Refine Your Search

Topic

Search Results

Technical Paper

Optimizing the Rear Fascia Cutline Based On Investigating Deviation Sources of the Body Panel Fit and Finish

2017-03-28
2017-01-1600
A vehicle’s exterior fit and finish, in general, is the first system to attract customers. Automotive exterior engineers were motivated in the past few years to increase their focus on how to optimize the vehicle’s exterior panels split lines quality and how to minimize variation in fit and finish addressing customer and market required quality standards. The design engineering’s focus is to control the deviation from nominal build objective and minimize it. The fitting process follows an optimization model with the exterior panel’s location and orientation factors as independent variables. This research focuses on addressing the source of variation “contributed factors” that will impact the quality of the fit and finish. These critical factors could be resulted from the design process, product process, or an assembly process. An empirical analysis will be used to minimize the fit and finish deviation.
Technical Paper

Simplified Approach for Optimizing Lightening Holes in Truck Frames for Durability Performance

2017-03-28
2017-01-1345
During development of new vehicles, CAE driven optimizations are helpful in achieving the optimal designs. In the early phase of vehicle development there is an opportunity to explore shape changes, gage reduction or alternative materials as enablers to reduce weight. However, in later phases of vehicle development the window of opportunity closes on most of the enablers discussed above. The paper discusses a simplified methodology for reducing the weight in design cycle for truck frames using parametric Design of Experiments (DOE). In body-on-frame vehicles, reducing the weight of the frame in the design cycle without down gaging involves introducing lightening holes or cutouts while still maintaining the fatigue life. It is also known that the lightening holes might cause stress risers and be detrimental to the fatigue life of the component. Thus the ability to identify cutout locations while maintaining the durability performance becomes very critical.
Technical Paper

Optimal Water Jacket Flow Distribution Using a New Group-Based Space-Filling Design of Experiments Algorithm

2018-04-03
2018-01-1017
The availability of computational resources has enabled an increased utilization of Design of Experiments (DoE) and metamodeling (response surface generation) for large-scale optimization problems. Despite algorithmic advances however, the analysis of systems such as water jackets of an automotive engine, can be computationally demanding in part due to the required accuracy of metamodels. Because the metamodels may have many inputs, their accuracy depends on the number of training points and how well they cover the entire design (input) space. For this reason, the space-filling properties of the DoE are very important. This paper utilizes a new group-based DoE algorithm with space-filling groups of points to construct a metamodel. Points are added sequentially so that the space-filling properties of the entire group of points is preserved. The addition of points is continuous until a specified metamodel accuracy is met.
Technical Paper

Optimization of MAC Side Window Demister Outlet by Parametric Modelling through DFSS Approach

2015-04-14
2015-01-0363
In recent years clearing the mist on side windows is one of the main criterions for all OEMs for providing comfort level to the person while driving. Visibility through the side windows will be poor when the mist is not cleared to the desired level. “Windows fog up excessively/don't clear quickly” is one of the JD Power question to assess the customer satisfaction related to HVAC performance. In a Mobile Air Conditioning System, HVAC demister duct and outlet plays an important role for removing the mist formation on vehicle side window. Normally demister duct and outlet design is evaluated by the target airflow and velocity achieved at driver and passenger side window. The methodology for optimizing the demister outlet located at side door trim has been discussed. Detailed studies are carried out for creating a parametric modeling and optimization of demister outlet design for meeting the target velocity.
Technical Paper

An Investigation of Body Inertance Response for Occupant Safety Control Module Attachment Regions

2016-04-05
2016-01-0473
Current generation passenger vehicles are built with several electronic sensors and modules which are required for the functioning of passive safety systems. These sensors and modules are mounted on the vehicle body at locations chosen to meet safety functionality requirements. They are mounted on pillars or even directly on panels based on specific packaging requirements. The body panel or pillar poses local structural resonances and its dynamic behavior can directly affect the functioning of these sensors and modules. Hence a specific inertance performance level at the mounting locations is required for the proper functioning of those sensors and modules. Drive point modal frequency response function (FRF) analysis, at full vehicle model for the frequency range up to 1000 Hz, is performed using finite element method (FEM) and verified against the target level along with test correlation.
Technical Paper

