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Technical Paper

A Two-Step Combustion Model of Iso-Octane for 3D CFD Combustion Simulation in SI Engines

2019-04-02
2019-01-0201
The application of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) for three-dimensional (3D) combustion analysis coupled with detailed chemistry in engine development is hindered by its expensive computational cost. Chemistry computation may occupy as much as 90% of the total computational cost. In the present paper, a new two-step iso-octane combustion model was developed for spark-ignited (SI) engine to maximize computational efficiency while maintaining acceptable accuracy. Starting from the model constants of an existing global combustion model, the new model was developed using an approach based on sensitivity analysis to approximate the results of a reference skeletal mechanism. The present model involves only five species and two reactions and utilizes only one uniform set of model constants. The validation of the new model was performed using shock tube and real SI engine cases.
Technical Paper

Powertrain Metric to Assess Engine Stop Start Refinement

2015-06-15
2015-01-2186
Every automaker is looking for ways to improve the fuel economy of its vehicle fleet to meet the EPA greenhouse gas regulation, which translates into 2025 Corporate Averaged Fuel Economy of 54.5 mpg. Engine Stop Start technology will improve the fuel economy of the vehicle by shutting down the engine when the vehicle is stationary. While this is an established technology in Europe, it is beginning to gain momentum in North America, where NVH refinement is a stronger consideration. To utilize the fuel economy benefits of Stop Start technology in the North American market, the technology must be seamlessly incorporated into the vehicle. This paper gives an overview of characterizing an auto start based on the features of a few Powertrain-system-level metrics. Following the fundamentals of NVH, (Source, Path and Receiver) the receiver touch points will be less perceptible to vibration, if the powertrain-system source is made smoother.
Technical Paper

Pattern Generation Based Instrument Cluster Virtual Validation

2017-03-28
2017-01-1678
Modern Instrument Panel Clusters (IPC) are equipped with thin film transistor (TFT) based displays. Contrary to conventional IPCs with hard gauges and liquid crystal diode (LCD) displays, TFT displays offer versatile usage of display area with soft gauges, reconfigurable menus, tell tales, graphics and warning messages etc., At the same time, the number of possible screen combinations, multicolor images validation and different screen arbitration become significantly complex. Thereby display validation turns out to be a complex and time consuming task in IPC validation. The task becomes even more complex when change requests are to be incorporated during final phases of development stage. This paper provides a novel solution that helps to validate any graphical and behavioral changes with minimum effort and maximum accuracy.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Center Console Duct Using Robust Assessment Methodology

2018-04-03
2018-01-0072
The thermal comfort for the passenger inside the cabin is maintained by the HVAC system. To ensure a comfort for the 2nd row passengers in the cabin, it is very essential to design an efficient HVAC and rear console duct system which can deliver sufficient airflow with less pressure drop. The primary focus of the study is to assess existing airflow of the center console duct using CFD and propose improvement in its duct shape to meet the passenger comfort sitting in the rear seat. In this study, the vehicle cabin model, HVAC system and duct design was modeled using the design software UG. To analyze and estimate the behavior of the air flow of the system, a steady state simulation was performed using STAR CCM CFD software. The performance of the console duct system is judged by parameters like distribution of airflow, velocity at console duct outlet, pressure drop through the duct and the uniformity of the air flow at the passenger locations.
Technical Paper

Lumped Parameter Based Thermo-Physical Modeling of Electrified Vehicle Transmission System

2018-04-03
2018-01-1195
More stringent Federal emission regulations and fuel economy requirements have driven the automotive industry toward more efficient vehicle thermal management systems to best utilize the heat produced from burning fuel and improve driveline efficiency. The greatest part of the effort is directed toward the hybridization of automotive transmission systems. The efficiency and durability of hybrid powertrain depends on the heat generation in electric motors and their interactions among each other, ambient condition, the cooling system and the transmission component configuration. These increase the complexity of motor temperature prediction as well as the computational cost of running a conjugate heat-transfer based CFD analysis. In this paper, 1D physics based thermal model is developed which allows rapid and accurate component-wise temperature estimation of the electric motor during both steady-state and transient driving cycles.
Technical Paper

