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Technical Paper

Emission Effects of Shell LOW NOX Fuel on a 1990 Model Year Heavy Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

1996-10-01
961973
The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recently tested a clean diesel fuel developed by Dion & Sons for use in stationary sources. This fuel is known as Amber 363 in Southern California and its technology is licensed outside of the Southern California area to Shell Oil Products Company for use as a stationary source fuel. The fuel, hereafter referred to as “Shell LOW NOX Fuel,” was tested in a 1990 model year heavy heavy-duty diesel engine using both the transient Federal Test Procedure (FTP) for on-highway heavy-duty engines, the steady-state FTP for nonroad heavy-duty engines, and the steady-state generator set test cycle. For each test, EPA measured hydrocarbon (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) emissions. Transient testing showed that the Shell LOW NOX Fuel lowers NOx, HC and PM emissions with no statistically significant change in CO emissions for both cold-starts and hot-starts when compared to diesel certification test fuel.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Gasoline Reformulation and Sulfur Reduction on Exhaust Emissions from Post-1983 but Pre-1990 Vehicles

1995-02-01
950778
Ten post-1981 and pre-1990 vehicles were tested to determine if the effect of gasoline reformulation would be different than predicted by the EPA complex model. All vehicles passed the IM-240 screening before fuel testing. A nonoxygenated baseline and four oxygenated test fuels with varying levels of sulfur and RVP were tested for exhaust emissions. The emission response of the fuel changes with these vehicles was similar to that predicted by the complex model. However, the NOx emissions of the vehicles in this study were less sensitive to sulfur level than complex model predicts. Also, the oxygenated reformulated gasolines regardless of sulfur level produced greater reductions in NMHC emissions than predicted by the complex model.
Technical Paper

Reformulated Gasoline Effects on Exhaust Emissions: Phase III; Investigation on the Effects of Sulfur, Olefins, Volatility, and Aromatics and the Interactions Between Olefins and Volatility or Sulfur

1995-02-01
950782
A vehicle test program was conducted at the Environmental Protection Agency's National Vehicle and Fuel Emissions Laboratory to provide data on the relationship between fuel properties and exhaust emissions of nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHC), NOx, and CO. This study, Phase III, is the third in a series of programs sponsored by the Agency. This Phase III program consisted of 19 light-duty high and normal emitting vehicles tested on 10 different fuels. The properties for each test fuel were specified in order to examine seven separate fuel effects on exhaust emissions; interactions between olefins and volatility, interactions between olefins and sulfur, very high and very low levels of sulfur, low levels of aromatics, low volatility, and low levels of olefins. For all of the fuels tested, the normal emitter vehicles produced greater percentage reductions than the high emitters. The data in this work showed lower NMHC emission reduction than predicted by the complex model.
Technical Paper

Exhaust Emissions in Cold Ambient Conditions:Considerations for a European Test Procedure

1995-02-01
950929
Motor vehicles are seldom used in ambient conditions like those defined in current emission regulations. For example, most of the year average temperatures across Europe fall much below the range of legislative testing. Furthermore, it has been widely demonstrated that cold-starts at low ambient temperature increase the emissions. Therefore, there is a growing need to broaden the range of legislative emissions tests and set a separate low-ambient test with respective emission standards. This paper gives emissions test results form a joint research programme between Sweden and Finland. Altogether 11 late model gasoline-fueled TWC vehicles were tested at ambient temperatures of +22 and -7 °C using a variety of different driving cycles. Apart from the driving schedule, other test parameters like vehicle preconditioning, manual vs. automatic transmission and the effect of external cooling were studied and discussed.
Technical Paper