Track Bar Bracket Development with the Help of Advanced Optimization Techniques

2016-04-05
2016-01-1387
The advanced Optimization techniques help us in exploring the light weight architecture. This paper explains the process of designing a lightweight track bar bracket, which satisfies all durability performance targets. The mounting locations and load paths are critical factors that define the performance and help in the development of weight efficient structure. The process is to identify the appropriate bolt location through Design of Experiment (DOE) and topology based studies; followed by section and shape optimization that help to distribute material in a weight efficient manner across the structure. Load path study using topology optimization is performed to identify the load path for durability load cases. Further shape optimization is done using hyper study to determine the exact thickness of the webs and ribs. A significant weight reduction from the baseline structure is observed. This process may be applicable for all casting components.
Technical Paper

Model Based Design and Optimization of Vehicle Thermal Management System

2016-04-05
2016-01-0283
More stringent federal emission regulations and fuel economy requirements have driven the automotive industry toward more sophisticated vehicle thermal management systems in order to best utilize the waste heat and minimize overall power consumption. With all new technologies and requirements, how to properly design, optimize, and control the vehicle thermal and cooling systems become great challenges to automotive engineers. Model based approach has become essential to the new thermal management system architectures design and evaluation of the optimal system solutions. This paper will discuss how the model based vehicle thermal system simulation tools have been developed from analytical & empirical data, and have been used for assessment and development of new thermal management system architectures.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Vehicle Air Intake System and Air Charge Temperature for Better Engine Performance and Fuel Economy

2016-04-05
2016-01-0206
An Air intake system (AIS) is a duct system which leads the airflow going into the internal combustion engine. Combustion requires oxygen, and the more oxygen is provided into the combustion process the more power it will produce. The lower the air temperature, the higher its density, and hence there is more oxygen in a unit volume. The quality of air entering engine can be measured with the air temperature. AIS design and routing influence the air charge temperature (ACT) at intake manifold runners and ACT is normally measured at AIS throttle body in reality. Higher ACT lead to inefficient combustion and can lead to spark retard. Optimization of AIS designs and reduction of ACT can improve engine performance and vehicle fuel economy. High ACT can be a result of two different phenomena: Recirculation - Hot air from the underhood environment ingested into the dirty side of the air intake system.
Technical Paper

CAE Based Development of an Ejection Mitigation (FMVSS 226) SABIC using Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) Approach

2015-04-14
2015-01-1473
NHTSA issued the FMVSS 226 ruling in 2011. It established test procedures to evaluate countermeasures that can minimize the likelihood of a complete or partial ejection of vehicle occupants through the side windows during rollover or side impact events. One of the countermeasures that may be used for compliance of this safety ruling is the Side Airbag Inflatable Curtain (SABIC). This paper discusses how three key phases of the optimization strategy in the Design for Six Sigma (DFSS), namely, Identify; Optimize and Verify (I_OV), were implemented in CAE to develop an optimized concept SABIC with respect to the FMVSS 226 test requirements. The simulated SABIC is intended for a generic SUV and potentially also for a generic Truck type vehicle. The improved performance included: minimization of the test results variability and the optimization of the ejection mitigation performance of the SABIC.
Technical Paper

A DFSS Approach to Optimize the Second Row Floor Duct Using Parametric Modelling

2017-03-28
2017-01-0176
The main function of mobile air conditioning system in a vehicle is to provide the thermal comfort to the occupants sitting inside the vehicle at all environmental conditions. The function of ducts is to get the sufficient airflow from the HVAC system and distribute the airflow evenly throughout the cabin. In this paper, the focus is to optimize the rear passenger floor duct system to meet the target requirements through design for six sigma (DFSS) methodology. Computational fluid dynamics analysis (CFD) has been used extensively to optimize system performance and shorten the product development time. In this methodology, a parametric modeling of floor duct design using the factors such as crossectional area, duct length, insulation type, insulation thickness and thickness of duct were created using CATIA. L12 orthogonal design array matrix has been created and the 3D CFD analysis has been carried out individually to check the velocity and temperature.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Structural Adhesives in BIW to Improve Full Vehicle Crash Performance

