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Technical Paper

Starter/Alternator Design for Optimized Hybrid Fuel Economy

A Starter/Alternator (S/A) has been developed at Ford Research laboratories for hybrid electric vehicle applications. During development, the vehicle concept of operation and the system performance requirements were used to select the proper technology. The specification development, component selection and subsystem operation process is described. Subsystem performance and vehicle fuel economy are compared and evaluated using hybrid vehicle simulation analysis. These results can be used to identify potential subsystem modifications and alternative vehicle control strategies.
Technical Paper

Signal Processing for Shift Feel Simulation on the Ford Vehicle Vibration Simulator

Subjective assessment of shift feel for automatic transmissions is facilitated by simulation on the Ford Vehicle Vibration Simulator, allowing application of advanced psycho-physical methods. Large accelerations present in data in addition to the shift event may generate displacements too large to simulate. Isolation of the shift signal in time and frequency poses unique challenges due to the very low frequencies (VLF) involved. A method involving filtering, windowing, and filtering again solves this problem. The isolation of the 1-2 shift from a wide-open-throttle runup is illustrated. The method is applicable in general to separating VLF signals in time and frequency.
Technical Paper

A New Tool for the Vibration Engineer

Significant progress could not have been made in the Sound Quality area without the invention and development of engineering tools. For the sound engineer, the binaural recording head is a primary example of one of those tools. The use of the binaural recording head was crucial to the development of the sound characterization process and has become an essential tool in the Sound Quality areas in Ford Motor Company. A similar tool, The Ford Vehicle Vibration Simulator, has been developed for the vibration engineer. The vehicle vibration simulator (VVS) is unique, consisting of vibration of the vehicle seat (6 degrees of freedom), steering wheel (4 DOF), vehicle floorpan section (1 DOF), and the brake or accelerator pedal (1 DOF). Many vibration test systems have been developed to study human response to vibration, especially for military and space applications. To our knowledge, this is the first multi-axis, fully integrated vibration test system to be used for automotive applications.
Technical Paper

A Hybrid Road Loads Prediction Method with Full Vehicle Dynamic Simulation

A hybrid approach to predict road-induced loads in vehicle structures is presented. The technique involves full vehicle dynamic simulation using measured wheel forces, absolute wheel vertical displacements, and steering angle as input. The wheel vertical displacement is derived from the measured wheel acceleration. This approach avoids the use of tire-road interface modeling. It also improves the conventional loads measuring process with minimum instrumentation and data acquisition. Existing load data from a test vehicle is used to validate this approach. Computed component loads show good agreement with measurements.
Technical Paper

The Ford Driving Simulator

This paper describes the design and development of the Ford Driving Simulator. The simulator is a fixed-base device which provides real-time, interactive feedback to the driver through a combination of visual, auditory and tactile cues. The system is comprised of a modular buck, 150° field-of-view visual scene, a steering torque controller, high fidelity dynamics models, and an interactive experimenters station. Data acquisition systems have been developed to capture a broad spectrum of driver performance metrics.
Technical Paper

Assessment of Importance of Automotive Characteristics by Older and Younger Drivers

A study was conducted to rank 34 ergonomic characteristics of automobiles by their degree of importance to older and younger drivers. The older drivers were students in AARP driver education classes; the younger drivers were students in university classes. Three geographic locations were sampled. The primary variable analyzed was age, but geographic location, gender, driving experience, and use of glasses were also investigated. Of the characteristics that were found to be of more than average importance to older drivers, seven were appreciably more important to older drivers than to younger drivers with the “control of glare light” being the most dominant.
Technical Paper

Drill Breakage Detection in Two Spindles Station in a Dial Machine

Low reliability and cumbersome calibration procedures for commercially available drill breakage detection system were the drivers for the development of a robust system which utilizes time and frequency domain analysis of vibration signatures from the spindle housing. Self learning capabilities in calibration and generic, multidiscriminant based decision making are the novel features of a system proven successful in single spindle applications1. However, use of a single sensor to monitor drill breakage in multi spindle station in a high volume manufacturing operation requires signal enhancement strategies to decipher similar signatures sensed from different spindles. Complexity of the problem increases if the station is one of the several stations in a dial machine, because one needs to consider the transmissivity characteristics between stations installed on a common rotary table.
Technical Paper

