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Technical Paper

Automotive Bumper Cost Effectiveness Based on Field Data and Mathematical Modeling

The Ford Motor Company has developed a mathematical model utilizing electronic data processing techniques to calculate the potential savings to owners of automobiles equipped with energy absorbing bumpers. This model can be used to measure the economic effectiveness of alternative bumper performance requirements and/or system design proposals. Base data for the model has been obtained from surveys conducted by Ford of damage to pre-FMVSS 215 controlled vehicles. A description of the technique utilized to predict bumper system economic effectiveness and the results of Ford Motor Company's bumper cost-effectiveness studies are contained in this report.
Technical Paper

Electrically Heatable Windshield and Backlite System

A new quick-defrost system for automotive use has been developed as an option for the 1974 T-Bird and Mark IV carlines. It can defrost the heated area of the windshield and backlite within 3.5-5 minutes under standard test conditions at 0°F. The system evolved from aircraft defrost applications. A summary of the development work required in power sources, power levels, product and process requirements, and quality standards is presented.
Technical Paper

Ford ESV Energy Management System

The Ford approach to ESV development was to attempt to meet government Experimental Safety Vehicle Program objectives by modifying a production vehicle by the use of materials and manufacturing processes suitable for mass production, and thereby hold cost increases to a reasonable level. This objective has not been met. However, improvements in vehicle structural integrity were accomplished in the experimental vehicle, and valuable engineering information was obtained. The methods employed to achieve these improvements did not prove to be feasible for established mass production techniques. They were highly experimental in nature, prohibitive in cost, and resulted in a weight penalty of 32% over a current production Ford. The Ford ESV incorporates a special body-frame energy absorbing system designed to dissipate kinetic energy during a 50 mph barrier crash.
Technical Paper

Finite Element Dynamic Analysis of an Automotive Frame

Using several variations of a basic finite element model, the dynamic displacement response and mode shapes of an automotive frame have been predicted. Small improvements in accuracy were noted when higher-order mass representation and allowance for shear deformation were included in the analysis. Modeling accuracy was significantly increased, however, by including certain effects which are normally ignored. These include an allowance for the less-than-perfect rigidity of siderail-to-crossmember joints; for the torsional behavior of short, open cross-section beams; and for the reduction of flexural inertia in welded, double-channel cross-sections. With the introduction of these factors, the predicted natural frequencies for the first eight flexural modes can be correlated with test results to within 4%. For this level of agreement, the finite element model appears to be sufficiently accurate to be used in design evaluation of frames, prior to prototype construction.
Technical Paper

Methods of Application - Field of View Targets

The use of a new tool for the evaluation of driver visibility requirements is described. The tool takes the form of a program written for an interactive computer graphics system. XYZ coordinates of window openings, visual obstructions, mirror systems and driver eye points are supplied as data. Polar coordinate line drawings are then generated on the graphics display simulating what a driver would see directly to the front and sides or indirectly to the rear through a rear view mirror. The program can be used to evaluate driver visibility in terms of forward and rearward visibility target areas in actual vehicles or in vehicle concepts (clay models, prototypes and car body drawings) which are sufficiently well developed to permit the specification of window coordinates.
Technical Paper

Computer Assisted Packaging for Driver’s Rear Viewing

A new method, which enlists the aid of a digital computer, has been perfected to quickly and accurately determine the performance of a proposed rearview mirror while still early in the design stage. Because of the Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSS) require a minimum viewing performance for both inside and outside left rearview mirrors, and since a common method — by which an intended design can be judged for compliance — would benefit both the Industry and the Federal Government, this method and the appropriate computer programs are being made available to all interested groups. Use of the computer programs results in a tremendous time savings over any manual drafting technique. This paper is intended to serve as a design guide to be followed when packaging rearview mirrors. A general introduction on the subject of rear viewing is followed by a discussion of the approach to the problem of evaluating the performance of a rear viewing device.
Technical Paper

Development and Evaluation of Aluminum Body Sheet Metal Panels

A developmental approach was adopted to establish aluminum as a viable body sheet material for vehicle weight reduction. Initially, both the material advantages of aluminum, as well as certain limiting factors for automotive processing were recognized. A major plant trial was conducted and methods of resolving both functional and processing issues evolved. The in-plant tryout and subsequent field evaluation of hood panels produced useful information on forming, welding, metal finishing and painting as well as appearance and functional elements pertinent to product field performance. Panels from this trial were evaluated at intervals during two years of exposure to demanding field conditions. During this same period laboratory efforts resolved remaining, less-critical issues.
Technical Paper

Engineering the Third Generation Econoline

This paper discusses the techniques employed in the development of the 1975 Ford Econoline Van, Club Wagon, and Cutaway vehicles. The presentation highlights the key elements of engineering a new family of light trucks. A brief review of historical van and bus market trends and their role in determining new vehicle design objectives is included. Specific engineering subjects discussed are: ˙Body-on-frame structural design applied to van/bus/cutaway vehicles. ˙Development of an energy absorbing frame for these forward control trucks. ˙Engineering techniques applied to the resolution of vehicle shake problems. ˙Modifications to front and rear suspension for optimum ride, handling and tire wear. ˙Development of integrated climate control systems for van/bus vehicles. ˙The engineering of derivatives for body builder recreation vehicle markets.