2017-03-28
2017-01-0255
The crashworthiness of body-in-white (BIW) plays a vital role in full vehicle crash performance. The structural integrity of BIW is controlled via strength of the spot welds and adhesives that are the primary entities to join sheet metal. The number of welds and amount of adhesives in the entire BIW directly affects the cost and the cycle time of the BIW; which makes them a good candidate for optimization. However optimization of the welds and/or adhesives not only reduces the number of connections but also provides the opportunity to improve the structural performance and mass saving by placing them optimally for the structural responses. This paper discusses the optimization of full vehicle structural performance for the small overlap crash event using the length of adhesives in the BIW as parameters. Included in the study were length of the adhesives and gage variables, defined in the front-end structure of the vehicle.
Technical Paper

Use of Parametric Approach to Optimize Structural Adhesives and Spot Welds in CAE Based Optimization

2017-03-28
2017-01-0254
Use of parametric approach to optimize CAE models for various objectives is a common practice these days. In addition to load members, the connection entities such as welds and adhesives play an important role in overall performance matrix. Hence adding the connection entities to the pool of design variables during an optimization exercise provide additional opportunity for design exploration. The method presented in this paper offers a unique approach to parameterize adhesive lines by evaluating the possibility of using structural adhesives as intermittent patches rather than continuous lines. The paper discusses two optimization studies 1) structural adhesive patches along with spot weld pitch as design variables, and 2) structural adhesive patches with gage variables. These studies include the Body in White (BiW) and Trimmed Body in White (TBiW) assessments.
Technical Paper

Optimal Parameter Calibration for Physics Based Multi-Mass Engine Model

2017-03-28
2017-01-0214
Designing an efficient transient thermal system model has become a very important task in improving fuel economy. As opposed to steady-state thermal models, part of the difficulty in designing a transient model is optimizing a set of input parameters. The first objective in this work is to develop an engine compatible physics-based 1D thermal model for fuel economy and robust control. In order to capture and study the intrinsic thermo-physical nature, both generic “Three Mass” and “Eight Mass” engine models are developed. The models have been correlated heuristically using Simulink. This correlation and calibration process is challenging and time consuming, especially in the case of the 8-mass model. Hence, in this work a Particle Swarm Optimizer (PSO) method has been introduced and implemented on a simple 3-mass and more complex 8-mass engine thermal model in order to optimize the input parameters.
Technical Paper

Development of a Robust AIS Parametric Model for V8 Engines Using Design for Six Sigma Approach

2018-04-03
2018-01-0140
The automotive Air Induction System (AIS) is an important part of the engine systems which delivers the air to the engine. A well-designed AIS should have low flow restriction and radiates a good quality sound at the snorkel. The GT-Power simulation tool has been widely utilized to evaluate the snorkel noise in industry. In Fiat Chrysler Automobiles, the simulation method enhanced with Design For Six Sigma (DFSS) approach has been developed and implemented in AIS development to meet the functional requirements. The development work included different types of DFSS projects such as identifying new concept, robust optimization and robust assessment etc. In this paper, the work of a robust optimization project is presented on developing an AIS parametric model to achieve optimized snorkel noise performance for a V8 engine. First, the theory of AIS acoustic modeling using GT-power and DFSS robust optimization using Taguchi’s parameter design method are described.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Center Console Duct Using Robust Assessment Methodology

2018-04-03
2018-01-0072
The thermal comfort for the passenger inside the cabin is maintained by the HVAC system. To ensure a comfort for the 2nd row passengers in the cabin, it is very essential to design an efficient HVAC and rear console duct system which can deliver sufficient airflow with less pressure drop. The primary focus of the study is to assess existing airflow of the center console duct using CFD and propose improvement in its duct shape to meet the passenger comfort sitting in the rear seat. In this study, the vehicle cabin model, HVAC system and duct design was modeled using the design software UG. To analyze and estimate the behavior of the air flow of the system, a steady state simulation was performed using STAR CCM CFD software. The performance of the console duct system is judged by parameters like distribution of airflow, velocity at console duct outlet, pressure drop through the duct and the uniformity of the air flow at the passenger locations.
Journal Article

