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Technical Paper

Aluminum Rail Rivet and Steel Rail Weld DOE and CAE Studies for NVH

2001-04-30
2001-01-1608
Vehicle body with aluminum riveted construction instead of steel welded one will be a big challenge to NVH. In this paper, aluminum and steel rails with the dimensions similar to the rear rail portion of a typical mid-size sedan were fabricated. Rivets were used to assemble the aluminum rails while welds were used to assemble the steel rails. Adhesive, rivet/weld spacing, and rivet/weld location were the three major factors to be studied and their impact on NVH were investigated. The DOE matrix was developed using these three major factors. Modal tests were performed on those rails according to the DOE matrix. The FEA models corresponding to the hardware were built. CAE modal analysis were performed and compared with test data. The current in-house CAE modeling techniques for spot weld and adhesive were evaluated and validated with test data.
Technical Paper

Laminate Dash Ford Taurus Noise and Vibration Performance

2001-04-30
2001-01-1535
Mastic material, constrained or non-constrained with doublers, is the traditional method in adding vibrational damping to a steel structure with the goal of reducing panel vibration and radiated sound. With the use of laminated vibration damped steel (LVDS), Ford has been able to reduce the dash panel vibration and optimize sound package design for powertrain noise attenuation. These NVH benefits are presented as the result of a study completed with a laminated dash on a Ford Taurus.
Technical Paper

A Vehicle Micro Corrosion Environmental Study of Field and Proving Ground Tests

2001-03-05
2001-01-0646
This paper presents the progress of an ongoing vehicle micro corrosion environment study. The goal of the study is to develop an improved method for estimating vehicle corrosion based on the Total Vehicle Accelerated Corrosion Test at the Arizona Proving Ground (APG). Although the APG test greatly accelerates vehicle corrosion compared to the field, the “acceleration factor” varies considerably from site-to-site around the vehicle. This method accounts for the difference in corrosivity of various local corrosion environments from site-to-site at APG and in the field. Correlations of vehicle microenvironments with the macroenvironment (weather) and the occurrence of various environmental conditions at microenvironments are essential to the study. A comparison of results from APG versus field measurements generated using a cold rolled steel based corrosion sensor is presented.
Technical Paper

Bending Fatigue Behavior of Carburized Gear Steels: Four-Point Bend Test Development and Evaluation

1996-02-01
960977
The ability to evaluate the bending fatigue behavior of carburized low alloy steels in a laboratory and relate these measurements to performance of high contact ratio helical gears is important to the design and development of transmissions. Typical methods of evaluating bending fatigue performance of carburized gear steels do not directly represent helical planetary gears because they lack the geometric and loading conditions of planetary pinions. The purpose of this study is twofold; 1) development of a lab fatigue test to represent the fatigue performance of planetary pinion gears tested in a dynamometer and 2) evaluation of the influence of alloy content on bending fatigue performance of two steel alloys. The steels under evaluation were modified 8620M and 4615M alloys machined into bend bars with a notch representing a gear root and carburized to a case depth of approximately 0.35 mm (using the same carburizing cycle as the planetary pinion gears).
Technical Paper

Steel Powders for High Performance Automotive Parts

1994-03-01
940423
Increased use of powder-forged connecting rods in the automotive industry prompted an investigation into the suitability of powders from different suppliers for this application. Specifications developed by North American users call for ultra clean powders to enhance machinability and fatigue life. Powders from four manufacturers were each blended with graphite and lubricant, then pressed, sintered and forged to full density. Metallographic samples were prepared and evaluated for inclusion content. In addition, the powders were mixed to the composition of connecting rods, (C - 0.5%, Cu - 2% and MnS - 0.3%), and were similarly pressed, sintered and forged. Test bars were machined from the forged discs. Uniaxial fatigue tests were performed in the tension-compression mode and strain-life curves were developed. It was determined that all powders examined were very clean and were comparable in their inclusion content.
Technical Paper

Stress Durability Testing of Adhesively Bonded Steel

1995-02-01
950128
A stress durability test method that incorporates exposure to a corrosive environment has been used to evaluate the performance of adhesively bonded steel joints. For the systems examined, corrosion exposure is more damaging than exposure to humidity alone. The combination of load and corrosion exposure is substantially more severe than either alone. A method for analysis of the data and comparison of the test results for the evaluation of adhesive bond durability is proposed. The dependence of lifetime on load is defined as , where f is the ratio of applied load to initial, unexposed failure load. The exponent n provides a measure of the degree of acceleration of the interfacial degradation processes by load.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Stress Absorbing Layers on the Wear Behavior of Painted Plastic Substrates

1995-02-01
950801
Erosion damage to automotive car bodies caused by stones and small sand particles and road debris significantly affects the appearance of paint. Painted engineering plastics as well as precoated sheet steel are affected by erosion phenomenon. Erosion of painted plastic substrates results in cosmetic concerns while that on metal substrates results in cosmetic to perforation corrosion. This work describes a laboratory simulation of erosion of painted plastic substrates by small particles on various paint and substrate types. Gloss loss was used to quantitatively evaluate erosion of painted surfaces. Wear behavior of painted plastic substrates to slag sand impact was evaluated as a function of several variables including paint type (one-component melamine crosslinked (1K) vs. two-component isocyanate crosslinked (2K)), thermal history, and coating modulus. The effect of slag sand type (particle size and chemical composition) was studied.
Technical Paper

