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Technical Paper

THE APPLICATIONS OF RADIOACTIVITY FOR THE CONTROL AND TESTING OF AUTOMOTIVE MATERIALS

1957-01-01
570035
APPLICATIONS of nuclear energy in automotive manufacture have been made principally in the field of radioactivity. These are grouped under the following categories: radiography, nondestructive testing, gaging and control, tracer techniques, and static neutralizers. Radioactivity techniques are being used in foundry operations to check stock and metal levels in cupolas and distribution of element additives. In steel operations, these techniques are being used to check assimilation of ore-concentrate fines and thickness of rolled sheet steel. Other applications include measurement of pipe and wall thickness in pressure lines and engines, and inspection of castings and welds for internal faults. Radioactive techniques for improving processes, quality, and materials have potentially universal application. Greater industrial access to reactors will permit broader study and speed the development of new applications of radio-activity in industry.
Technical Paper

Motion Sensitivity as a Guide to Road Design

1957-01-01
570041
HUMAN perception thresholds to motions and the various characteristics of motions in six degrees of freedom are presented. Experiments made to establish these thresholds for disturbances of the duration or frequency that might arise from highway geometry—durations in the range of from one second to several hundred seconds—are described. Applications of motion sensitivity criteria in the design of vertical and horizontal highway curves and transitions are developed, with examples from company proving grounds in Arizona and Michigan. The resulting geometric features of the high-speed road systems differ in several important respects from conventional highway practice and previous automotive test-track designs.
Technical Paper

DEVELOPMENT OF THE CONCEPT OF NON-FLAME EXHAUST GAS REACTORS

1962-01-01
620402
Investigations of the non-flame oxidation of exhaust gas hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide are reported. These investigations cover basic studies of the relationship of temperature, oxygen, and residence time to oxidation rates with external, supplementary, exhaust gas heating. Reaction (oxidation) is then shown to be possible without supplementary heat in the test installation of a homogeneous reactor on one cylinder of a V-8 engine on an engine dynamometer. Vehicle tests were then conducted to determine the operational characteristics and oxidation performances of a series of multi-cylinder reactors mounted on 292-cubic-inch-displacement engines. Unique methods of air introduction and heat conservation are described. These reactors were capable of effectively decreasing exhaust concentrations of hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide while the vehicles were driven over a traffic route. Tests of two reactors designed especially for fast warm-up are reported.
Technical Paper

CRC Vapor Lock Technique Its Development and Application (Report of Volatility Group, Motor Vehicle Fuel, Lubricant, and Equipment Research Committee of the Coordinating Research Council, Inc.)

1963-01-01
630453
In 1958 the Coordinating Research Council conducted an extensive series of vapor lock road tests at a centralized location to study the effect of test variables on the hot fuel handling characteristics of passenger cars. Two years later, another test program was carried out at a common location to determine the hot fuel handling characteristics of a selected group of 1960 cars, employing the vapor lock survey technique developed in the 1958 program. The results obtained from the two programs indicate that this technique provides a satisfactory basis for defining the more severe vapor handling characteristics of automobiles in a relatively short time.
Technical Paper

The First Standard Automotive Crash Dummy

1969-02-01
690218
The SAE Recommended Practice J963 “Anthropomorphic Test Device for Dynamic Testing” describes a standard 50th percentile adult male anthropomorphic test dummy. For nearly three years the Crash Test Dummy Task Force worked with the limited data available in selecting values for the body dimensions and ranges of motion. The data for specifying the values of mass distribution were developed experimentally as was a test procedure for determining the dynamic spring rate of the thorax.
Technical Paper

Evolution of Automotive Test Equipment in the Service Bay

2011-04-12
2011-01-0750
Most people still remember the introduction of the IBM PC in 1981 and the first Microsoft Windows operating system in 1985. These were the pioneering technologies that started a revolution in automotive test equipment in the service bay. What was once a purely mechanical garage environment where information was published annually in large paper manuals has evolved into a highly technical computing environment. Today vehicle networks link onboard vehicle control systems with diagnostic systems and updated service information is published daily over the Internet. A lot has changed over the last twenty years, and manufacturers of diagnostic test equipment are learning to deal with the constantly evolving computing platforms and host operating systems. This paper traces the history of automotive diagnostic equipment at Ford Motor Company and shares some of the hard lessons learned from the early systems.
Technical Paper