Sizing of Coolant Passages in an IC Engine Using a Design of Experiments Approach

2015-04-14
2015-01-1734
Determining coolant flow distribution in a topologically complex flow path for efficient heat rejection from the critical regions of the engine is a challenge. However, with the established computational methodology, thermal response of an engine (via conjugate heat transfer) can be accurately predicted [1, 2] and improved upon via Design of Experiment (DOE) study in a relatively short timeframe. This paper describes a method to effectively distribute the coolant flow in the engine coolant cavities and evenly remove the heat from various components using a novel technique of optimization based on an approximation model. The current methodology involves the usage of a sampling technique to screen the design space and generate the simulation matrix. Isight, a process automation and design exploration software, is used to set the framework of this study with the engine thermal simulation setup done in the CFD solver, STAR-CCM+.
Journal Article

Assessment of Similarity of a Set of Impact Response Time Histories

2015-04-14
2015-01-1441
Two methods of assessing the similarity of a set of impact test signals have been proposed and used in the literature, which are cumulative variance-based and cross correlation-based. In this study, a normalized formulation unites these two approaches by establishing a relationship between the normalized cumulative variance metric (v), an overall similarity metric, and the normalized magnitude similarity metric (m) and shape similarity metric (s): v=1 − m · s. Each of these ranges between 0 and 1 (for the practical case of signals acquired with the same polarity), and they are independent of the physical unit of measurement. Under generally satisfied conditions, the magnitude similarity m is independent of the relative time shifts among the signals in the set; while the shape similarity s is a function of these.
Journal Article

Automobile Powertrain Sound Quality Development Using a Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) Approach

2015-06-15
2015-01-2336
Automotive companies are studying to add extra value in their vehicles by enhancing powertrain sound quality. The objective is to create a brand sound that is unique and preferred by their customers since quietness is not always the most desired characteristic, especially for high-performance products. This paper describes the process of developing a brand powertrain sound for a high-performance vehicle using the DFSS methodology. Initially the customer's preferred sound was identified and analyzed. This was achieved by subjective evaluations through voice-of-customer clinics using vehicles of similar specifications. Objective data were acquired during several driving conditions. In order for the design process to be effective, it is very important to understand the relationship between subjective results and physical quantities of sound. Several sound quality metrics were calculated during the data analysis process.
Technical Paper

Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) for Optimization of Catalytic Converter Design to Improve Under-hood Thermal Management

2019-04-02
2019-01-1263
The Catalytic Converter is part of the exhaust system that emits significant heat to the surrounding components. With increasing need for tight under-hood spaces it is very critical to manage the heat emitted by the catalytic converter and exhaust pipes in order to provide adequate thermal protection to surrounding components. The exhaust surface temperature is simulated as a function of time to account for transient effect. The simulation also considers various duty cycles such as road load, city traffic and grade driving conditions. To control the heat output of the exhaust system to the surrounding components, different heat shields and insulation materials have been considered. In this paper, analysis approach using Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) has been applied in order to determine a robust design that meets all objectives of under-hood thermal protection.
Technical Paper

Automotive HVAC Dual System Cool-down Optimization Using a DFSS Approach

2019-04-02
2019-01-0892
In automotive industry, the HVAC units and air distribution are an integral part of the climate control system and passenger comfort. Automotive AC systems are typically either single unit or dual unit systems, while the dual unit systems have an additional rear evaporator. The refrigerant evaporates inside these evaporators by taking heat and condensing the moisture from the recirculated or fresh air that is being pushed into the car cabin by air blowers. This incoming cold air in turn brings the cabin temperature and humidity to a level that is comfortable for the passengers. These HVAC units have their own thermal expansion valve to set the refrigerant flow, but both are connected to the main AC refrigerant loop. The airflows, however, are controlled independently for front and rear unit that can affect the temperature and amount of air coming into the cabin from each location and consequently the overall cabin cool-down performance.
X