Master Alloys to Obtain Premixed Hardenable Powder Metal Steels

1996-02-01
960388
Systems of alloys for liquid phase alloying during sintering were investigated. The solidification range of alloys of Mn-Ni-Cr-Mo-Fe and Mn-Cu-Ni was determined. Alloys with the lowest and narrowest melting range were prepared and atomized in nitrogen. Admixtures of master alloys to water-atomized, forging grade, pure iron powder were sintered at 1232°C (2250°F). After hot forging, these P/M steels exhibited hardenabilities which were 75%-90% of theoretical hardenability, as calculated from the factors for conventional steels. Alloying efficiency was further improved to 85%-100% of theoretical hardenability when additions of approximately 2% silicon and 1% rare earth misch-metal were made to the master alloys. The silicon and rare earth misch-metal additions were used to enhance diffusion and sintering.
Technical Paper

Performance of Plasmaspray Coated Bore 4.6L-V8 Aluminum Block Engines in Dynamometer and Fleet Vehicle Durability Tests

1997-02-24
970008
Application process, and performance in engine dynamometer and high mileage vehicle fleet durability tests of Plasmaspray coated bore aluminum block engines are discussed. Fuel economy, oil consumption, power and wear data for Ford 4.6L-V8 aluminum block engines utilizing very low cost iron/iron oxide base coatings, and stainless steel/BN solid film lubricant Plasmasprayed coatings are presented. Test results from Ford's 100 hour Piston & Gasket Engine Dynamometer Durability Tests, and Fleet Vehicle Durability Tests show ring/bore wear reductions of more than 40% relative to production cast iron bore systems with Oil Economy averaging more than 13,600 km/l (8000 mi/qt).
Technical Paper

Friction and Wear Characteristics of Micro-Arc Oxidation Coating for Light Weight, Wear Resistant, Powertrain Component Application

1997-02-24
970022
An extremely tough alumina based ceramic coating produced by a modified anodizing process developed at Moscow Aviation Institute has been evaluated for light weight, wear resistant component applications in automotive powertrain. The process details and test results from comparative evaluation of friction and wear properties for cylinder bore application, referenced to cast iron baseline, are presented and discussed.
Technical Paper

Material Systems for Cylinder Bore Applications - Plasma Spray Technology

1997-02-24
970023
The development, evaluation, and selection of Plasma spray powder material for the coating of aluminum-alloy engine cylinder block bores was conducted to yield a bore system which provides numerous benefits relative to the present cast iron sleeve system. These include: a reduction in ring/bore wear, friction, and in engine oil consumption as well as a benefit in reduced corrosion. A reduction in engine weight, overall costs, and improvements in machining and honing operations are shown. Alternate thermal spray processes are also described in this investigation. Test evaluation leads to the selection of two plasma powder material spray systems. One system emphasizes low cost relative to the present system. The second system provides significant reduction in friction and ring/bore wear through the introduction of solid lubricant in the material composition.
Technical Paper

Development of the 6.8L V10 Heat Resisting Cast-Steel Exhaust Manifold

1996-10-01
962169
This paper presents the experience of Ford Motor Company and Hitachi Metals Ltd., in the development and design of the exhaust manifolds for the new 1997 Ford 6.8L, Vl0 gasoline truck engine. Due to the high-exhaust temperature 1000 °C (1832 °F), heat-resisting nodular graphite irons, such as high-silicon molybdenum iron and austenitic iron with nickel cannot meet the durability requirements, mainly thermal fatigue evaluation. The joint effort by both companies include initial manifold design, prototype development, engine simulation bench testing, failure analysis, material selections (ferritic or austenitic cast steel), production processes (casting, machining) and final inspection. This experience can well be applied to the design and development of new cast stainless-steel exhaust manifolds in the future. This is valid due to the fact that US EPA is requiring all car manufacturers to meet the new Bag 6-Emission Standards which will result in increased exhaust gas temperature.
Technical Paper

The Influence of Calcium Treatment on the Mechanical Properties of Plain Carbon (SAE 1050) Steel

1994-03-01
940253
The influence of calcium treatment on the mechanical properties of a plain carbon steel (SAE 1050) was investigated. The mechanical properties investigated were tensile and impact strength, fatigue crack growth rate, and the fatigue threshold. Impact testing was conducted at both room temperature and at -40°C. Several heats of both calcium and non-calcium treated steel (SAE 1050) were tested in both the as hot-rolled condition and in the quenched and tempered condition (with a hardness level of HRC = 45). The results of this investigation show no significant difference in the tensile properties or room temperature impact properties between the calcium treated and the non-calcium treated steels. However, the impact strengths of calcium treated steels were slightly higher than that of non-calcium treated steels at -40°C.
Technical Paper