Experimental Analysis of Interior Noise Due to Powerplant Radiated Noise

Vehicle interior noise due to powerplant radiation is a product of two factors, the noise level radiated by the powerplant and the effectiveness of the vehicle body and sound package in reducing this noise. Effective noise reduction strategies require that the appropriate target levels be set for these factors. This paper reviews studies performed at Ford to establish such targets and the theoretical basis of these studies. To set sound package targets engine noise simulators have been used to study the sound package noise reduction capabilities of various vehicles. These studies include the effect of noise source location on attenuation, the effect of powerplant location and dimensions, and the effect of interior microphone location. Engine noise targets are being established by testing powerplants in the hemi-anechoic dynamometer test cells of the new AEC Building. Studies include the effect of engine rpm, load, and microphone location.
Technical Paper

Off Track - Frame and Suspension Tuning (FAST)

Through Frame and Suspension Tuning (FAST) you can identify suspension and frame Set-ups in the lab with out risk to the car or driver. For on track verification the number of Set-ups can be reduced from an unlimited number to 2 or 3 and then optimized on the track, rather than developed on the track. This method can be used with all forms of racing. It has been applied to Indy, GT, Winston Cup, and Trans Am cars. Through the use of a road simulator we are able to evaluate and improve the frame and suspension dynamics in a laboratory. This paper will focus on the first step in the tuning process, frame tuning. If the frame is not tuned for the input energy conditions it can become an uncontrolled suspension component. The first step is to identify the frame dynamic characteristics. Operational deform shapes are measured to identify local and global motion. The frames are modified to optimize the response for the type of race track.
Technical Paper

Dynamic Durability Analysis of Automotive Structures

Since the environment of vehicle operation is dynamic in nature, dynamic methods should be used in vehicle durability analysis. Due to the constraints in current computer resources, simulation of vehicle durability tests and structural fatigue life assessment need special approaches and efficient CAE tools. The purpose of this paper is to present an efficient methodology and a feasible vehicle dynamic durability analysis process. Two examples of structural durability analysis using transient dynamics are given. The examples show that vehicle stress analysis and fatigue life prediction using dynamic method is now feasible by employing the presented method and process.
Technical Paper

Organizing the Engineer's Toolbox

QFD, FMEA, Process Improvement, Taguchi, Simultaneous Engineering, PDP, Project Management, DVP, DOE, …and the list goes on. Today's automotive product design engineers face a myriad of “tools” (methodologies, techniques, procedures) that are expected to be mastered and used in the course of performing their job. The list continually grows with new tools being added to the existing ones. And each new tool has an associated acronym to add to the confusion. New and inexperienced engineers are often confused by these tools being tossed at them …school did not cover all this ! The experienced engineer is often skeptical. After all, “if I have been a successful engineer for 20 years, why do I need to start doing these things now?” Nevertheless, most of these tools are truly needed by engineers today in order to be competitive in the increasingly complex and sophisticated world of automotive product design.
Technical Paper

The Vehicle Handling Model - A Symbolically Generated Vehicle Simulation Program Employing an Object-Oriented GUI

The Vehicle Handling Model (VHM) is representative of a new type of vehicle dynamics programs which can be easily used on a personal computer by vehicle development engineers. It consists of a simulation kernel which solves the vehicle equations of motion and a hypertext GUI which controls the model data input, execution, and post processing. The vehicle model has 5 DOF, including the vehicle lateral, vertical, yaw, pitch, and roll motions. The simulation also includes suspension compliance, a simple non-linear tire model, a wind gust model and a human driver model to provide realistic vehicle and steering inputs. The simulation program was generated by AUTOSIM which uses a high level description of the system to generate Fortran source code. The GUI allows an engineer to setup the model, run the analysis, and display the results with just a few clicks of the mouse.
Technical Paper

Bar Code System for Gas Cylinder Data Tracking and Inventory Control

This paper describes the development and key features of a bar code based, computerized gas cylinder inventory and record keeping system developed by Ford Motor Company's Gas Standards Laboratory. The paper will demonstrate how bar code technology is being utilized to track compressed gas cylinders efficiently and accurately. It will also describe the link between bar code technology and a data base that was developed using a fourth generation computer language. The implementation of this bar code/data base system has significantly increased data accessibility, improved data quality, reduced training time and increased the efficiency and flexibility of the data reporting process.
Technical Paper

The Evolution of the Automobile Antenna in the United States and Europe — A Historic Retrospective — Part Two — The Last Fifty Years

