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Technical Paper

Camshaft-Tappet Problems in Ford Overhead-Valve Engines

1956-01-01
560016
IN THE first part of this paper dealing with the metallurgical aspects of the camshaft-tappet problems met with in the design of the new Ford overhead-valve V8 engines, Messrs. Laird and Stevens describe the events which led to the adoption of the as-cast alloy-iron camshaft, nitro-carburized martensitic tappet combination. The combination cited works well in the engines described, but it is not implied that it will perform satisfactorily elsewhere. In the second portion of the paper, Mr. Iles discusses the test schedule devised in connection with the development of the camshaft-tappet materials in the new engines. It is stated that important findings will occur when such tests involve a large number of parts, making possible the study of results on a frequency basis. Tests have shown that a predominantly martensitic tappet structure results in superior performance in combination with the as-cast alloy-iron camshaft used.
Technical Paper

Pneumatic and Sonic Measurement of Combustion-Chamber Volume

1956-01-01
560008
AMONG the difficulties usually associated with measurement of combustion-chamber volume by liquid methods are amount of time required, contamination of combustion-chamber deposits, and inaccuracies arising from entrapped air. Use of a gaseous fluid such as air as the measuring medium eliminates most of the objectionable features of volume measurement with liquids. Techniques utilizing air for volume measurement fall into two basic classifications: dynamic or sonic methods, and static or pneumatic systems. Cylinder leakage and acoustic damping by engine deposits affect the accuracy of volume measurements based on dynamic properties of combustion-chamber volume, hence small volumes occupied by combustion-chamber carbon deposits must be measured separately by static or pneumatic means.
Technical Paper

SHELL MOLDED CAST CRANKSHAFTS

1958-01-01
580007
AMONG the many outstanding advantages of the shell molding process of casting crankshafts, as described here, are the following: 1. Manner in which entire process responds to a high degree of automation. 2. Close tolerances that can be maintained from casting to casting. 3. Raw sand requirements are reduced from 125 lb (previous method) to 20 lb. 4. Results in 70% reduction in weight of chips produced. 5. Resulting crankshafts have highest wear resistance and exceptional endurance. 6. Gives additional design leeway: Allowing the most efficient distribution of weight. Contributing to engine compactness by varying the casting contour to prevent potential interferences.
Technical Paper

Flow Noises Associated with Integrated Compressor Anti-Surge Valve

2011-05-17
2011-01-1532
Turbocharged gasoline engines are typically equipped with a compressor anti-surge valve or CBV (compressor by-pass valve). The purpose of this valve is to release pressurized air between the throttle and the compressor outlet during tip-out maneuvers. At normal operating conditions, the CBV is closed. There are two major CBV mounting configurations. One is to mount the CBV on the AIS system. The other is to mount the CBV directly on the compressor housing, which is called an integrated CBV. For an integrated CBV, at normal operating conditions, it is closed and the enclosed passageway between high pressure side and low pressure side forms a “side-branch” in the compressor inlet side (Figure 12). The cavity modes associated with this “side-branch” could be excited by shear layer flow and result in narrow band flow noises.
Technical Paper

Development of a One-Dimensional Engine Thermal Management Model to Predict Piston and Oil Temperatures

2011-04-12
2011-01-0647
A new, 1-D analytical engine thermal management tool was developed to model piston, oil and coolant temperatures in the Ford 3.5L engine family. The model includes: a detailed lubrication system, including piston oil-squirters, which accurately represents oil flow rates, pressure drops and component heat transfer rates under non-isothermal conditions; a detailed coolant system, which accurately represents coolant flow rates, pressure drops and component heat transfer rates; a turbocharger model, which includes thermal interactions with coolant, oil, intake air and exhaust gases (modeled as air), and heat transfer to the surroundings; and lumped thermal models for engine components such as block, heads, pistons, turbochargers, oil cooler and cooling tower. The model was preliminarily calibrated for the 3.5L EcoBoost™ engine, across the speed range from 1500 to 5500 rpm, using wide-open-throttle data taken from an early heat rejection study.
Technical Paper

