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Technical Paper

Optimization of Aerodynamics and Engine Cooling Performance of a JMC Mid-Size Truck using Simulation

The engineering process in the development of commercial vehicles is facing more and more stringent emission regulations while at the same time the market demands for better performance but with lower fuel consumption and higher reliability. Respective targets require better utilization of existing or even higher engine cooling capacity and optimization of aerodynamic performance for reduced drag. In order to aid on achieving both goals, special attention should be paid on understanding both external and under hood flow structures. This paper describes an optimization study for reducing aerodynamic drag and increasing engine cooling performance conducted on a Light Truck at Jiangling Motors Corporation (JMC). The approach is using simulation based on a LBM solver coupled with a heat exchanger model. Such methodology was used to predict both aerodynamic and cooling characteristics and help highlighting potential areas for improvement.
Technical Paper

The Aerodynamic Development of a New Dongfeng Heavy Truck

The development of a new Dongfeng Heavy truck had very strict targets for fuel consumption. As the aerodynamic drag plays a crucial role for the fuel consumption, a low drag value had to be achieved. It was therefore essential to include evaluation and optimization of the aerodynamics in the development process. Because wind tunnel facilities were not available, the complete aerodynamics development was based on digital simulation. The major portion of the aerodynamic optimization was carried out during the styling phase where mirrors, sun visor, front bumper and aero devices were optimized for drag reduction. For optimizing corner vanes and mud guards, self-soiling from the wheel spray was included in the analysis. The aero results did also show that cooling air flow rates are sufficiently high to ensure proper cooling. During the detailed engineering phase an increase of the drag above the target required further optimization work to finally reach the target.
Technical Paper

Interactive Tools for Digital CAE Shape Optimization of Class A Surfaces: A Bridge Between Styling and Engineering

A decade of industrial experience with Exa's CFD software, PowerFLOW, has matured the simulation software to the point where the geometric modeling process is now the bottleneck to efficiency and effectiveness. Simply put, the actual CAE simulation event is now fast enough and accurate enough to drive design intent; however, the geometric design process that supplies alternative models to the software is not fast enough to keep up with the critical path of the design cycle. If CAE tools in general are to play in important role in creating design intent rather than simply verifying completed design work, then the modeling process which drives them will have to improve. In the context of this paper, geometric design involves both Class A exteriors and under-hood geometries. Two pieces of software have been developed to help in this area: PowerWRAP and PowerCLAY.
Technical Paper

Exhaust and Muffler Aeroacoustics Predictions using Lattice Boltzmann Method

Exhaust systems are a necessary solution to reduce combustion engine noise originating from flow fluctuations released at each firing cycle. However, exhaust systems also generate a back pressure detrimental for the engine efficiency. This back pressure must be controlled to guarantee optimal operating conditions for the engine. To satisfy both optimal operating conditions and optimal noise levels, the internal design of exhaust systems has become complex, often leading to the emergence of undesired noise generated by turbulent flow circulating inside a muffler. Associated details needed for the manufacturing process, such as brackets for the connection between parts, can interact with the flow, generating additional flow noise or whistles. To minimize the risks of undesirable noise, multiple exhaust designs must be assessed early to prevent the late detection of issues, when design and manufacturing process are frozen. However, designing via an experimental approach is challenging.
Technical Paper

The Aerodynamic Development of the Tesla Model S - Part 1: Overview

The Tesla Motors Model S has been designed from a clean sheet of paper to prove that no compromises to a desirable aesthetic style and world class driving experience are necessary in order to be energy efficient. Aerodynamic optimization is a major contributor to the overall efficiency of an electric vehicle and the close integration of the Design and Engineering groups at Tesla Motors was specifically arranged to process design iterations quickly and enable the fully informed development of the exterior surfaces at a very rapid pace. Clear communication and a working appreciation of each other's priorities were vital to this collaboration and underpinning this was extensive use of the powerful analysis and visualization capabilities of CFD. CFD was used to identify and effectively communicate the nature of beneficial and detrimental design features and to find ways to enhance or ameliorate them accordingly.
Journal Article

Aerodynamic Optimization of Trailer Add-On Devices Fully- and Partially-Skirted Trailer Configurations

As part of the United States Department of Energy's SuperTruck program, Volvo Trucks and its partners were tasked with demonstrating 50% improvement in overall freight efficiency for a tractor-trailer, relative to a best in class 2009 model year truck. This necessitated that significant gains be made in reducing aerodynamic drag of the tractor-trailer system, so trailer side-skirts and a trailer boat-tail were employed. A Lattice-Boltzmann based simulation method was used in conjunction with a Kriging Response Surface optimization process in order to efficiently describe a design space of seven independent parameters relating to boat-tail and side-skirt dimensions, and to find an optimal configuration. Part 1 concerns a fully-skirted tractor-trailer system, and consists of an initial phase of optimization, followed by a mid-project re-evaluation of constraints, and an additional period of optimization.
Journal Article

Aerodynamic Shape Optimization of an SUV in early Development Stage using a Response Surface Method

In the development of an FAW SUV, one of the goals is to achieve a state of the art drag level. In order to achieve such an aggressive target, feedback from aerodynamics has to be included in the early stage of the design decision process. The aerodynamic performance evaluation and improvement is mostly based on CFD simulation in combination with some wind tunnel testing for verification of the simulation results. As a first step in this process, a fully detailed simulation model is built. The styling surface is combined with engine room and underbody detailed geometry from a similar size existing vehicle. From a detailed analysis of the flow field potential areas for improvement are identified and five design parameters for modifying overall shape features of the upper body are derived. In a second step, a response surface method involving design of experiments and adaptive sampling techniques are applied for characterizing the effects of the design changes.