The evolution and development of the automobile radio antenna is perhaps one of the most neglected success stories in the automotive industry. Born in the twilight of the last century, it evolved from a simple wire wrapped around a tree branch, to the current heated rear screen or backlite antenna. Part One (SAE No. 870090) described seven types of antennas in detail, covering the period 1897-1937. It was shown how the early radio engineers, struggling to develop a viable car antenna, had displayed a great degree of creativity and flexibility, from the “firecracker” experiments of Guglielmo Marconi in 1897, to the ingenious systems developed to overcome the problems created by the all-metal Turret-Top vehicles introduced by General Motors in 1934. In those pioneering days, the United States public was having a love affair with both the automobile and radio broadcasting, so it was no surprise that their marriage did not take long to arrive.
Technical Paper

Transient Tire Properties

This paper identifies and analyzes steady-state and transient tire properties affecting vehicle directional response characteristics. The study is limited to the relationship between lateral force and slip angle. It shows fundamental differences between steady-state and transient properties. Tire transient properties are described by a force-slip angle loop with cornering stiffness and dynamic lateral force offset as parameters. Cornering stiffness is presented as a variable that changes with speed and steer rate. An interrelationship between cornering stiffness and dynamic lateral force offset resulting from the time lag between lateral force and slip angle is shown. Ramp steer techniques for measuring transient tire properties on a road trailer and on an external drum machine are described. A need for transient tire data for computer simulations of vehicle transient steer maneuvers is shown.
Technical Paper


TWENTY-FIVE-YEAR statistics, detailed in this paper, show declining accident and fatality rates despite radical increase in vehicle registrations and annual vehicle miles. The author shows how the passenger-car industry has built safety into vehicles to the point where-as an example-only 14% of accidents on the Pennsylvania Turnpike over its 13-year history were attributed to vehicle failures. Paralleling these efforts and the increasing emphasis on safer highways, better traffic management and driver education, are extensive studies aimed at bypassing the human factor and increasing human safety in automotive vehicles. Among those described here are crash investigations, laboratory tests of safety devices, and establishment through various other means of design criteria for human impact tolerance.
Technical Paper

Interactive Computer Simulation of Drivetrain Dynamics

Computer simulations of vehicle dynamics can be a useful investigative tool in drive-ability and NVH studies. As the present work demonstrates, oscillations of the drive-train under steady-state and transient conditions are amenable to mathematical analysis, especially in the torsional mode. Simulations of such a system with a lock-up torque converter are shown with emphasis on tip-in response, transmissibility of engine firing pulsations and self-excited oscillations. In particular, the method of interactive simulation is shown to be an effective design-aid tool in the investigation of drivetrain vibrations.
Technical Paper

Rail Transit Simulation

The design and construction of the rail transit simulator for the dynamic testing of automobiles, trucks and components is described. The test facility features seven servo-controlled hydraulic actuators, along with associated electronics to simulate vehicle environmental conditions during rail shipment. This ability to simulate the shipping environment in the laboratory has effectively reduced the cost and the time required to evaluate designs.
Technical Paper

Fuel Economy - Contribution of the Rear Axle Lubricant

Axle dynamometer tests were carried out to evaluate the effects of rear axle lubricant viscosity-temperature behavior and frictional characteristics on vehicle fuel economy. Using a Ford 9 inch 2.75:1.0 ratio axle, a set of input speed and load conditions was selected to permit simulation of the CVS and EPA highway driving cycles. Lubricant temperature was varied from -30°C to 100°C to simulate seasonal climatic effects. Data obtained for three lubricants differing in viscosity-temperature behavior were interpreted assuming a lubrication model including both elastohydrodynamic and mixed lubrication conditions. From these data, fuel economy projections were made using a vehicle simulation computer program. The results predict that improvements in vehicle fuel economy on the order of a few percent can be made at low temperatures by use of low viscosity synthetic lubricants, but only small effects are projected for the CVS and EPA highway cycles.
Technical Paper

System Simulation and Analysis of EPA 5-Cycle Fuel Economy for Powersplit Hybrid Electric Vehicles

To better reflect real world driving conditions, the EPA 5-Cycle Fuel Economy method encompasses high vehicle speeds, aggressive vehicle accelerations, climate control system use and cold temperature conditions in addition to the previously used standard City and Highway drive cycles in the estimation of vehicle fuel economy. A standard Powersplit Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) system simulation environment has long been established and widely used within Ford to project fuel economy for the standard EPA City and Highway cycles. Direct modeling and simulation of the complete 5-Cycle fuel economy test set for HEV's presents significant new challenges especially with respect to modeling vehicle thermal management system and interactions with HEV features and system controls. It also requires a structured, systematic approach to validate the key elements of the system models and complete vehicle system simulations.