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Technical Paper

Development of a Desulfurization Strategy for a NOx Adsorber Catalyst System

2001-03-05
2001-01-0510
The aggressive reduction of future diesel engine NOx emission limits forces the heavy- and light-duty diesel engine manufacturers to develop means to comply with stringent legislation. As a result, different exhaust emission control technologies applicable to NOx have been the subject of many investigations. One of these systems is the NOx adsorber catalyst, which has shown high NOx conversion rates during previous investigations with acceptable fuel consumption penalties. In addition, the NOx adsorber catalyst does not require a secondary on-board reductant. However, the NOx adsorber catalyst also represents the most sulfur sensitive emissions control device currently under investigation for advanced NOx control. To remove the sulfur introduced into the system through the diesel fuel and stored on the catalyst sites during operation, specific regeneration strategies and boundary conditions were investigated and developed.
Technical Paper

Factors Influencing Drive Cycle Emissions and Fuel Consumption

1997-05-01
971603
A method of predicting HC, CO and NOx emissions and fuel-used over drive cycles has been developed. This has been applied to FTP-75 and ECE+EUDC drive cycles amended to include cold-start and warm-up. The method requires only fully-warm steady state indicated performance data to be available for the engine. This is used in conjunction with a model of engine thermal behaviour and friction characteristics, and vehicle/drive cycle specifications enabling engine brake load/speed variations to be defined. A time marching prediction of engine-out emissions and fuel consumption is carried out taking into account factors which include high engine friction and poor mixture preparation after cold-start. Comparisons with experimental data indicate that fuel consumption and emissions can be predicted to quantitative accuracy. The method has been applied to compare and contrast the importance of various operating regimes during the two cycles.
Technical Paper

Diluents and Lean Mixture Combustion Modeling for SI Engines with a Quasi-Dimensional Model

1995-10-01
952382
Lean mixture combustion might be an important feature in the next generation of SI engines, while diluents (internal and external EGR) have already played a key role in the reductions of emissions and fuel consumption. Lean burn modeling is even more important for engine modeling tools which are sometimes used for new engine development. The effect of flame strain on flame speed is believed to be significant, especially under lean mixture conditions. Current quasi-dimensional engine models usually do not include flame strain effects and tend to predict burn rate which is too high under lean burn conditions. An attempt was made to model flame strain effects in quasi-dimensional SI engine models. The Ford model GESIM (stands for General Engine SIMulation) was used as the platform. A new strain rate model was developed with the Lewis number effect included.
Technical Paper

Scavenging of a Firing Two-Stroke Spark-Ignition Engine

1994-03-01
940393
Current demands for high fuel efficiency and low emissions in automotive powerplants have drawn attention to the two-stroke engine configuration. The present study measured trapping and scavenging efficiencies of a firing two-stroke spark-ignition engine by in-cylinder gas composition analysis. Intermediate results of the procedure included the trapped air-fuel ratio and residual exhaust gas fraction. Samples, acquired with a fast-acting electromagnetic valve installed in the cylinder head, were taken of the unburned mixture without fuel injection and of the burned gases prior to exhaust port opening, at engine speeds of 1000 to 3000 rpm and at 10 to 100% of full load. A semi-empirical, zero-dimensional scavenging model was developed based on modification of the non-isothermal, perfect-mixing model. Comparison to the experimental data shows good agreement.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Exhaust Gas Recirculation on Soot Formation in a High-Speed Direct-injection Diesel Engine

1996-02-01
960841
A number of tests were conducted on a 2.5 litre, high-speed, direct-injection diesel engine running at various loads and speeds. The aim of the tests was to gain understanding which would lead to more effective use of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) for controlling exhaust NOx whilst minimising the penalties of increased smoke emission and fuel consumption. In addition to exhaust emission measurements, in-cylinder sampling of combustion gases was carried out using a fast-acting, snatch-sampling valve. The results showed that the effectiveness of EGR was enhanced considerably by cooling the EGR. In addition to more effective NOx control, this measure also improved volumetric efficiency which assisted in the control of smoke emission and fuel consumption. This second of two papers on the use of EGR in diesel engines deals with the effects of EGR on soot emission and on the engine fuel economy.
Technical Paper