A Novel DoE based Front-End Airflow Target Setting Approach for Optimum HVAC Cool Down Performance

2018-04-03
2018-01-0786
The front-end air flow conditions have a substantial impact on the cool down performance of a vehicle Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) system. The performance of a mobile HVAC system is analyzed by conducting tests on the vehicle in a drive cell, subjecting it to different drive cycles. This now can be done virtually using system level simulation or one-dimensional (1D) tools. Target values for condenser air inlet velocity and temperature for these HVAC performance focused drive cycles needs to be established during the development phase to meet the cool down functional objectives of the vehicle. Thus, in the early stages of development, 1D tools play a major role. Condenser air flow should be sufficient and the temperature should be as low as possible at different vehicle operating conditions to have good air-conditioning (AC) performance.
Journal Article

Optimization of Catalytic Converter Design to Improve Under-Hood Thermal Management

2019-04-02
2019-01-1263
The Catalytic Converter along with the inlet pipe and heat shields are part of the exhaust system that emits powerful heat to the surrounding components. With increasing need for tight under-hood spaces it is very critical to manage the heat emitted by the exhausts that may significantly increase temperature of surrounding components. In this paper a design methodology for catalytic converter has been applied which optimizes the design of the catalytic converter to reduce the surface temperature. The exhaust surface temperature is simulated as a function of time to account for transient effects. The simulation also considers various duty cycles such as road load, city traffic and grade driving conditions. To control the heat output of the exhaust system to the surrounding components different materials and properties of catalytic converter have been considered to reduce radiative heat transfer.
Technical Paper

A Comprehensive Approach for Estimation of Automotive Component Life due to Thermal Effects

2018-05-30
2018-37-0019
Due to stringent environmental requirements, the vehicle under-hood and underbody temperatures have been steadily increasing. The increased temperatures affect components life and therefore, more thermal protection measures may be necessary. In this paper, we present an algorithm for estimation of automotive component life due to thermal effects through the vehicle life. Traditional approaches consider only the maximum temperature that a component will experience during severe driving maneuvers. However, that approach does not consider the time duration or frequency of exposure to temperature. We have envisioned a more realistic and science based approach to estimate component life based on vehicle duty cycles, component temperature profile, frequency and characteristics of material thermal degradation. In the proposed algorithm, a transient thermal analysis model provides the exhaust gas and exhaust surface temperatures for all exhaust system segments, and for any driving scenario.
Technical Paper

Total Thermal Management of Battery Electric Vehicles (BEVs)

2018-05-30
2018-37-0026
The key hurdles to achieving wide consumer acceptance of battery electric vehicles (BEVs) are weather-dependent drive range, higher cost, and limited battery life. These translate into a strong need to reduce a significant energy drain and resulting drive range loss due to auxiliary electrical loads the predominant of which is the cabin thermal management load. Studies have shown that thermal sub-system loads can reduce the drive range by as much as 45% under ambient temperatures below −10 °C. Often, cabin heating relies purely on positive temperature coefficient (PTC) resistive heating, contributing to a significant range loss. Reducing this range loss may improve consumer acceptance of BEVs. The authors present a unified thermal management system (UTEMPRA) that satisfies diverse thermal and design needs of the auxiliary loads in BEVs.
Journal Article

Model-Based Control-Oriented Combustion Phasing Feedback for Fast CA50 Estimation

2015-04-14
2015-01-0868
The highly transient operational nature of passenger car engines makes cylinder pressure based feedback control of combustion phasing difficult. The problem is further complicated by cycle-to-cycle combustion variation. A method for fast and accurate differentiation of normal combustion variations and true changes in combustion phasing is addressed in this research. The proposed method combines the results of a feed forward combustion phasing prediction model and “noisy” measurements from cylinder pressure using an iterative estimation technique. A modified version of an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) is applied to calculate optimal estimation gain according to the stochastic properties of the combustion phasing measurement at the corresponding engine operating condition. Methods to improve steady state CA50 estimation performance and adaptation to errors are further discussed in this research.
Journal Article