Use of a Repeatable Car to Improve Intra-Lab Variability of Emissions Tests

1993-03-01
930077
A Repeatable Car (REPCA) program has been developed at the Environmental Protection Agency's National Vehicle and Fuel Emissions Laboratory (NVFEL) as part of an ongoing effort to improve the precision of fuel economy and emissions measurements. This concept of using a repeatable car as an integrated system diagnostic tool is not a new idea in the emissions testing field; however, our statistical analyses and organizational approach may be different from what other laboratories are using. Furthermore, given the NVEFL's role in automotive emissions testing, we felt it appropriate to provide related industries a detailed account of our standard laboratory practices, both for informational and comparative purposes. In order to separate vehicle and measurement variability in a relatively simple manner, a process was developed to track REPCA data based on Statistical Process Control principles using the calculation of individual site offset values from two week moving averages.
Technical Paper

Passenger Car Fuel Economy as Influenced by Trip Length

1975-02-01
750004
Data from the Nationwide Personal Transportation Study (NPTS) and other sources have been used to generate distributions of vehicle miles traveled (VMT), average speed, and fuel consumption as a function of trip length. Approximately one third of all automobile travel in the U.S. is seen to consist of trips no more than ten miles in length. Because short trips involve more frequent stops and a smaller percentage of operation during warmed-up conditions, nearly half of the fuel used by automobiles is consumed during the execution of these short trips. The typical trip of approximately ten miles in length has been shown to result in a fuel economy that is equal to the average fuel economy achieved for all trips combined.
Technical Paper

Exhaust Emissions 1966-1972 Model Year Light Duty Motor Vehicles

1974-02-01
741005
This report describes the results of a surveillance study initiated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to measure gaseous exhaust emissions from 1020 light-duty motor vehicles. This project was the second effort in a continuing program using the CVS Federal Test Procedure. Selected privately-owned vehicles, drawn randomly from six metropolitan areas, were tested in as-received condition. The emissions data obtained from these 1966-1972 model-year vehicles are reported in grams per mile of unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and oxides of nitrogen while fuel economy is reported in mpg as determined over the Federal Driving Schedule.
Technical Paper

Emissions from In-Use 1970-1971 Diesel-Powered Trucks and Buses

1974-02-01
741006
A fleet of 64 heavy-duty 1970-71 model trucks and buses powered by a variety of diesel engines were tested periodically to determine exhaust smoke behavior. Smoke tests were made when the vehicle was new or nearly new and at four month intervals thereafter, or until 160,934 km (100,000 miles) odometer reading was reached. Gaseous emissions of hydrocarbon (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), and nitric oxide (NO) were measured at one point early in the project. Both smoke and gaseous emission tests were performed with chassis versions of the engine dynamometer Federal Test Procedures (FTP). Results in terms of “a” (acceleration), “b” (lugging), and “c” (peak) smoke factors versus mileage are reported for the 13 engine-vehicle-application groupings.
Technical Paper

Fuel Economy of the 1975 Models

1974-02-01
740970
The fuel economy data obtained from the emission tests run by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) have been used to show passenger car fuel economy trends from model year 1957 to present. This paper adds the 1975 model year to the historical trend and concentrates on comparisons between the 1975 and 1974 models. Methodologies which allow different 1975 vs 1974 comparisons to be made have been developed. These calculation procedures allow the changes in fuel economy to be determined separately for emission control systems, new engine-vehicle combinations and model mix shifts. Comparisons have been calculated not only for the fleet as a whole but for each of the 13 manufacturers who were certified as of the time this paper was prepared. The net change in fuel economy for the fleet has been estimated at +13.8% comparing the 1975 models to the 1974 models assuming no model mix change occurs.
Technical Paper

Motorcycle Emissions, Their Impact, and Possible Control Techniques

1974-02-01
740627
Seven motorcycles, ranging in size from 100 to 1200 cm3, were tested for emissions characterization purposes. They were operated on the federal seven-mode test procedure (for 1971 and older light-duty vehicles), the federal LA-4 test procedure (for 1972 and later LDVs), and under a variety of steady-state conditions. Four of the machines tested had 4-stroke engines, and the other three had 2-stroke engines. Emissions which were measured included hydrocarbons, CO, CO2, NO, NOx, O2, aldehydes, light hydrocarbons, particulates, and smoke. Emissions of SOx were estimated on the basis of fuel consumed, and evaporative hydrocarbon losses were also estimated. Crankcase “blowby” emissions from one 4-stroke machine were measured. The impact of motorcycles on national pollutant totals was estimated, based on the test results and information from a variety of sources on national population and usage of motorcycles.
Technical Paper

