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Technical Paper

Sound Package Design for a Convertible by Statistical Energy Analysis

2001-04-30
2001-01-1623
The application of SEA (Statistical Energy Analysis) to the sound package design for a convertible is presented. SEA modeling was used optimize the soft-top construction and the acoustic insulation in the top-stack area (where the soft-top is stored) which were shown to be important transmission paths for tire noise. Correlation between measurement data and predictions from the SEA model is presented and good agreement shown. It is concluded that SEA can be applied to determine the special sound package requirements for convertible vehicles.
Technical Paper

Laminate Dash Ford Taurus Noise and Vibration Performance

2001-04-30
2001-01-1535
Mastic material, constrained or non-constrained with doublers, is the traditional method in adding vibrational damping to a steel structure with the goal of reducing panel vibration and radiated sound. With the use of laminated vibration damped steel (LVDS), Ford has been able to reduce the dash panel vibration and optimize sound package design for powertrain noise attenuation. These NVH benefits are presented as the result of a study completed with a laminated dash on a Ford Taurus.
Technical Paper

A Predictive Model for the Interior Pressure Oscillations from Flow Over Vehicle Openings

1997-05-20
971906
An analytical model based on “vortex sound” theory was investigated for predicting the frequency, the relative magnitude, the onset, and the offset of self-sustained interior pressure fluctuations inside a vehicle with an open sunroof. The “buffeting” phenomenon was found to be caused by the flow-excited resonance of the cavity. The model was applied to investigate the optimal sunroof length and width for a mid-size sedan. The input parameters are the cavity volume, the orifice dimensions, the flow velocity, and one coefficient characterizing vortex diffusion. The analytical predictions were compared with experimental results obtained for a system which geometry approximated the one-fifth scale model of a typical vehicle passenger compartment with a rectangular, open sunroof. Predicted and observed frequencies and relative interior pressure levels were in good agreement around the “critical” velocity, at which the cavity response is near resonance.
Technical Paper

Acoustic Analysis of Vehicle Ribbed Floor

1997-05-20
971945
Ribbed floor panels have been widely applied in vehicle body structures to reduce interior noise. The conventional approach to evaluate ribbed floor panel designs is to compare natural frequencies and local stiffness. However, this approach may not result in the desired outcome of the reduction in radiated noise. Designing a “quiet” floor panel requires minimizing the total radiated noise resulting from vibration of the floor panel. In this study, the objective of ribbed floor panel design is to reduce the total radiated sound power by optimizing the rib patterns. A parametric study was conducted first to understand the effects of rib design parameters such as rib height, width, orientation, and density. Next, a finite element model of a simplified body structure with ribbed floor panel was built and analyzed. The structural vibration profile was generated using MSCINastran, and integrated with the acoustic boundary element model.
Technical Paper

An Alternative Approach to Robust Design: A Vehicle Door Sealing System Example

1997-05-20
971924
Designing a high-quality door sealing system at low cost is an economic and technological engineering challenge. Robust design is a systematic and efficient technique to meet this challenge of design optimization for performance, quality, and cost. This technique, also called parameter design, focuses on making product and process designs insensitive (i.e. robust) to hard-to-control variations called noise factors. In this paper, we illustrate and apply the principles of robust design using a response model approach to a door sealing system design problem where vehicle interior sound is the primary response being studied. The Appendix contains a glossary of all italicized words for reference.
Technical Paper

Development of an Isolated Timing Chain Guide System Utilizing Indirect Force Measurement Techniques

1997-05-20
971963
This paper outlines the development process of a vibration isolation system for the timing chain guides of an internal combustion engine. It was determined through testing that the timing chain guides are a significant path by which the chain/sprocket impacts are transmitted to other powertrain components. These components radiate the energy as chain mesh order narrow band sound as well as wide band energy. It was found that isolation of the chain guides produced a significant reduction in radiated sound levels, reduced mesh frequency amplitudes, and improved sound quality. The development process utilized indirect force measurement techniques for simulation of the chain loading and FEA prediction of the resulting chain guide forces and displacements. The design of the isolation system involved material selection based on dynamic properties, frequency and temperature ranges, the operating environment, FEA geometry optimization, and durability testing.
Technical Paper

Head Injury Criterion (HIC) Calculation Using an Optimization Approach

1997-02-24
971046
Currently, the three (3) methods for calculating the HIC-value are: 1) direct computation method, 2) utilization of maximization requirement approach developed by Chou and Nyquist, and 3) a partitioning technique. A method which involves the adoption of an optimization approach for HIC calculation is discussed in this study. This optimization technique, which has previously been applied to Boundary Element Method (BEM), employs an improved constrained variable metric method in recursive quadratic programming. This technique was applied to three theoretical and ten experimental acceleration pulses; the results compare extremely well with exact solution and/or other numerical methods. It is concluded that this optimization scheme provides accurate HIC calculations. A study is planned to investigate the feasibility of extending the application of this optimization technique to an integrated trim/foam/sheet metal pillar system for improved interior head impact protection study.
Technical Paper

