in determining the amount and type of ash accumulated in the DPF, a number of additional factors play important roles as well. Relative to soot particles, whose residence time in the DPF is short-lived, ash particles remain in the filter for a significant fraction of the filter's useful life. While it is well-known that the properties (packing density, porosity, permeability) of soot deposits are primarily controlled by the local exhaust conditions at the time of particle deposition in the DPF, the cumulative operating history of the filter plays a much stronger role in controlling the properties and distribution of the accumulated ash.