An Automobile Exhaust Emission Model

1974-02-01
740538
A mathematical model of an automobile's emission rate is described. This model can be used to calculate the amounts of hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and oxides of nitrogen emitted by individual or groups of automobiles being driven over any known driving sequence. The development of the model requires the amounts of three pollutants given off by individual automobiles over short duration driving sequences (modes). The validity of the model is investigated by using it to calculate the amounts of each pollutant given off by individual automobiles over the hot transient portion (first 505 s) of the Federal Test Procedure driving sequence. These predicted emissions are then compared with observed amounts emitted from each automobile. Further, the ability of the model to predict emissions is investigated in light of the reproducibility of actual automobile emissions measured in replicated tests. These analyses indicate that the model performs extremely well.
Technical Paper

Small Engine Emissions and Their Impact

1973-02-01
730859
In an attempt to characterize emissions from small air-cooled utility engines, five gasoline-fueled models were operated over a variety of speeds and loads, and important exhaust constituents were measured. These emissions included hydrocarbons, CO, CO2, NO, O2, aldehydes, light hydrocarbons, particulates, and smoke. Emissions of SOx were estimated on the basis of the fuel consumed; evaporative losses of hydrocarbons were also estimated. The impact of small engine emissions was calculated on the basis of the test results and information on national engine populations and usage. From these data, it appears that the 50 million or more small engines currently being used account for only a small part of pollutants from all sources.
Technical Paper

Passenger Car Fuel Economy - Trends and Influencing Factors

1973-02-01
730790
This paper discusses some trends and influencing factors in passenger car fuel economy. Fuel economy and fuel consumption were calculated by a carbon balance method from HC, CO, and CO2 emissions measured by the 1972 Federal Test Procedure. The information presented was derived from nearly 4000 tests of passenger cars ranging from 1957 production models to 1975 prototypes. Data are presented for various model year and vehicle weight categories. Trends in fuel economy are discussed on an overall sales-weighted basis and for each individual weight class. Some of the factors that influence fuel economy are quantified through the use of a regression analysis. Particular emphasis is placed on the differences in fuel economy between those vehicles that were subject to federal emission regulations and those vehicles that were not. Three ways to characterize vehicle specific fuel consumption are presented and discussed.
Technical Paper

Development of the Federal Urban Driving Schedule

1973-02-01
730553
This paper reviews the development of the LA 4 road route, and discusses efforts directed toward development of a short repetitive dynamometer cycle based upon the road route Also described are the instrumentation, methods, and selection process used to obtain a speed profile of a typical drive over the 12 mile long route The methods used to shorten the speed profile to 7.5 miles, and to shorten the average trip length, while preserving trip description such as average speed, idle time, number of stops, etc., are explained. A measure of the correlation of emissions from vehicles driven over the EPA Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule (UDDS) and over the full LA 4 driving schedule is provided. The UDDS is a speed-trace consisting of 18 profiles. separated by idle periods of 0-39 s duration The schedule covers 7.46 miles in 1372 s for an average speed of 19.6 mph.
Technical Paper

Effect of Laboratory Ambient Conditions on Exhaust Emissions

1972-02-01
720124
A program was conducted to determine the effect of temperature and humidity on exhaust emissions from automotive engines. The objective was to determine if the effects were of sufficient magnitude to require the application of correction factors to measured exhaust emissions to standard humidity and temperature values. Both American and foreign-made vehicles were tested at 20 combinations of ambient temperature and humidity. The effect of temperature and humidity was found to be both unpredictable and of little significance for hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions. No correction factors were developed for these exhaust gas constituents. The effect of temperature was found to be of little significance for oxides of nitrogen. However, humidity effects were found to be significant and predictable for oxides of nitrogen.
Technical Paper