Ford 2011 6.7L Power Stroke® Diesel Engine Combustion System Development

2011-04-12
2011-01-0415
A new diesel engine, called the 6.7L Power Stroke® V-8 Turbo Diesel, and code named "Scorpion," was designed and developed by Ford Motor Company for the full-size pickup truck and light commercial vehicle markets. The combustion system includes the piston bowl, swirl level, number of nozzle holes, fuel spray angle, nozzle tip protrusion, nozzle hydraulic flow, and nozzle-hole taper. While all of these parameters could be explored through extensive hardware testing, 3-D CFD studies were utilized to quickly screen two bowl concepts and assess their sensitivities to a few of the other parameters. The two most promising bowl concepts were built into single-cylinder engines for optimization of the rest of the combustion system parameters. 1-D CFD models were used to set boundary conditions at intake valve closure for 3-D CFD which was used for the closed-cycle portion of the simulation.
Journal Article

Blowdown Interference on a V8 Twin-Turbocharged Engine

2011-04-12
2011-01-0337
The exhaust blowdown pulse from each cylinder of a multi-cylinder engine propagates through the exhaust manifold and can affect the in-cylinder pressure of other cylinders which have open exhaust valves. Depending on the firing interval between cylinders connected to the same exhaust manifold, this blowdown interference can affect the exhaust stroke pumping work and the exhaust pressure during overlap, which in turn affects the residual fraction in those cylinders. These blowdown interference effects are much greater for a turbocharged engine than for one which is naturally aspirated because the volume of the exhaust manifolds is minimized to improve turbocharger transient response and because the turbines restrict the flow out of the manifolds. The uneven firing order (intervals of 90°-180°-270°-180°) on each bank of a 90° V8 engine causes the blowdown interference effects to vary dramatically between cylinders.
Technical Paper

Vehicle System Control for Start-Stop Powertrains with Automatic Transmissions

2013-04-08
2013-01-0347
The 2013 Ford Fusion will be launched with an optional automatic engine start-stop feature. To realize engine start-stop on a vehicle equipped with a conventional powertrain, there are two major challenges in the vehicle system controls. First, the propulsive torque delivery from a stopped engine has to be fast. The vehicle launch delay has to be minimized such that the corporate vehicle attributes can be met. Second, the fuel economy improvement offered by this technology has to justify the cost associated with it. In pursuing fuel economy, the driver's comfort and convenience should be minimally impacted. To tackle these challenges, a vehicle system control strategy has been developed to accurately interpret the driver's intent, monitor the vehicle subsystem's power demands, schedule engine automatic stop and re-start, and coordinate the fast and smooth torque delivery to the wheels.
Technical Paper

A Preliminary Study of Virtual Humidity Sensors for Vehicle Systems

2014-04-01
2014-01-1156
New vehicle control algorithms are needed to meet future emissions and fuel economy mandates that are quite likely to require a measurement of ambient specific humidity (SH). Current practice is to obtain the SH by measurement of relative humidity (RH), temperature and barometric pressure with physical sensors, and then to estimate the SH using a fit equation. In this paper a novel approach is described: a system of neural networks trained to estimate the SH using data that already exists on the vehicle bus. The neural network system, which is referred to as a virtual SH sensor, incorporates information from the global navigation satellite system such as longitude, latitude, time and date, and from the vehicle climate control system such as temperature and barometric pressure, and outputs an estimate of SH. The conclusion of this preliminary study is that neural networks have the potential of being used as a virtual sensor for estimating ambient and intake manifold's SH.
Technical Paper

Development of Stop/Start Engine Combustion and Restart Control for Gasoline Direct Injection Automatic Transmission Application

2014-04-01
2014-01-1747
Stop/Start technology for conventional automatic transmissions has recently received considerable attention in the automotive industry due to the potential fuel economy, and CO2 emission reduction, benefit at minimal cost. Stop/Start was first developed for manual transmission applications in the EU and Japanese markets. When stop/start is applied to any automatic transmission powertrain the powertrain control challenge is to restart the engine in a manner that simultaneously minimizes the delay in transferring torque to the driven wheel(s) and provides a consistently smooth launch feel with low NVH. It has recently been shown that stop/start can be added to a gas engine powertrain with a conventional torque converter automatic transmission while achieving the desired launch characteristics with minimal change to the powertrain hardware and cost.
Technical Paper