Bolt-Load Retention Behavior of Die-Cast AZ91D and AE42 Magnesium

1998-02-23
980090
The effect of temperature and preload on the bolt load retention (BLR) behavior of AZ91D and AE42 magnesium die castings was investigated. The results were compared to those of 380 aluminum die castings. Test temperatures from 125 to 175°C and preloads from 7 to 28 kN were investigated. The loss of preload for AZ91D was more sensitive to temperature than that observed for AE42, especially at low preloads. In general, retained bolt-load was lowest in AZ91D. All test assemblies were preloaded at room temperature and load levels increased when the assemblies reached test temperature. The load-increase was dependent on the preload level, test temperature, alloy, and results from thermal expansion mismatch between the steel bolt and the magnesium alloy components, mitigated by the onset of primary creep. Thermal exposure (aging) of AZ91D at 150°C improved BLR behavior.
Technical Paper

Material Characterization of Powder-Forged Copper Steels

1991-02-01
910155
Powder metal based copper steels have found increased use in automotive applications, an example being powder-forged connecting rods. A characterization study was conducted to determine the effects of carbon content and manganese sulphide addition on the mechanical properties and machinability of these materials. Steel powder mixes containing 2% Cu and various graphite contents, with and without a MnS addition were pressed, sintered and forged to full density. Forged samples were then tested for tensile properties, hardness and fatigue strength. Machinability was determined by measuring tool life during drilling tests. It was found that increasing the carbon content from 0.28 to 0.69% has little effect on fatigue properties of powder-forged copper steels although the tensile, strength increased as expected. The addition of manganese sulphide did not affect the mechanical properties measured, but was found to significantly improve the machinability.
Technical Paper

Powder Metal Parts for Automotive Applications–Part III

1989-02-01
890409
The constant challenge for automotive engineers to design vehicles with greater reliability at lower cost has brought powder metallurgy (P/M) to the foreground. This technology provides parts to or near net shape and results in savings of material, energy, capital equipment and floor space. This paper is an extension of SAE reports 850458 and 870133 and describes automotive powder metal components not previously identified. It should help engineers find cost effective applications early in the design stage so that P/M technology can be efficiently adopted. In addition, recent important technological developments in the P/M field applicable to automotive parts are highlighted. In particular, increased reliability achieved through SPC is stressed. A novel blending process is described whereby the alloying ingredients are “glued” to iron powder particles resulting in an increase in P/M quality through improved homogeneity.
Technical Paper

Material and Processing Effects on Fatigue Performance of Leaf Springs

1979-02-01
790407
Procedures are developed for assessing the influence of various material and processing factors on the fatigue performance of leaf springs. Cyclic material properties, determined from smooth axial specimens of spring steel, are used to determine the level and cyclic stability of residual stresses resulting from mechanical processing as well as the amount of permanent deformation associated with presetting operations. A damage parameter, incorporating material properties, residual stress effects and applied stressing conditions, is used to predict failure location, i.e. surface or subsurface, and lifetime as a function of processing sequence. Predictions are found to be in good agreement with experimental bending results.
Technical Paper

Fatigue Properties of Cold-Rolled Sheet Steels

1979-02-01
790461
Fatigue characteristics of representative cold-rolled, high strength steels, in gages ranging from 0.072 in. (1.83 mm) to 0.055 in. (1.39 mm), were determined in fully-reversed, axial strain cycling at amplitudes up to 0.01. Alloys were selected from three families of high strength steels: recovery annealed steels, conventional microalloyed steels - nitrogenized steel and rephosphorized steel, and dual phase steel. Cold rolled low-carbon steel provided a comparative baseline. Cyclic stress-strain curves are presented to indicate the degree of cyclic stability achievable by various strengthening mechanisms while relative fatigue resistance is determined from strain-life curves. The implications of these behavioral trends to component down gaging are discussed.
Technical Paper

Perforation Corrosion Evaluation of Precoated Steels by Ford APG Cyclic Test

1993-10-01
932364
Proving Ground cyclic testing was used to evaluate vehicles assembled with electrogalvanized and organic composite coated electrogalvanized steel. These same materials, along with several commonly available precoated steels, were also evaluated as hem flange assemblies on towed trailers at the Proving Ground. Testing was terminated as perforation of some of the assemblies occurred. Pitting depth was used to quantitatively evaluate metal loss.
Technical Paper

Wear Protection Properties of Flexible Fuel Vehicle (FFV) Lubricants

1993-10-01
932791
A laboratory wear test is used to evaluate the wear protection properties of new and used engine oils formulated for FFV service. Laboratory-blended mixtures of these oils with methanol and water have also been tested. The test consists of a steel ball rotating against three polished cast iron discs. Oil samples are obtained at periodic intervals from a fleet of 3.0L Taurus vehicles operating under controlled go-stop conditions. To account for the effects of fuel dilution, some oils are tested before and after a stripping procedure to eliminate gasoline, methanol and other volatile components. In addition to TAN and TBN measurements, a capillary electrophoresis technique is used to evaluate the formate content in the oils. The results suggest that wear properties of used FFV lubricants change significantly with their degree of usage.
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