A Small Displacement DI Diesel Engine Concept for High Fuel Economy Vehicles

1997-08-06
972680
The small-displacement direct-injection (DI) diesel engine is a prime candidate for future transportation needs because of its high thermal efficiency combined with near term production feasibility. Ford Motor Company and FEV Engine Technology, Inc. are working together with the US Department of Energy to develop a small displacement DI diesel engine that meets the key challenges of emissions, NVH, and power density. The targets for the engine are to meet ULEV emission standards while maintaining a best fuel consumption of 200g/kW-hr. The NVH performance goal is transparency with state-of-the-art, four-cylinder gasoline vehicles. Advanced features are required to meet the ambitious targets for this engine. Small-bore combustion systems enable the downsizing of the engine required for high fuel economy with the NVH advantages a four- cylinder has over a three-cylinder engine.
Technical Paper

Understanding the Thermodynamics of Direct Injection Spark Ignition (DISI) Combustion Systems: An Analytical and Experimental Investigation

1996-10-01
962018
Direct-injection spark-ignition (DISI) engines have been investigated for many years but only recently have shown promise as a next generation gasoline engine technology. Much of this new enthusiasm is due to advances in the fuel injection system, which is now capable of producing a well-controlled spray with small droplets. A physical understanding of new combustion systems utilizing this technology is just beginning to occur. This analytical and experimental investigation with a research single-cylinder combustion system shows the benefits of in-cylinder gasoline injection versus injection of fuel into the intake port. Charge cooling with direct injection is shown to improve volumetric efficiency and reduce the mixture temperature at the time of ignition allowing operation with a higher compression ratio which improves the thermodynamic cycle efficiency.
Technical Paper

A Structural Ceramic Diesel Engine-The Critical Elements

1987-02-01
870651
A structural ceramic diesel engine has the potential to provide low heat rejection and significant improvements in fuel economy. Analytical and experimental evaluations were conducted on the critical elements of this engine. The structural ceramic components, which included the cylinder, piston and pin, operated successfully in a single cylinder engine for over 100 hours. The potential for up to 8-11% improvement in indicated specific fuel consumption was projected when corrections for blow-by were applied. The ringless piston with gas squeeze film lubrication avoided the difficulty with liquid lubricants in the high temperature piston/cylinder area. The resulting reduction in friction was projected to provide an additional 15% improvement in brake specific fuel consumption for a multi-cylinder engine at light loads.
Technical Paper

Port Injection of Water into a DI Hydrogen Engine

2015-04-14
2015-01-0861
Hydrogen fueled internal combustion engines have potential for high thermal efficiencies; however, high efficiency conditions can produce high nitrogen oxide emissions (NOx) that are challenging to treat using conventional 3-way catalysts. This work presents the results of an experimental study to reduce NOx emissions while retaining high thermal efficiencies in a single-cylinder research engine fueled with hydrogen. Specifically, the effects on engine performance of the injection of water into the intake air charge were explored. The hydrogen fuel was injected into the cylinder directly. Several parameters were varied during the study, including the amount of water injected into the intake charge, the amount of fuel injected, the phasing of the fuel injection, the number of fuel injection events, and the ignition timing. The results were compared with expectations for a conventionally operated hydrogen engine where load was controlled through changes in equivalence ratio.
Technical Paper

MMLV: Automatic Transmission Lightweighting

2015-04-14
2015-01-1240
This paper details the lightweighting efforts of the Ford Research & Advanced Transmission team as part of the Multi Material Lightweight Vehicle Project. The Multi Material Lightweight Vehicle (MMLV) developed by Magna International and Ford Motor Company is a result of a US Department of Energy project DE-EE0005574. The project demonstrates the lightweighting potential of a five passenger sedan, while maintaining vehicle performance and occupant safety. Prototype vehicles were manufactured and limited full vehicle testing was conducted. The Mach-I vehicle design, comprised of commercially available materials and production processes, achieved a 364kg (23.5%) full vehicle mass reduction, enabling the application of a 1.0-liter three cylinder engine resulting in a significant environmental benefits and fuel consumption reduction.
Technical Paper

