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Technical Paper

Robust 1D Modelling for Automotive HVAC Warmup Prediction Using DFSS Approach

2017-03-28
2017-01-0179
In an automotive air-conditioning (AC) system, the heater system plays a major role during winter condition to provide passenger comforts as well as to clear windshield defogging and defrost. In order to meet the customer satisfaction the heater system shall be tested physically in severe cold conditions to meet the objective performance in wind tunnel and also subjective performance in cold weather regions by conducting on road trials. This performance test is conducted in later stage of the program development, since the prototype or tooled up parts will not be available at initial program stage. The significance of conducting the virtual simulation is to predict the performance of the HVAC (Heating ventilating air-conditioning) system at early design stage. In this paper the development of 1D (One dimensional) model with floor duct systems and vehicle cabin model is studied to predict the performance. Analysis is carried out using commercial 1D simulation tool KULI®.
Journal Article

Evaluation of Heat Pipe Heat Exchanger for Automotive Applications

2016-04-05
2016-01-0189
A heat pipe is a self-operating device which is capable of transferring large amounts of heat with a minimum temperature differences between the hot end (evaporator) and the cold end (condenser). However, a limited number of research work or analysis [1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9] has been reported in automotive industry on the applications of heat pipes in power train cooling. The advantage of a heat pipe heat exchanger is the possibility to use a more compact and lighter radiator. In addition, the proposed radiator is expected to be more robust as it is less sensitive to variations in ambient temperatures. In this paper, a proposed design for an automotive heat exchanger is investigated. The proposed design is evaluated through thermal simulation of heat pipes using various design parameters. The analysis addresses the ability of the heat exchanger to maintain engine coolant temperature at acceptable limits under different loading conditions.
Journal Article

Sizing of Coolant Passages in an IC Engine Using a Design of Experiments Approach

2015-04-14
2015-01-1734
Determining coolant flow distribution in a topologically complex flow path for efficient heat rejection from the critical regions of the engine is a challenge. However, with the established computational methodology, thermal response of an engine (via conjugate heat transfer) can be accurately predicted [1, 2] and improved upon via Design of Experiment (DOE) study in a relatively short timeframe. This paper describes a method to effectively distribute the coolant flow in the engine coolant cavities and evenly remove the heat from various components using a novel technique of optimization based on an approximation model. The current methodology involves the usage of a sampling technique to screen the design space and generate the simulation matrix. Isight, a process automation and design exploration software, is used to set the framework of this study with the engine thermal simulation setup done in the CFD solver, STAR-CCM+.
Technical Paper

Total Thermal Management of Battery Electric Vehicles (BEVs)

2018-05-30
2018-37-0026
The key hurdles to achieving wide consumer acceptance of battery electric vehicles (BEVs) are weather-dependent drive range, higher cost, and limited battery life. These translate into a strong need to reduce a significant energy drain and resulting drive range loss due to auxiliary electrical loads the predominant of which is the cabin thermal management load. Studies have shown that thermal sub-system loads can reduce the drive range by as much as 45% under ambient temperatures below −10 °C. Often, cabin heating relies purely on positive temperature coefficient (PTC) resistive heating, contributing to a significant range loss. Reducing this range loss may improve consumer acceptance of BEVs. The authors present a unified thermal management system (UTEMPRA) that satisfies diverse thermal and design needs of the auxiliary loads in BEVs.
Technical Paper

IC Engine Internal Cooling System Modelling Using 1D-CFD Methodology

2020-04-14
2020-01-1168
Internal combustion engine gets heated up due to continuous combustion of fuel. To keep engine working efficiently and prevent components damage due to very high temperature, the engine needs to be cooled down. Based on power output requirement and provision for cooling system, every engine has it’s unique cooling system. Liquid based cooling systems are majorly implemented in automobile. It’s important to keep in mind that during design phase that, cooling the engine will lower the power to fuel consumption ratio. Therefore, during lower ambient conditions, the cooling system should be able to uniformly increase the temperature of the engine components, engine oil and transmission oil. This is achieved by circulating the coolant through cooling jacket, engine oil heater and transmission oil heater, which will be heated by the combustion heat.
Technical Paper

CAE Cooling Module Noise and Vibration Prediction Methodology and Challenges

2020-04-14
2020-01-1262
In the NVH domain, the cooling module is an important subsystem in ground vehicles. Recently, with the development of small high output turbocharged internal combustion (IC) engines, cooling module noise and vibration has become more challenging. Furthermore, with plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV), in some cases the cooling fan could be operational while the IC engine is not running. This poses a significant challenge for cabin noise enhancement. Small turbocharged IC engines typically require higher cooling capacity resulting in larger fan size designs with higher speed. Accurate prediction of the unbalance loads generated by cooling fan and loads transferred to the body are critical for the Noise Vibration and Harshness (NVH) performance of the vehicle. If the NVH risk of cooling module operation is not well quantified and addressed early in the program, attempts to find solutions in post launch stage could be very expensive and not as effective.
Technical Paper

Utilization of Bench Testing in Vehicle Thermal System Development for Extreme Cold Ambient Condition

2020-04-14
2020-01-1390
Automotive thermal systems are becoming complicated each year. The powertrain efficiency improvement initiatives are driving transmission and engine oil heaters into coolant network design alternatives. The initiatives of electrified and autonomous vehicles are making coolant networks even more complex. The coolant networks these days have many heat exchangers, electric water pumps and valves, apart from typical radiators, thermostat and heater core. Some of these heat exchangers, including cabin heaters deal with very small amount of coolant flow rates at different ambient conditions. This paper describes how viscosity can be a major reason for simulation inaccuracy, and how to deal with it for each component in the coolant network. Both experimental and computational aspects have been considered in this paper with wide range of ambient temperatures.
Technical Paper

Rear Axle Heat Exchanger - Utilization of Engine Coolant for Reduced CO2 Emissions and Fuel Consumption

2020-04-14
2020-01-1411
This paper describes the design, development, and operation of a rear axle dual-shell heat exchanger on the RAM 1500 Light Duty truck. This system has been proven to increase fuel economy and reduce exhaust emissions, particularly CO2, on the EPA Cold City schedule. The energy conversion strategy was first explored using math modeling. A PUGH analysis associated with concept selection is included. To refine the hardware and develop a control strategy prior to testing, a portable flow cart was developed to assess system performance and to correlate the multi-node heat transfer model. Bench testing focused on the durability and functional aspects of integrating the dual-shell axle cover with the axle and coolant delivery system through a comprehensive design and validation plan. Vehicle testing included various fuel economy and emissions related driving schedules to quantify the benefits
Technical Paper

Impact of Active-Grille Shutter Position on Vehicle Air-Conditioning System Performance and Energy Consumption in Real World Conditions

2020-04-14
2020-01-0947
Active grille shutter (AGS) in a vehicle provides aerodynamic benefit at high vehicle speed by closing the front-end grille opening. At the same time this causes lesser air flow through the cooling module which includes the condenser. This results in higher refrigerant pressure at the compressor outlet. Higher head pressure causes the compressor to work more, thereby possibly negating the aerodynamic benefits towards vehicle power consumption. This paper uses a numerical method to quantify the compressor power consumed in different scenarios and assesses the impact of AGS closure on total vehicle energy consumption. The goal is to analyze the trade-off between the aerodynamic performance and the compressor power consumption at high vehicle speeds and mid-ambient conditions. These so called real world conditions represent highway driving at mid-ambient temperatures where the air-conditioning (AC) load is not heavy.
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