Implementation of ABS System on an Existing Heavy Trucks Line-up in Accordance to Brazilian Resolution No. 312/09 (CONTRAN)

2012-10-02
2012-36-0466
The automotive industry has been increasingly researching and working on improving vehicle and passenger safety over the years. Following countries such as the United States and European Union, the Brazilian government has been publishing many resolutions with the objective of improving the safety of their fleet. With the publication of resolution 312 from CONTRAN (National Traffic Counsel), on April 3rd, 2009, the installation of ABS (Anti-lock Brake System) feature has become mandatory for all car and truck models to be sold in Brazil, following a staggered implementation starting on January 1st, 2010. The ABS system adds to the vehicle's current brake system, not allowing the wheels to lock during braking, which helps preserve the vehicle's stability and improve its safety, thus avoiding accidents. The technology, which is already available in a few car models, is not yet developed for the heavy trucks applications in this market.
Technical Paper

3-D Numerical Study of Fluid Flow and Pressure Loss Characteristics through a DPF with Asymmetrical Channel size

2011-04-12
2011-01-0818
The main objective of the current paper was to investigate the fluid flow and pressure loss characteristics of DPF substrates with asymmetric channels utilizing 3-D Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) methods. The ratio of inlet to outlet channel width is 1.2. First, CFD results of velocity and static pressure distributions inside the inlet and outlet channels are discussed for the baseline case with both forward and reversed exhaust flow. Results were also compared with the regular DPF of same cell structure and wall material properties. It was found that asymmetrical channel design has higher pressure loss. The lowest pressure loss was found for the asymmetrical channel design with smaller inlet channels. Then, the effects of DPF length and filter wall permeability on pressure loss, flow and pressure distributions were investigated.
Technical Paper

Internal Pressure Measurement for Sealed Electrical Connectors on Automotive Wire Harnesses: A method to improve Seal Plug Design

2013-04-08
2013-01-0398
Real-time pressure measurement inside sealed electrical connectors has been achieved using a new experimental approach. This approach has significant benefits to designers of connectors and the seals used to waterproof the connectors. The seal designer needs to know what pressure is in the connector but until now, pressure measurements were inaccurate due to the slow response time of the equipment. The result was that a peak in pressure of less than 1 second duration would be not recorded. This lack of accurate pressure data has resulted in overdesigned seal plugs - to compensate for the unknowns in testing - and potentially connectors that do not seal as well as required. With the new experimental technique described in this paper, data sampling rates have been increased to 100 samples per second with high accuracy. The new technique uses a portable micro pressure transducer that has been repackaged to fit where a connector wire normally fits.
Technical Paper

System Simulation and Analysis of EPA 5-Cycle Fuel Economy for Powersplit Hybrid Electric Vehicles

2013-04-08
2013-01-1456
To better reflect real world driving conditions, the EPA 5-Cycle Fuel Economy method encompasses high vehicle speeds, aggressive vehicle accelerations, climate control system use and cold temperature conditions in addition to the previously used standard City and Highway drive cycles in the estimation of vehicle fuel economy. A standard Powersplit Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) system simulation environment has long been established and widely used within Ford to project fuel economy for the standard EPA City and Highway cycles. Direct modeling and simulation of the complete 5-Cycle fuel economy test set for HEV's presents significant new challenges especially with respect to modeling vehicle thermal management system and interactions with HEV features and system controls. It also requires a structured, systematic approach to validate the key elements of the system models and complete vehicle system simulations.
Journal Article

Determining Soot Distribution in the Vehicle Exhaust Downstream of a Faulty Diesel Particulate Filter

2013-04-08
2013-01-1562
New emissions certification requirements for medium duty vehicles (MDV) meeting chassis dynamometer regulations in the 8,500 lb to 14,000 lb weight classes as well as heavy duty (HD) engine dynamometer certified applications in both the under 14,000 lb and over 14,000 lb weight classes employing large diameter exhaust pipes (up to 4″) have created new exhaust stream sampling concerns. Current On-Board-Diagnostic (OBD) dyno certified particulate matter (PM) requirements were/are 7x the standard for 2010-2012 applications with a planned phase in down to 3x the standard by 2017. Chassis certified applications undergo a similar reduction down to 1.75x the standard for 2017 model year (MY) applications. Failure detection of a Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) at these low detection limits facilitates the need for a particulate matter sensor.
Technical Paper