Outside-Engine Wear Study of Ceramic Coated Cylinder Wall Tribo-System

2014-04-01
2014-01-0958
This research focuses on study of feasibility of using ceramic oxide coatings on the cylinder wall of hypoeutectic aluminum silicon alloy engine blocks. Coatings are achieved in an aqueous electrolytic bath and composed of both alpha and gamma phases of Al2O3 and have shown promising wear resistance. Composition and acidity level of the electrolyte creates a variation of surface roughness, coating hardness and thickness which has direct influence on the wear behavior of the sliding surfaces. The effect of load bearing and coating morphology on coefficient of friction was studied. SEM images of the substrate showed no predominant wear behavior or delamination. Coefficient of friction and wear rate were also measured. This study shows the importance of surface structure on oil retention and wear rate. Coarser coatings can be desirable under starved oil condition since they show lower coefficient of friction.
Journal Article

Cyclic Behavior of an Al-Si-Cu Alloy under Thermo-Mechanical Loading

2014-04-01
2014-01-1012
In this paper, the cyclic deformation behavior of an Al-Si-Cu alloy is studied under strain-controlled thermo-mechanical loading. Tests are carried out at temperatures from 20 °C to 440 °C. The effect of strain rate, hold time at temperature and loading sequence are investigated at each temperature. The results show that temperature has a significant effect on the cyclic deformation of Al-Si-Cu alloys. With increasing temperature, the effect of strain rate and hold time become more significant, while load sequence effects remain negligible within the investigated temperature range. Thus, an elasto-viscoplastic model is required for modeling the alloy's behavior at high temperature. This study provides an insight into the necessary information required for modeling of automotive engine components operating at elevated temperature.
Technical Paper

Internal combustion engine calibration teaching by Stand Alone System.

2010-10-06
2010-36-0346
Internal combustion engine calibration teaching by Stand Alone System. This paper illustrates a teaching methodology for technical students of internal combustion engine calibration, by stand alone engine control unit with variable ignition and fuel injection time. Using a system named HIS (Stand alone Electronic Control Unit), to change the engine parameters, as fuel injection time and ignition time, the students can optimize fuel consumption, performance and exhaust emission. The tests are developed using the DOE (design of experiments) technique of artificial intelligence.
Technical Paper

Virtual Engine Dynamometer in Service Life Testing of Transmissions: A Comparison Between Real Engine and Electric Dynamometers as Prime Movers in Validation Test Rigs

2010-04-12
2010-01-0919
A test cell was developed for evaluating a 6-speed automatic transmission. The target vehicle had an internal combustion 5.4L gasoline V8 engine. An electric dynamometer was used to closely simulate the engine characteristics. This included generating mean torque from the ECU engine map, with a transient capability of 10,000 rpm/second. Engine inertia was simulated with a transient capability of 20,000 rpm/second, and torque pulsation was simulated individually for each piston, with a transient capability of 50,000 rpm/second. Quantitative results are presented for the correlation between the engine driven and the dynamometer driven transmission performance over more than 60 test cycles. Concerns about using the virtual engine in validation testing are discussed, and related to the high frequency transient performance required from the electric dynamometer. Qualitative differences between the fueled engine and electric driven testing are presented.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Computational Analysis of Impact of Self Recirculation Casing Treatment on Turbocharger Compressor

2010-04-12
2010-01-1224
Self recirculation casing treatment has been showed to be an effective technique to extend the flow range of the compressor. However, the mechanism of its surge extension on turbocharger compressor is less understood. Investigation and comparison of internal flow filed will help to understand its impact on the compressor performance. In present study, experimentally validated CFD analysis was employed to study the mechanism of surge extension on the turbocharger compressor. Firstly a turbocharger compressor with replaceable inserts near the shroud of the impeller inlet was designed so that the overall performance of the compressor with and without self recirculation casing treatment could be tested and compared. Two different self recirculation casing treatments had been tested: one is conventional self recirculation casing treatment and the other one has deswirl vanes inside the casing treatment passage.
Technical Paper

Full Hybrid Electrical Vehicle Battery Pack System Design, CFD Simulation and Testing