A Characterization of Exhaust Emissions from Lean Burn, Rotary, and Stratified Charge Engines

1977-02-01
770301
This paper reports the results of an exhaust emissions characterization from the non-catalyst control systems employed on the Mazda RX-4 rotary, the Honda CVCC, and the Chrysler electronic lean burn. Throughout the paper, exhaust emissions from these vehicles are compared to those from a Chrysler equipped with an oxidation catalyst and an air pump. The emissions characterized are carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, sulfates, hydrogen sulfide, carbonyl sulfide, hydrogen cyanide, aldehydes, particulate matter, and detailed hydrocarbons. A brief description of the sampling and analysis procedures used is included within the discussion.
Technical Paper

Passenger Car Fuel Economy Trends Through 1976

1975-02-01
750957
The fuel economy data compiled by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) have been analyzed to determine the trends in passenger car fuel economy beginning with model year 1957. This paper adds the 1976 model year data to the historical trend and concentrates on comparisons between the 1976 and 1975 models. Calculation procedures which allow the changes in fuel economy to be determined separately for system optimization, new engine/vehicle combinations, and model mix shifts have been employed in the analysis which compares 1976 models with 1975 models. A wide range of percentage changes was seen for the fifteen manufacturers who were certified in time to be included in the analysis performed for this paper. The net change in fuel economy for the 1976 new car fleet has been estimated at +12.8% compared to the 1975 new car fleet. System optimization is responsible for 8.8% of the improvement and model mix shifts are projected to account for +3.1% of the change.
Technical Paper

Emissions Control of Gasoline Engines for Heavy-Duty Vehicles

1975-02-01
750903
This paper summarizes an investigation of reductions in exhaust emission levels attainable using various techniques appropriate to gasoline engines used in vehicles over 14,000 lbs GVW. Of the eight gasoline engines investigated, two were evaluated parametrically resulting in an oxidation and reduction catalyst “best combination” configuration. Four of the engines were evaluated in an EGR plus oxidation catalyst configuration, and two involved only baseline tests. Test procedures used in evaluating the six “best combination” configurations include: three engine emission test procedures using an engine dynamometer, a determination of vehicle driveability, and two vehicle emission test procedures using a chassis dynamometer. Dramatic reductions in emissions were attained with the catalyst “best combination” configurations. Engine durability, however, was not investigated.
Technical Paper

Passenger Car Fuel Economy During Non-Urban Driving

1974-02-01
740592
The use of fuel economy data from the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) has provided a substantial amount of data on the fuel economy of passenger cars in urban driving conditions. Since the FTP does not represent the type of driving done in rural areas, especially on highways, a driving cycle to assess highway fuel economy was a desirable supplement to the FTP. The new Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) “highway” cycle was constructed from actual speed-versus-time traces generated by an instrumented test car driven over a variety of nonurban roads and highways. This cycle reflects the correct proportion of operation on each of the four major types of nonurban roads and preserves the non-steady-state characteristics of real-world driving. The average speed of the cycle is 48.2 mph and the cycle length is 10.2 miles, close to the average nonurban trip length.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Emissions-Summer to Winter

1974-02-01
741053
A test program was conducted to study the effect of ambient conditions on exhaust emissions from a wide variety of automobiles. Twenty-six cars ranging from pre-control production cars to catalyst-equipped prototypes, including rotary, Diesel, and stratified charge cars, were tested at 20°, 50°, 75°, and 110° F. Ambient temperatures above and below 75° F were found to have significant effects on exhaust emissions. The Diesel and stratified charge cars were affected less than production and catalyst-equipped cars by changes in ambient temperature. The use of air conditioners at the 110° F test temperature led to increased emissions and fuel consumption. Hydrocarbon reactivity and aldehyde emissions were not affected by temperature and were lower from the catalyst cars at all temperatures.
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