Design Optimization of an Emissions Sample Probe Using a 3D Computational Fluid Dynamics Tool

2013-04-08
2013-01-1571
Emissions sample probes are widely used in engine and vehicle emissions development testing. Tailpipe bag summary data is used for certification, but the time-resolved (or modal) emissions data at various points along the exhaust system is extremely important in the emission control technology development process. Exhaust gas samples need to be collected at various locations along the exhaust aftertreatment system. Typically, a tube with a small diameter is inserted inside the exhaust pipe to avoid any significant effect on flow distribution. The emissions test equipment draws a gas sample from the exhaust stream at a constant volumetric flow rate (typically around 10 SLPM). The sample probe tube delivers exhaust gas from the exhaust pipe to emissions test equipment through multiple holes on the surface of tube. There can be multiple rows of holes at different axial planes along the length of the sample probe as well as multiple holes on a given axial plane of the sample probe.
Technical Paper

Clean Combustion in a Diesel Engine Using Direct Injection of Neat n-Butanol

2014-04-01
2014-01-1298
The study investigated the characteristics of the combustion, the emissions and the thermal efficiency of a direct injection diesel engine fuelled with neat n-butanol. Engine tests were conducted on a single cylinder four-stroke direct injection diesel engine. The engine ran at 6.5 bar IMEP and 1500 rpm engine speed. The intake pressure was boosted to 1.0 bar (gauge), and the injection pressure was controlled at 60 or 90 MPa. The injection timing and the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) rate were adjusted to investigate the engine performance. The effect of the engine load on the engine performance was also investigated. The test results showed that the n-butanol fuel had significantly longer ignition delay than that of diesel fuel. n-Butanol generally led to a rapid heat release pattern in a short period, which resulted in an excessively high pressure rise rate. The pressure rise rate could be moderated by retarding the injection timing and lowering the injection pressure.
Technical Paper

A Preliminary Study of Virtual Humidity Sensors for Vehicle Systems

2014-04-01
2014-01-1156
New vehicle control algorithms are needed to meet future emissions and fuel economy mandates that are quite likely to require a measurement of ambient specific humidity (SH). Current practice is to obtain the SH by measurement of relative humidity (RH), temperature and barometric pressure with physical sensors, and then to estimate the SH using a fit equation. In this paper a novel approach is described: a system of neural networks trained to estimate the SH using data that already exists on the vehicle bus. The neural network system, which is referred to as a virtual SH sensor, incorporates information from the global navigation satellite system such as longitude, latitude, time and date, and from the vehicle climate control system such as temperature and barometric pressure, and outputs an estimate of SH. The conclusion of this preliminary study is that neural networks have the potential of being used as a virtual sensor for estimating ambient and intake manifold's SH.
Technical Paper

Frontal Impact Responsesof Generic Steel Front Bumper Crush Can Assemblies

2014-04-01
2014-01-0550
The present investigation details an experimental procedure for frontal impact responses of a generic steel front bumper crush can (FBCC) assembly subjected to a rigid full and 40% offset impact. There is a paucity of studies focusing on component level tests with FBCCs, and of those, speeds carried out are of slower velocities. Predominant studies in literature pertain to full vehicle testing. Component level studies have importance as vehicles aim to decrease weight. As materials, such as carbon fiber or aluminum, are applied to vehicle structures, computer aided models are required to evaluate performance. A novel component level test procedure is valuable to aid in CAE correlation. All the tests were conducted using a sled-on-sled testing method. Several high-speed cameras, an IR (Infrared) thermal camera, and a number of accelerometers were utilized to study impact performance of the FBCC samples.
Technical Paper