Input Adaptation for Control Oriented Physics-Based SI Engine Combustion Models Based on Cylinder Pressure Feedback

2015-04-14
2015-01-0877
As engines are equipped with an increased number of control actuators to meet fuel economy targets, they become more difficult to control and calibrate. The additional complexity created by a larger number of control actuators motivates the use of physics-based control strategies to reduce calibration time and complexity. Combustion phasing, as one of the most important engine combustion metrics, has a significant influence on engine efficiency, emissions, vibration and durability. To realize physics-based engine combustion phasing control, an accurate prediction model is required. This research introduces physics-based control-oriented laminar flame speed and turbulence intensity models that can be used in a quasi-dimensional turbulent entrainment combustion model. The influence of laminar flame speed and turbulence intensity on predicted mass fraction burned (MFB) profile during combustion is analyzed.
Technical Paper

Optimization of MAC Side Window Demister Outlet by Parametric Modelling through DFSS Approach

2015-04-14
2015-01-0363
In recent years clearing the mist on side windows is one of the main criterions for all OEMs for providing comfort level to the person while driving. Visibility through the side windows will be poor when the mist is not cleared to the desired level. “Windows fog up excessively/don't clear quickly” is one of the JD Power question to assess the customer satisfaction related to HVAC performance. In a Mobile Air Conditioning System, HVAC demister duct and outlet plays an important role for removing the mist formation on vehicle side window. Normally demister duct and outlet design is evaluated by the target airflow and velocity achieved at driver and passenger side window. The methodology for optimizing the demister outlet located at side door trim has been discussed. Detailed studies are carried out for creating a parametric modeling and optimization of demister outlet design for meeting the target velocity.
Technical Paper

Analytical Study of Thermal Management: A Case Study of Underhood Configurations

2015-04-14
2015-01-0335
Due to ever-tightening CO2 regulations on passenger vehicles, it is necessary to find novel methods to improve powertrain system efficiency. These increases in efficiency should generally be cost effective so that the customer perceives that they add value. One approach for improving system efficiency has been the use of thermal energy management. For example, changing the flow of, or reusing “waste” heat from the powertrain to improve efficiency. Due to the interactions involved with thermal management, a system level approach is useful for exploring, selecting, and developing alternative solutions. It provides a structured approach to augment the right kind of synergies between subsystems and mitigate unintended consequences. However, one challenge with using these approaches early in a program is having appropriate metrics for assessing key aspects of the system behaviors.
Journal Article

LES of Diesel and Gasoline Sprays with Validation against X-Ray Radiography Data

2015-04-14
2015-01-0931
This paper focuses on detailed numerical simulations of direct injection diesel and gasoline sprays from production grade, multi-hole injectors. In a dual-fuel engine the direct injection of both the fuels can facilitate appropriate mixture preparation prior to ignition and combustion. Diesel and gasoline sprays were simulated using high-fidelity Large Eddy Simulations (LES) with the dynamic structure sub-grid scale model. Numerical predictions of liquid penetration, fuel density distribution as well as transverse integrated mass (TIM) at different axial locations versus time were compared against x-ray radiography data obtained from Argonne National Laboratory. A necessary, but often overlooked, criterion of grid-convergence is ensured by using Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) for both diesel and gasoline. Nine different realizations were performed and the effects of random seeds on spray behavior were investigated.
Journal Article

A Real-Time Model for Spark Ignition Engine Combustion Phasing Prediction

2016-04-05
2016-01-0819
As engines are equipped with an increased number of control actuators to meet fuel economy targets they become more difficult to control and calibrate. The large number of control actuators encourages the investigation of physics-based control strategies to reduce calibration time and complexity. Of particular interest is spark timing control and calibration since it has a significant influence on engine efficiency, emissions, vibration and durability. Spark timing determination to achieve a desired combustion phasing is currently an empirical process that occurs during the calibration phase of engine development. This process utilizes a large number of stored surfaces and corrections to account for the wide range of operating environments and conditions that a given engine will experience. An obstacle to realizing feedforward physics-based combustion phasing control is the requirement for an accurate and fast combustion model.
Journal Article