Selection Families of Optimal Engine Designs Using Nonlinear Programming and Parametric Sensitivity Analysis

1997-05-01
971600
The selection process of key engine design variables to maximize peak power subject to fuel economy and packaging objectives is formulated as an optimization problem readily solved with nonlinear programming. The merit of this approach lies not in finding a single optimal engine, but in identifying a family of optimal designs dependent on parameter changes in the constraint set. Sensitivity analysis of the optimum to packaging parameters, fuel economy parameters, and manufacturing parameters is presented and discussed in the context of product development decisions.
Technical Paper

Optimization Design of FoamIPillar for Head Impact Protection Using Design of Experiment Approach

1997-04-08
971543
This paper presents a method to obtain improved foam/pillar structural designs to help enhance occupant interior impact protection. Energy absorbing foams are used in this study with their thickness and crush strength being selected as primary design variables for optimization. The response surface techniques in the design of experiment are used in the optimization process. Head impact analyses are conducted by a CAE model with explicit, nonlinear, dynamic finite element code LS-DYNA3D. A baseline model is developed and verified by comparing the simulation results with the experimental data. Based on this model, the anticipated effects of stiffness of the pillar structure and the trim on the Head Injury Criterion (HIC) results are also assessed. The optimization approach in this study provides a comprehensive consideration of the factors which affect the HIC value.
Technical Paper

An Upfront Analysis Driven Design Process for Product Development

1997-04-08
971539
In the current design process, the designer generates the detailed geometry of the component based on experience. Prototypes of this design are built and tested to verify the performance. This design - build - test iterative process is continued until performance targets/criteria are met. Computer Aided Engineering is often used to verify the design. This paper presents a new product development process to substantially reduce the number of design - analysis - build - test iterations. This Upfront Analysis Driven Design process incorporates several state of the art technologies in finite element structural analysis, optimization, and Computer Aided Design. This process ensures a near optimum design in the first design level itself.
Technical Paper

Powertrain Applications for Rapid Prototyping, Fabrication and Tooling in Motorsports

1998-11-16
983091
Rapid Prototyping, Fabrication and Tooling is a process that blends a series of technologies (machines, tools, and methods) capable of generating physical objects directly from a CAD database. The process dramatically reduces the time spent during product development by allowing for fast visualization, verification, iteration, optimization, and fabrication of parts and tools. Many new techniques of tooling have been and are being developed by using rapid fabricated parts. These are having a dramatic impact on both timing and costs throughout the automotive industry. One area that these methods can be utilized to their full potential is motorsports. Of particular interest is the growing use of bridge tooling to provide first article through production intent parts that promote cost effective changes.
Technical Paper

Methods for Measuring Mechanical Properties of Adhesives and Sealers for Use in Finite Element Analysis Modelling

1996-02-01
960785
Test methods to measure mechanical properties of adhesives and sealers such as elastic and shear moduli, Poisson's ratio and damping terms are reviewed. Both standard methods for determining true bulk mechanical properties and methods for determining engineering estimates of mechanical properties of adhesives and sealers “as used” in automotive applications are presented. Mechanical properties are important parameters for designing adhesively bonded and damped automotive structures. Properties such as modulus are typically used in finite element analysis modelling to aid design and optimization of automotive structures. This paper is given as a companion paper to “FEA (Finite Element Analysis) Modelling for Body-In-White Adhesives” by David Wagner, see SAE Paper #960784.
Technical Paper

Computer Optimization of Camshaft Lift Profiles for a NASCAR V-8 Engine with Restrictor Plate

1996-12-01
962514
The introduction of carburetor restrictor plates in NASCAR racing in 1988 necessitated the redesign of some engine components, such as the camshaft and exhaust headers, to re-optimize engine performance. This paper describes how an engine performance computer simulation code was used to quickly study the effects of the restrictor plate on the “breathing” processes of the Ford NASCAR V8 engine and determine the optimal intake and exhaust cam lobe profiles to maximize wide-open throttle torque and horsepower. The resulting camshaft design produced over 40 additional horsepower and greater average torque over the useful engine speed range for super speedways. The interaction between exhaust wavedynamics (i.e., “tuning”) and cam events was investigated and shown to be of critical importance to the optimization of the engine's trapping efficiency.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Engine Main Bearing Excitation by Application of Cranktrain Modelling and Optimization Methods