CAA Application to Automobile Wind Throb Prevention Design

2014-04-01
2014-01-0593
When a window opens to provide the occupant with fresh air flow while driving, wind throb problems may develop along with it. This work focuses on an analytical approach to address the wind throb issue for passenger vehicles when a front window or sunroof is open. The first case of this paper pertains to the front window throb issue for the current Ford Escape. Early in a program stage, CAA (Computational Aeroacoustics) analysis predicted that the wind throb level exceeded the program wind throb target. When a prototype vehicle became available, the wind tunnel test confirmed the much earlier analytical result. In an attempt to resolve this issue, the efforts focused on a design proposal to implement a wind spoiler on the side mirror sail, with the spoiler dimension only 6 millimeters in height. This work showed that the full vehicle CAA analysis could capture the impact of this tiny geometry variation on the wind throb level inside the vehicle cabin.
Journal Article

In-Vehicle Driver State Detection Using TIP-II

2014-04-01
2014-01-0444
A transportable instrumentation package to collect driver, vehicle and environmental data is described. This system is an improvement on an earlier system and is called TIP-II [13]. Two new modules were designed and added to the original system: a new and improved physiological signal module (PH-M) replaced the original physiological signals module in TIP, and a new hand pressure on steering wheel module (HP-M) was added. This paper reports on exploratory tests with TIP-II. Driving data were collected from ten driver participants. Correlations between On-Board-Diagnostics (OBD), video data, physiological data and specific driver behavior such as lane departure and car following were investigated. Initial analysis suggested that hand pressure, skin conductance level, and respiration rate were key indicators of lane departure lateral displacement and velocity, immediately preceding lane departure; heart rate and inter-beat interval were affected during lane changes.
Journal Article

Fatigue Behavior of Stainless Steel Sheet Specimens at Extremely High Temperatures

2014-04-01
2014-01-0975
Active regeneration systems for cleaning diesel exhaust can operate at extremely high temperatures up to 1000°C. The extremely high temperatures create a unique challenge for the design of regeneration structural components near their melting temperatures. In this paper, the preparation of the sheet specimens and the test set-up based on induction heating for sheet specimens are first presented. Tensile test data at room temperature, 500, 700, 900 and 1100°C are then presented. The yield strength and tensile strength were observed to decrease with decreasing strain rate in tests conducted at 900 and 1100°C but no strain rate dependence was observed in the elastic properties for tests conducted below 900°C. The stress-life relations for under cyclic loading at 700 and 1100°C with and without hold time are then investigated. The fatigue test data show that the hold time at the maximum stress strongly affects the stress-life relation at high temperatures.
Technical Paper

Brake Dynamometer Test Variability - Analysis of Root Causes

2010-10-10
2010-01-1697
Modern project management including brake testing includes the exchange of reliable results from different sources and different locations. The ISO TC22/SWG2-Brake Lining Committee established a task force led by Ford Motor Co. to determine and analyze root causes for variability during dynamometer brake performance testing. The overall goal was to provide guidelines on how to reduce variability and how to improve correlation between dynamometer and vehicle test results. This collaborative accuracy study used the ISO 26867 Friction behavior assessment for automotive brake systems. Future efforts of the ISO task force will address NVH and vehicle-level tests. This paper corresponds to the first two phases of the project regarding performance brake dynamometer testing and presents results, findings and conclusions regarding repeatability (within-lab) and reproducibility (between-labs) from different laboratories and different brake dynamometers.
Technical Paper

Measurement and Analysis of Volatile Organic Compound Emissions from New Vehicle Interiors

2010-04-12
2010-01-1288
Several vehicle-level test procedures exist for measuring and analyzing volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from new vehicle interiors. In this paper, four vehicle-level procedures were examined to determine the effect of interior air temperature (driver's side breath position), ventilation, vehicle age, and solar load (intensity and source) on the total VOC concentration. A new vehicle (11 days old) was tested over five weeks at interior air temperatures of ambient, 40°C, and 50°C with the ventilation on and off. Three sources of solar load were examined with loads between 600 and 1,100 W/m₂. The three sources of solar load were 5-Zones of halogen lights, an SC03 test site with metal halide lights, and the sun. Total VOCs were measured (μg/m₃) as well as individual hydrocarbons including formaldehyde. Six temperature points in and around the vehicle were monitored over the course of each test.
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