The Influence of Induction and Exhaust Processes on Emissions and Fuel Consumption in the Spark Ignited Engine

1977-02-01
770880
This paper describes an analysis of the induction and exhaust processes of the spark ignited engine. The analysis has been combined with an overall engine simulation to provide greater flexibility in studying the effects of induction/exhaust related parameters on engine emissions and fuel economy. Results are presented to illustrate the use of the engine model in predicting engine behavior in non-conventional configurations such as engine load control using an early intake valve closing technique.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Study of the Effects of Fuel Properties of Non-Petroleum Fuels on Diesel Engine Combustion and Emissions

1984-10-01
841334
A single cylinder indirect injection diesel engine was used to evaluate the emissions, fuel consumption, and ignition delay of non-petroleum liquid fuels derived from coal, shale, and tar sands. Correlations were made relating fuel properties with exhaust emissions, fuel consumption, and ignition delay. The results of the correlation study showed that the indicated fuel consumption, ignition delay, and CO emissions significantly correlated with the H/C ratio, specific gravity, heat of combustion, aromatics and saturates content, and cetane number, Multiple fuel properties were necessary to correlate the hydrocarbon emissions. The NOx emissions did not correlate well with any fuel property. Because these fuels from various resources were able to correlate succesfully with many of the fuel properties suggests that the degree of refinement or the chemical composition of the fuel is a better predictor of its performance than its resource.
Technical Paper

The Ford PROCO Engine Update

1978-02-01
780699
The Ford PROCO stratified charge engine combines the desirable characteristics of premixed charge and Diesel engines. The outstanding characteristics of premixed charge engines are their high specific output, wide speed range, light weight and easy startability but they exhibit only modest fuel economy and relatively high exhaust emissions. The desirable characteristic of the Diesel engine is its outstanding fuel economy. However, the disadvantages of the Diesel, which include noisy operation, limited speed range, exhaust odor, smoke, hard startability, and particulate emissions have tended to limit their acceptance. In the gasoline fueled, PROCO stratified charge engine, direct cylinder fuel injection permits operation at overall lean mixture ratios and higher compression ratio. These features enable the PROCO engine to achieve brake specific fuel consumption values in the range of prechamber diesel engines.
Technical Paper

Direct In-cylinder Injection of Water into a PI Hydrogen Engine

2013-04-08
2013-01-0227
Injecting liquid water into a fuel/air charge is a means to reduce NOx emissions. Such strategies are particularly important to hydrogen internal combustion engines, as engine performance (e.g., maximum load) can be limited by regulatory limits on NOx. Experiments were conducted in this study to quantify the effects of direct injection of water into the combustion chamber of a port-fueled, hydrogen IC engine. The effects of DI water injection on NOx emissions, load, and engine efficiency were determined for a broad range of water injection timing. The amount of water injected was varied, and the results were compared with baseline data where no water injection was used. Water injection was a very effective means to reduce NOx emissions. Direct injection of water into the cylinder reduced NOx emissions by 95% with an 8% fuel consumption penalty, and NOx emissions were reduced by 85% without any fuel consumption penalty.
Technical Paper

Internal combustion engine calibration teaching by Stand Alone System.

2010-10-06
2010-36-0346
Internal combustion engine calibration teaching by Stand Alone System. This paper illustrates a teaching methodology for technical students of internal combustion engine calibration, by stand alone engine control unit with variable ignition and fuel injection time. Using a system named HIS (Stand alone Electronic Control Unit), to change the engine parameters, as fuel injection time and ignition time, the students can optimize fuel consumption, performance and exhaust emission. The tests are developed using the DOE (design of experiments) technique of artificial intelligence.
Technical Paper

