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Technical Paper

Influences on Energy Savings of Heavy Trucks Using Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control

An integrated adaptive cruise control (ACC) and cooperative ACC (CACC) was implemented and tested on three heavy-duty tractor-trailer trucks on a closed test track. The first truck was always in ACC mode, and the followers were in CACC mode using wireless vehicle-vehicle communication to augment their radar sensor data to enable safe and accurate vehicle following at short gaps. The fuel consumption for each truck in the CACC string was measured using the SAE J1321 procedure while travelling at 65 mph and loaded to a gross weight of 65,000 lb, demonstrating the effects of: inter-vehicle gaps (ranging from 3.0 s or 87 m to 0.14 s or 4 m, covering a much wider range than previously reported tests), cut-in and cut-out maneuvers by other vehicles, speed variations, the use of mismatched vehicles (standard trailers mixed with aerodynamic trailers with boat tails and side skirts), and the presence of a passenger vehicle ahead of the platoon.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Tractor-Trailer Rolling Resistance Reducing Measures

This study aimed to evaluate several rolling resistance reduction measures applicable to class 8 tractor-trailer combinations. Two methods have been employed: fuel consumption tests according to the SAE J1321 Joint TMC/SAE Fuel Consumption Test Procedure - Type II, and long-term operational observations using control and test vehicles monitored throughout baseline and test periods. One way to reduce the rolling resistance is to use wide-base tires: two different Type II fuel consumption tests revealed a more than 9 % improvement in fuel economy for a tractor-trailer combination equipped with wide-base tires. Long-term operational observation assessed the use of single wide-base tires on two 8-axle B-train tractor-trailer combinations. The results showed an average 5.11% fuel improvement and an average 4.37% energy intensity improvement. Other tests compared single-wide base tires with different tread patterns and tire compounds.
Technical Paper

Track-test Evaluation of Aerodynamic Drag Reducing Measures for Class 8 Tractor-Trailers

Air resistance, after gross vehicle weight, is the largest factor responsible for vehicle energy loss and has an important influence on fuel consumption. The magnitude of aerodynamic drag is affected by the vehicle's shape, frontal area, and travel speed. This study aimed to evaluate several aerodynamic drag reduction measures applicable to class 8 tractor-trailer combinations. The tested aerodynamic devices included trailer aft body rear deflectors (boat tails), trailer skirts, gap deflectors, fuel tank fairings and truck rear-axle fenders. It also assessed the aerodynamic influence of opened doors on an empty wood chip van trailer on the fuel consumption of the tractor-trailer combination. The tests were conducted according to SAE J1321 Joint TMC/SAE Fuel Consumption Test Procedure - Type II.
Technical Paper

The Impact Biodiesel Blend Levels Have on Engine Performance

FPInnovations investigated the impact of different diesel/biodiesel blend ratios on engine performance, exhaust emissions, and fuel consumption. A CAT 3406E engine was used for this evaluation. The objective was to give those considering using biodiesel in their operations a reference of how their equipment would perform with different biodiesel blends. Testing was conducted in January and February 2008 in Vancouver, B.C. at the British Columbia Institute of Technology, Heavy Equipment Group Campus. The following blend levels were tested: 100% diesel (typical winter diesel for the local area), B10, B20, B30, B40, B50, and B100. The biodiesel fuel used for this study met ASTM D6751 specifications and was made from virgin canola feedstock provided by Milligan Bio-Tech of Foam Lake, Sask. An engine dynamometer was used to run the engine through a series of duty cycles with the different fuel blends.
Technical Paper

Trailer Aerodynamic Technologies Wind Tunnel Testing Compared to Track Test Results

The performance of several aerodynamic technologies, such as trailer skirts, vortex generators, and aerodynamic van trailer obtained from model wind tunnel testing were compared with track test results. Wind tunnel tests were conducted on 1/8, 1/15 or 1/24 scale models of a tractor in combination with 53-foot semi-trailer. The tests consisted of two phases: setting the initial baseline, and component testing of various configurations. The SAE Fuel Consumption Test Procedures Type II and Type III were used for track test evaluations. The differences between the track and wind tunnel test results are in some cases explained directly by the some differences between the real scale device and the model. In other situations, the variability and realism of tract testing explain the differences. The wind tunnel results were closer to the track test results for 1/8 scale models than for smaller scale models.
Technical Paper