1996-02-01
960985
The study presented in this paper is concerned with the application of a finite element based technique to deal with crankshaft-crankcase interaction. A finite element model of the crankshaft and the crankcase was developed and appropriately reduced. This model was used for a crankshaft optimization, strategy to analyse related effects on the NVH performance with focus on main bearing acceleration. The crankshaft and the cylinder block were modelled using beam and shell elements with structural and dynamic properties correlated up to 1600 Hz. The interaction between crankshaft and the cylinder block was represented by using non-linear properties. Applying this model, the dynamic crankshaft and engine block behaviour and repercussion on NVH performance was analysed by investigating main bearing acceleration.
Technical Paper

Methods for Analyzing Order Spectra

1995-05-01
951273
Since many automobile NVH issues involve the analysis of order spectra it is highly important that the methods used should be accurate and consistent. A review of the literature shows little discussion of several key issues which could cause problems and possibly invalidate test results. Also, experience indicates that different methods may yield different results unless these key issues are dealt with. This paper compares four different approaches to order tracking as applied to typical engine sweep data: order analysis of conventional fixed frequency waterfall plots, synchronous sampling order tracking, computed digital order tracking, and Kalman filtering. It is shown that unless the analysis parameters are carefully chosen the results of the analysis may be in error. The major issues for the conventional fixed sampling rate waterfall method arise because sweeping the orders causes a frequency smearing effect.
Technical Paper

Integration of Vehicle Interior Models into Crash Up-Front Process with Optimization

1995-04-01
951107
The evolution of computer technology has made CAE ( Computer Aided Engineering ) an integral part of the total vehicle development process. Particularly for crash development, up-front input is crucial in determining vehicle architecture, performing trade off studies and setting design targets. Detailed FEA ( Finite Element Analysis ), although more accurate, is not always suitable at this stage due to (1) the lack of Detailed design information and (2) the large amount of modelling and analysis efforts. Concept/Hybrid models, however, can provide important input to make early design decisions without a detailed design. This paper uses a concept model to illustrate the above mentioned point. The model contains, the interior structure of a pick-up truck, driver occupant, restraints, and a detailed steering column assembly. Correlation with a physical test demonstrates the reliability of the model. Several restraint parameters which influence occupant performance are identified.
Technical Paper

Engine Knock Control Via Optimization of Sensor Location

1995-05-01
951237
This paper describes a procedure used to aid in the control of IC engine knock, an autoignition phenomenon that results in customer annoyance, loss of power, and potential engine damage. Since a control system can only function as well as the signal it is provided, input signal optimization is critical to the robustness of the system. Optimization of the input signal starts with a properly located physical transducer on the engine block. The locating process begins with laser holometry to evaluate compliant regions of the block. Holographic data, block vibration spectra and empirical engine data are then used to identify the most promising sensor locations. These locations are then verified with a broadband accelerometer mounted on a dynamometer engine. This process allows the highest available signal to noise locations to be found in a systematic and efficient manner.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Expanded Polypropylene Foam Coring to Improve Bumper Foam Core Energy Absorbing Capability

1995-02-01
950549
To design a cost, weight, and energy efficient bumper foam energy absorber, it is important to consider optimizing the shape of coring employed in the design of the system. In this paper, a number of foam coring patterns are studied by both empirical and analytical methods. The size and shape of proposed core designs are studied in detail with consideration given to several different densities of expanded polypropylene (EPP) foam. Using the finite element method of structural analysis, it is possible to have an inside look at the stress distribution during deformation of foam structures. An optimization study using the finite element method is conducted using the energy absorption ratio as an efficiency parameter. Several coring patterns are studied and recommended for bumper foam core design based on high energy absorption efficiency and low tear stress.
Technical Paper

Off Track - Frame and Suspension Tuning (FAST)

1994-12-01
942535
Through Frame and Suspension Tuning (FAST) you can identify suspension and frame Set-ups in the lab with out risk to the car or driver. For on track verification the number of Set-ups can be reduced from an unlimited number to 2 or 3 and then optimized on the track, rather than developed on the track. This method can be used with all forms of racing. It has been applied to Indy, GT, Winston Cup, and Trans Am cars. Through the use of a road simulator we are able to evaluate and improve the frame and suspension dynamics in a laboratory. This paper will focus on the first step in the tuning process, frame tuning. If the frame is not tuned for the input energy conditions it can become an uncontrolled suspension component. The first step is to identify the frame dynamic characteristics. Operational deform shapes are measured to identify local and global motion. The frames are modified to optimize the response for the type of race track.
Technical Paper

A General Formulation for Topology Optimization

1994-11-01
942256
Topology optimization is used for obtaining the best layout of vehicle structural components to achieve predetermined performance goals. Unlike the most common approach which uses the optimality criteria methods, the topology design problem is formulated as a general optimization problem and is solved by the mathematical programming method. One of the major advantages of this approach is its generality; thus it can solve various problems, e.g. multi-objective and multi-constraint problems. The MSC/NASTRAN finite element code is employed for response analyses. Two automotive examples including a simplified truck frame and a truck frame crossmember are presented.
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