2010-04-12
2010-01-1080
CFD analysis was performed using the FLUENT software to design the thermal system for a hybrid vehicle battery pack. The battery pack contained multiple modular battery elements, called bricks, and the inlet and outlet bus bars that electrically connected the bricks into a series string. The simulated thermal system was comprised of the vehicle cabin, seat cavity, inlet plenum, battery pack, a downstream centrifugal fan, and the vehicle trunk. The fan was modeled using a multiple reference frame approach. A full system analysis was done for airflow and thermal performance optimization to ensure the most uniform cell temperatures under all operating conditions. The mesh for the full system was about 13 million cells run on a 6-node HP cluster. A baseline design was first analyzed for fluid-thermal performance. Subsequently, multiple design iterations were run to create uniform airflow among all the individual bricks while minimizing parasitic pressure drop.
Technical Paper

Direct In-cylinder Injection of Water into a PI Hydrogen Engine

2013-04-08
2013-01-0227
Injecting liquid water into a fuel/air charge is a means to reduce NOx emissions. Such strategies are particularly important to hydrogen internal combustion engines, as engine performance (e.g., maximum load) can be limited by regulatory limits on NOx. Experiments were conducted in this study to quantify the effects of direct injection of water into the combustion chamber of a port-fueled, hydrogen IC engine. The effects of DI water injection on NOx emissions, load, and engine efficiency were determined for a broad range of water injection timing. The amount of water injected was varied, and the results were compared with baseline data where no water injection was used. Water injection was a very effective means to reduce NOx emissions. Direct injection of water into the cylinder reduced NOx emissions by 95% with an 8% fuel consumption penalty, and NOx emissions were reduced by 85% without any fuel consumption penalty.
Journal Article

Hydrogen DI Dual Zone Combustion System

2013-04-08
2013-01-0230
Internal combustion (IC) engines fueled by hydrogen are among the most efficient means of converting chemical energy to mechanical work. The exhaust has near-zero carbon-based emissions, and the engines can be operated in a manner in which pollutants are minimal. In addition, in automotive applications, hydrogen engines have the potential for efficiencies higher than fuel cells.[1] In addition, hydrogen engines are likely to have a small increase in engine costs compared to conventionally fueled engines. However, there are challenges to using hydrogen in IC engines. In particular, efficient combustion of hydrogen in engines produces nitrogen oxides (NOx) that generally cannot be treated with conventional three-way catalysts. This work presents the results of experiments which consider changes in direct injection hydrogen engine design to improve engine performance, consisting primarily of engine efficiency and NOx emissions.
Journal Article

An Assessment of Two Piston Bowl Concepts in a Medium-Duty Diesel Engine

2012-04-16
2012-01-0423
Two combustion systems were developed and optimized for an engine for a power cylinder of 0.8-0.9L/cylinder. The first design was a re-entrant bowl concept which was based on the combustion system of a smaller engine with roughly 0.5L/cylinder. The second design was a chamfered bowl concept, a variant of a reentrant bowl that deliberately splits fuel between the bowl and the squish region. For each combustion system concept, nozzle tip protrusion, swirl, and nozzle configuration (number of holes, nozzle flow, and spray angle) were optimized. Several similarities between combustion system concepts were noted, including the optimal swirl and number of holes. The resulting optimums for each concept were compared. The chamfered combustion system was found to have better part-load emissions and fuel consumption tradeoffs. Full load performance was similar at low speed between the two combustion systems, but the reentrant combustion system had advantages at high engine speed and load.
Journal Article

Fracture Modeling Inputs for a Human Body Model via Inference from a Risk Curve: Application for Skull Fracture Potential

2012-04-16
2012-01-0562
A three-step process was developed to estimate fracture criteria for a human body model. The process was illustrated via example wherein skull fracture criteria were estimated for the Ford Human Body Model (FHBM)~a finite element model of a mid-sized human male. The studied loading condition was anterior-to-posterior, blunt (circular/planar) cylinder impact to the frontal bone. In Step 1, a conditional reference risk curve was derived via statistical analysis of the tests involving fractures in a recently reported dataset (Cormier et al., 2011a). Therein, Cormier et al., authors reported results for anterior-to-posterior dynamic loading of the frontal bone of rigidly supported heads of male post mortem human subjects, and fracture forces were measured in 22 cases. In Step 2, the FHBM head was used to conduct some underlying model validations relative to the Cormier tests. The model-based Force-at-Peak Stress was found to approximate the test-based Fracture Force.
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