Performance Evaluation of Heavy-Duty Vehicles Equipped with Automatic Transmissions and Powertrain Adaptive Systems in Forestry Transportation

The purpose of this study was to evaluate automatic transmissions in a forestry context by comparing their performance with that of standard manual transmissions, and assessing the possibility of improving fuel efficiency by adapting the engine and automatic transmission performances to the vehicle's load. Long-haul test results showed that during the test day, the degradation in driver performance with the manual transmission truck translated into a 2.9% relative increase in fuel consumption when compared with the automatic transmission truck. The fleet data assessment indicated no obvious difference in fuel consumption between the performance of automatic transmissions and manual transmissions. One system for adapting engine performance to vehicle load uses an onboard weigh scale to determine the load status of the vehicle.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Engine Programming to Reduce Fuel Consumption

The goal of this study was to evaluate the potential for reducing fuel consumption of heavy-duty vehicles by modifying their engine power ratings through programming of their engine electronic control units. This paper summarizes the activities, observations, and results obtained from tests conducted on a test track to compare default settings with those optimized for potential economic gains and improved performance. Tests for long-distance and regional transport operations were conducted at constant speed. Results from these tests showed considerable fuel savings, of approximately 7%, when the engine power rating was reduced from 450 hp to 400 hp and speed from 105 km/h to 98 km/h. In these tests, the dynamic performance of the vehicles was not affected by the reduction in power.
Journal Article

The Impact of Design, Position and Combination of Aerodynamic Devices on Drag and Fuel Consumption

The performance of several aerodynamic technologies and approaches, such as trailer skirts, trailer boat tails, gap reduction, was evaluated using track testing, model wind tunnel testing, and CFD simulation, in order to assess the influence of the design, position and combination of various aerodynamic devices. The track test procedure followed the SAE J1321 SAE Fuel Consumption Test Procedure - Type II. Scale model wind tunnel tests were conducted to have direct performance comparisons among several possible configurations. The wind tunnel tests were conducted on a 1/8 scale model of a tractor in combination with a 53-foot semi-trailer. Among others, the wind tunnel tests and CFD simulations confirmed the influences of trailer skirts' length observed during the track tests and that the wider skirt closer to the ground offer better results. The differences in the shape, dimensions and position of rear deflectors and trailer skirts on the trailer are reflected in the test results.
Journal Article

Evaluation of the Influence of Stakes on Drag and Fuel Consumption for a Tractor-Logging Trailer Combination

The main objective of this study is to reduce the aerodynamic drag of tractor-trailer combinations used in the forest industry. In most cases, logging trucks on their return trips are usually travelling in unloaded conditions with upright stakes, which add drag. CFD and wind tunnel testing suggested a drag reduction of up to 35% with no upright stakes, which corresponds to 17% in fuel savings in unloaded conditions. One of the proposed fuel reduction concepts was therefore to have foldable stakes so that the stakes could fold down into a horizontal position while travelling in unloaded conditions. Fuel savings of 15% for a vehicle with stakes in the horizontal position were confirmed with track testing when compared to the fuel consumption of a vehicle with stakes in the vertical position. The coastdown test indicated 28% reduction in drag. The difference in drag reduction between the coastdown test and initial simulation was due to stake size and profile.
Journal Article

Comparison of Fuel Efficiency and Traction Performances of 6 × 4 and 6 × 2 Class 8 Tractors

The objective of this project was to compare the fuel consumption and traction performances of 6 × 2 and 6 × 4 Class 8 tractors. Two approaches have been considered: evaluation of 6 × 2 tractors, modified from 6 × 4 tractors, and evaluation of OEM 6 × 2 tractors. Compared to the 6 × 4 tractors, which are equipped with a rear tandem with both drive axles, the 6 × 2 tractors have a rear tandem axle with one drive axle, and one non-drive axle, also called dead axle. The 6 × 2 tractor configurations are available from the majority of Class 8 tractor manufacturers. The SAE Fuel Consumption Test Procedures Type II (J1321) and Type III (J1526) were used for fuel consumption track test evaluations. Traction performances were assessed using pull sled tests to compare pulling distance, maximum speed, and acceleration when pulling the same set sled on similar surface.