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Technical Paper

Effect of Engine Operating Parameters on Hydrocarbon Oxidation in the Exhaust Port and Runner of a Spark-Ignited Engine

1995-02-01
950159
The effect of engine operating parameters (speed, spark timing, and fuel-air equivalence ratio [Φ]) on hydrocarbon (HC) oxidation within the cylinder and exhaust system is examined using propane or isooctane fuel. Quench gas (CO2) is introduced at two locations in the exhaust system (exhaust valve or port exit) to stop the oxidation process. Increasing the speed from 1500 to 2500 RPM at MBT spark timing decreases the total, cylinder-exit HC emissions by ∼50% while oxidation in the exhaust system remains at 40% for both fuels. For propane fuel at 1500 rpm, increasing Φ from 0.9 (fuel lean) to 1.1 (fuel rich) reduces oxidation in the exhaust system from 42% to 26%; at 2500 RPM, exhaust system oxidation decreases from 40% to approximately 0% for Φ = 0.9 and 1.1, respectively. Retarded spark increases oxidation in the cylinder and exhaust system for both fuels. Decreases in total HC emissions are accompanied by increased olefinic content and atmospheric reactivity.
Technical Paper

Compression Ratio and Coolant Temperature Effects on HC Emissions from a Spark- Ignition Engine

1995-02-01
950163
Modern four-valve engines are running at ever higher compression ratios in order to improve fuel efficiency. Hotter cylinder bores also can produce increased fuel economy by decreasing friction due to less viscous oil layers. In this study changes in compression ratio and coolant temperature were investigated to quantify their effect on exhaust emissions. Tests were run on a single cylinder research engine with a port-deactivated 4-valve combustion chamber. Two compression ratios (9.15:1 and 10.0:1) were studied at three air/fuel ratios (12.5, 14.6 and 16.5) at a part load condition (1500 rpm, 3.8 bar IMEP). The effect of coolant temperature (66 °C and 108°C) was studied at the higher compression ratio. The exhaust was sampled and analyzed for both total and speciated hydrocarbons. The speciation analysis provided concentration data for hydrocarbons present in the exhaust containing twelve or fewer carbon atoms.
Technical Paper

Fuel Composition Effects on Hydrocarbon Emissions from a Spark-Ignited Engine - Is Fuel Absorption in Oil Significant?

1995-10-01
952542
Absorption of fuel in engine oil layers has been shown to be a possible source of hydrocarbon (HC) emissions from spark-ignited engines. However, the magnitude of this source in a normally operating engine has not been determined unambiguously. In these experiments, a series of n-alkanes of widely different solubility (n-hexane through undecane) was added (1.5 wt % each) to a Base gasoline (CA Phase 2). Steady-state experiments were carried out at two coolant temperatures (339 and 380 K) using a single-cylinder engine with the combustion chamber of a production V-8. Both total and speciated engine-out HC emissions were measured. The emissions indices of the heavier dopants did not increase relative to hexane at either coolant temperature.
Technical Paper

Effect of Fuel Dissolved in Crankcase Oil on Engine-Out Hydrocarbon Emissions from a Spark-Ignited Engine

1997-10-01
972891
A single-cylinder, spark-ignited engine was run on a certification test gasoline to saturate the oil in the sump with fuel through exposure to blow-by gas. The sump volume was large relative to production engines making its absorption-desorption time constant long relative to the experimental time. The engine was motored at 1500 RPM, 90° C coolant and oil temperature, and 0.43 bar MAP without fuel flow. Exhaust HC concentrations were measured by on-line FID and GC analysis. The total motoring HC emissions were 150 ppmC1; the HC species distribution was heavily weighted to the low-volatility components in the gasoline. No high volatility components were visible. The engine was then fired on isooctane fuel at the above conditions, producing a total engine-out HC emission of 2300 ppmC1 for Φ = 1.0 and MBT spark timing.
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