Engine Reliability Through Infant Mortality Mitigation: Literature Review

2010-10-06
2010-36-0049
Internal combustion engines are designed to meet the high power, low fuel consumption and also, low exhaust emissions. The engine running conditions is valid the concept that, the expectative is very high because of the variety of operating conditions like cold start, frequent start and stop, time high speed and load, traditional gasoline, mix of gasoline and alcohol and finally, alcohol fuel only. Considering such demand, this paper explains the relationship between the reliability bathtub curve, specifically the "Infant Mortality" portion. The bathtub curve describes failure rate as a function of time. The "Infant Mortality" portion of the curve is the initial section for which the failure (death) rate decreases with time (age). In general, these problems are related to manufacturing aspects or poor design definitions. With development of technology, hard failures, the ones that cause dependability, are becoming rare.
Technical Paper

Stochastic Knock Detection, Control, Software Integration, and Evaluation on a V6 Spark-Ignition Engine under Steady-State Operation

2014-04-01
2014-01-1358
The ability to operate a spark-ignition (SI) engine near the knock limit provides a net reduction of engine fuel consumption. This work presents a real-time knock control system based on stochastic knock detection (SKD) algorithm. The real-time stochastic knock control (SKC) system is developed in MATLAB Simulink, and the SKC software is integrated with the production engine control strategy through ATI's No-Hooks. The SKC system collects the stochastic knock information and estimates the knock level based on the distribution of knock intensities fitting to a log-normal (LN) distribution. A desired knock level reference table is created under various engine speeds and loads, which allows the SKC to adapt to changing engine operating conditions. In SKC system, knock factor (KF) is an indicator of the knock intensity level. The KF is estimated by a weighted discrete FIR filter in real-time.
Technical Paper

Customer Fuel Consumption – The Vehicle Data Bus as Real–World Information Source

2000-03-06
2000-01-1337
Road to rig problems exist as long as vehicles are being tested. Many approaches and methods exist to produce test cycles for rigs or test tracks, in order to produce viable results for the generation of statements concerning such crucial aspects as durability and fuel consumption. Modern model strategies again demand shorter–than–ever development periods, whilst meeting better–than–ever the needs and demands of special target groups. Therefore, the testing methods must also be refined, in order to gain a closer correlation to the customer's vehicle deployment. The approach introduced here makes use of real–world customer data for obtaining a closer look at how the vehicle is used by different customer groups, in different countries. The data is collected by small and unobtrusive dataloggers installed in customer vehicles. As these customers are using their own vehicles in everyday life, being unaware of the acquisition process, a database of real customer usage is generated.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Turbocharger Power Assist System Using Optimal Control Techniques

2000-03-06
2000-01-0519
In the paper we employ numerical optimal control techniques to define the best transient operating strategy for a turbocharger power assist system (TPAS). A TPAS is any device capable of bi-directional energy transfer to the turbocharger shaft and energy storage. When applied to turbocharged diesel engines, the TPAS results in significant reduction of the turbo-lag. The optimum transient strategy is capable of improving the vehicle acceleration performance with no deterioration in smoke emissions. These benefits can be attained even if the net energy contribution by the TPAS during the acceleration interval is zero, i.e., all energy is re-generated and returned back to the energy storage by the end of the acceleration interval. At the same time the total fuel consumption during the acceleration interval may be reduced.
Technical Paper

Study of a Stratified-Charge DISI Engine with an Air-Forced Fuel Injection System

2000-06-19
2000-01-2901
A small-bore 4-stroke single-cylinder stratified-charge DISI engine using an air-forced fuel injection system has been designed and tested under various operating conditions. At light loads, fuel consumption was improved by 16∼19% during lean, stratified-charge operation at an air-fuel ratio of 37. NOx emissions, however, were tripled. Using EGR during lean, stratified-charge operation significantly reduced NOx emissions while fuel consumption was as low as the best case without EGR. It was also found that combustion and emissions near the lean limit were a strong function of the combination of injection and spark timings, which affect the mixing process. Injection pressure, air injection duration, and time delay between fuel and air injections also played a role. Generating in-cylinder air swirl motion slightly improved fuel economy.
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