Model-Based Optimal Combustion Phasing Control Strategy for Spark Ignition Engines

2016-04-05
2016-01-0818
Combustion phasing of Spark Ignition (SI) engines is traditionally regulated with map-based spark timing (SPKT) control. The calibration time and effort of this feed forward SPKT control strategy becomes less favorable as the number of engine control actuators increases. This paper proposes a model based combustion phasing control frame work. The feed forward control law is obtained by real time numerical optimization utilizing a high-fidelity combustion model that is based on flame entrainment theory. An optimization routine identifies the SPKT which phases the combustion close to the target without violating combustion constraints of knock and excessive cycle-by-cycle covariance of indicated mean effective pressure (COV of IMEP). Cylinder pressure sensors are utilized to enable feedback control of combustion phasing. An Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) is applied to reject sensor noise and combustion variation from the cylinder pressure signal.
Technical Paper

Integrated Engine Performance and Valvetrain Dynamics Simulation

2016-04-05
2016-01-0483
Valvetrain dynamics modeling and engine combustion modeling are often carried out independently. As a result, the interaction between these two physical responses may not be accurately assessed. The objective of this work is to understand the impact that robust valve timing simulations, implemented using a fully coupled valve train dynamics and engine performance model, have on engine performance prediction. The integrated simulation and detailed technical approach are discussed through the presentation of an example implementation. An I4 engine model is developed in which engine performance and valvetrain dynamics modeling are coupled. A benefit of this multi-physics approach is that it reduces reliance on empirically derived estimates of valve lash in favor of physical modeling of engine valvetrain dynamics that predicts lash during engine performance modeling.
Technical Paper

Evaluating Major Parasitic Power Losses in IC Engines

2016-04-05
2016-01-0489
The mathematical models that predict friction losses for an internal combustion (IC) engine are described in this paper. These models are based on a combination of fundamental physics and empirical results. These include predictions of losses arising from friction and viscous fluid motion associated with the relative movement of solid surfaces within a piston assembly, the cranktrain, and valvetrain components. The engine friction losses are defined in the context of the geometries of the particular components within an IC engine. Details of these formulations are given, including novel geometry-related coefficients. Different regimes of lubricated friction are considered. In order to establish the model fidelity and robust solution methodology, the mathematical models are validated against engine friction tests. Utilization of these models enables practical solutions to the development of new low friction IC engines that leads to improved engine mechanical efficiency and fuel economy.
Journal Article

Transient Modelling of Vehicle Exhaust Surface Temperature

2016-04-05
2016-01-0280
In this paper, the development of a transient thermal analysis model for the exhaust system is presented. Given the exhaust gas temperature out of the engine, a software tool has been developed to predict changes in exhaust gas temperature and exhaust surface temperature under various operating conditions. The software is a thermal solver that will predict exhaust gas and wall surface temperatures by modeling all heat transfer paths in the exhaust system which includes multi-dimensional conduction, internal forced/natural convection, external forced/natural convection, and radiation. The analysis approach involves the breaking down of the thermal system into multiple components, which include the exhaust system (manifold, takedown pipe, tailpipe, etc.), catalytic converter, DPF (diesel particulate filter), if they exist, thermal shields, etc. All components are modeled as 1D porous and 1D non-porous flow streams with 3D wall layers (solid and air gaps).
Technical Paper

Model Based Design and Optimization of Vehicle Thermal Management System

2016-04-05
2016-01-0283
More stringent federal emission regulations and fuel economy requirements have driven the automotive industry toward more sophisticated vehicle thermal management systems in order to best utilize the waste heat and minimize overall power consumption. With all new technologies and requirements, how to properly design, optimize, and control the vehicle thermal and cooling systems become great challenges to automotive engineers. Model based approach has become essential to the new thermal management system architectures design and evaluation of the optimal system solutions. This paper will discuss how the model based vehicle thermal system simulation tools have been developed from analytical & empirical data, and have been used for assessment and development of new thermal management system architectures.
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